Texts : Bartholomaeus Anglicus

Some of the books in De Proprietatibus rerum have an introduction to the general attributes of a kind of beast. Two of these introductions are available here: Book 13, chapter 9 on Fish and Book 18, chapter 1 on Animals in General.

Both text excerpts are from an Early English printed edition published in 1582 by Steven Batman, based on the Middle English translation of the original Latin by John Trevisa. The edition also includes comments and additions by Batman, which are not included here. The language of Batman's edition has been left as-is, except for a few changes to make it easier for modern readers. "u" and "v" were interchangeable in sixteenth-century and earlier English; these have been regularized. Some names of persons quoted were abbreviated; these have been expanded in brackets (e.g. "Isi" changed to "Isi[dore]", "Avicen" changed to "Avicen[na]"). In some cases words were obviously incorrect in the transcription (from Early English Books Online), and these have been corrected. Many words in the text are oddly (and inconsistently) spelled and there are some obsolete words and word meanings. There are several Middle and Early English glossaries and dictionaries online that can help with these difficulties; a particularly useful one is the glossary in a later (1905) edition of the text by Steele

More of Bartholomaeus's animal descriptions, taken from the Batman edition (with some contributions from Steele), can be found on the Sources pages of many of the beasts.

Book 13, chapter 29: Fish

Fish is called Pisces, and hath that name of Pascendo, feeding, as Isidore sath libro. 12. cap. 6. Fish licketh the earth and watry beaches, and so get they meate and nourishing. Also they bée called Reptilia, créeping, because in swimming they séeme as they did créepe: for in swimming they créepe, though they sinke downe to the bottome. Wherof speaketh Ambrose in Exameron, and sayth: That betwéene fish and water is greate nighnesse of kinred. For without water they may not long live: And they live not long with onelye breathing, without drawing of water. And they have a manner lykenesse and kinde of créeping. For while a fish swimmeth, by shrinking and drawing together of his bodye, hée draweth and gathereth himselfe into lesse length: And anone stretcheth himselfe againe, and intendeth to passe forth in the water. And by that dilligence hée putteth the water backwarde, and passeth it selfe forward. Therefore he useth fins in swimming: as a soule useth fethers in flieng. But all other wise in swimming a fish moveth his fins from ye hinder part downeward: And as it were with armes or Ores he clippeth the water, and holdeth it, and stretcheth himselfe forward. But a bird moveth his fethers upward, & gathereth the aire, and compelleth it to passe out backward by large stretching of windes: and so by violent putting of aire backward, the body moveth forward: And kindes of fish bée diverse in many manner wise. For by diversitie of place that they bee gendered in, and of meate that they be fedde with, and of coulour and shape, by which they be distinguished of substaunce, of which they be compounded. And of the vertue, by the which they worke diverslye. In place that they be gendered in, is greate diversitie, and in their dwelling and abiding: for they builde onely in water: and sometime dwelleth in land, and somtime in water. And such a manner fish (as Isidore sayth) is called Antiphidia & Dubia in Latine, for he useth to goe in the land, and to swim in water, and holdeth the office of kinde, as fishes that be called Foce, Cocodrilli, Castores, Hippotami, that be water horses, and other such. Fishes have names of land beastes, as Sea houndes and Wolves: For they bite other unreasonable swallowing and devouring and hurteth them sore, as Isidore sayth. Among them that abide onely in water, some abide onelye in the sea, and some in rivers and ponds, and in other fresh waters: and some be meane betwéene those two manner fishes, and turne and come now to fresh water, and now to salt water to get them meate. And fish that come out of the salt water, into fresh, have liking in the freshnesse thereof, and be fatted: and againe warde: and this fish now abideth in the sea, and nowe in fresh water. And many River fishes may not tast saltnesse of the Sea. For it he catcheth salt water, hée dyeth sodeinelye, and tourneth by the wombe and fléeteth above the water, & that is token of death in all manner of fish both of sea and of fresh water. And fish that is bred in the Sea hath harde scales and thicke, because of drinesse of the salt water. And river fish have subtill scales, and soft backe bones. Backe bones in fishes bee needfull to restraine the flesh thereof that is fleeting, for kinde softnesse thereof. And Avicen teacheth to choose good Fish by kinde of the place, wherein they be nourished and sedde. And in liber. 2. cap. 7. he sayth, That in this manner choice of fish is in place, in which it dwelleth. For such as abide in stony places bée best and swéetest, and in fresh running water, in which is no corruption, nor any slime or wose, nor standing lakes, nor in Welles, nor in small pittes that runne not in rivers, in whom be no Wells: and hée sayth there, That some Sea fishes bée good. For those that bée subtill bée best, and bée nourished in the deepe Sea, and no where else. And fish that abide in waters, that bee unhéeled with blastes of winde, that bloweth the water somtime fro them, are better then those that bée not so served. And those that be in waters that be strongly mooved and continually laboured, bee better then those that bée in standing Water: and so Sea Fish is better then River Fish. And River Fish better then lake Fish, namely, if they be farre from the river and from the sea. For they that have rest in their rottennesse and filth, are not washed neither cleansed by river that cometh therein, nor by sea. And therefore such fish is evill savoured, & soone rotten. Also both sea fish and river fish is better in the North sea, and in the East Sea, then in the South sea: for by strong blasts of winde the water is moved and cleansed and made subtill. And therefore Fish of that water mooveth more and travaileth, and be more cleansed of their superfluitie.

Also in kinde of Fish is diversity, not onely in diversitie of place, that they may dwell in, but also in diverse place of generation. For some be gendered by layeng of Egges, and shedding of pesen [spawn of fish or frogs], and some by gendering together of male and female, and by shedding of sperme. Héereof Aristotle speaketh li. 5. and sayth, that it falleth in kinde of fish that lay Egges and pesen, that when the female layeth egges or pesen, the male commeth after & sheddeth his milke upon the egges: and all the egges or pesen that bee touched with the milke of the male shall be fish, & those that be not touched with that milke shall not be Fish. For the female layeth many egges or pesen, & swalloweth the more part of them, and also many other bée spilt in slime and in wose, and none thereof bée saved but such as bée layde in places where the milke of the male is shedde. For if they were all saved: then there should bée too many fishes gendred. And fish kéep & save evennesse and make, in their owne kinde, as Aristotle sayth there. And he saith, that there was never fish founde, that made generation with fish of other kinde. Also fish love their frye, and féede and nourish them long time, as Aristotle sayth there. All Fish feede and kéepe their young, except Frogges.

Also there it is sayde, that River fish and fish of marrcis, shedde more theyr pesen, and ofter then other fish. For commonly and for the most parte, they cast and shed pesen and milke after five moneths: and all other Fish bring foorth fish after one yeare, and small fish bring forth their broode in place, wherein is but little water, fast by rootes of trees, canes, and reedes.

Also there he saith, that the more part of the pesen is lost, when the female sheddeth pesen swimming about, if the male be not present: and then of the séede & pesen is no fish shapen. And also they be eat of other fish and of birds.

Also there it is said, that some Fish be gendered without egges or pesen, or without generation of male & of female: & be gendered of slime & of wose, of gravell, & of rottennesse yt is upon the water. Also it is sayd, that in time of generation, males and females of Fish swim tother as a flocke, and swim with theyr makes, and many of them bée sick when they bréede: and therefore that time they be most taken. Also there it is sayd, that some fish gender froting the wombe on gravell. Also in li. Jorath de Animalibus it is said, that a Fish yt is called Effimeron is bred without generation betwéene male and female: And when he hath lived thrée houres of a day, then he dieth: and there is a Fish that is called Murena, a Lampray: that of his like conceiveth not, but of an Adder, which hée calleth to love with hissing, as Isidore saith lib. 12. cap. 6.

The Greekes (he saith) call this fish yt is called Murena, Stairmam, for he holdeth himselfe in circles. They tell, that this fish is a Female, and conceiveth of the Serpent. And therefore Fishers call it with hissing and whisteling, and taketh her in that wise. Unneth she dyeth, though shée bee smit with a staffe: and if she be smit with a rod, she dieth anone. It is certaine that the soule of this fish is in ye taile, for they say unneth she is slain, though she be smit on the head. And if she be smit on the taile, or if the taile bée smitte of, she dyeth anone, as it is sayde. And the contrary is of the Serpent, for if the head bee broke and brused, or cut off, ye Serpent dieth anone, and if the taile be smitten, he liveth long time. Also Jorath sayth, that the Serpent doth awaye his venim ere he gender with the Lampray: But when the deed of generation is done, he taketh his venim againe: and therfore in conceiving, the Lampraye taketh no venim of the Serpent, nor gendereth not of serpent kinde, but onely of his owne kinde, as he saith.

Also fish conceive of dew onely without pesen, and without Milk, as Oisters and other shell fish. Héereof Jorath speaketh & saith, that fish that be called Elich come out of the water by night, & conceive in land of the morrowe dew, and bring forth their broode: And in waning of the Moone their shells be voide. Also fish is stirred to conceive and to bréed by rising and downe going of Starres, as Jorath sayth, and Isidore also. So he speaketh of fish that bée called Australis, and sayth, that fish of that kinde arise, when the stars that bée called Pliades begin to goe downe, and be not séene till Pliades arise againe. And though fish gender and be gendered: yet no manner of kinde of cleane fish have gendering stones, nor no kinde of Serpent, nor no kind yt hath no féet: and also they have no paps nor milke, except ye Dolphin, that hath milke, and giveth her children sucke while they are little, as Aristotle sayth, lib. 6. And Isidore. libro. 12. cap. 6. sayth, that the Dolphins bée called Symphones also, & they have that name, for they followe mans voice and come together in flocks to the voice of the simphonie, and having liking in harmonie: and in the sea is nothing more swifte then Dolphins bee. For oft they startle and overleape ships, whose leaping and plaieng in the wuce of the sea betokeneth tempest. And in the river of Nilus is a kinde of Dolphins with ridges, thoothed as a Sawe, that cutteth the tender wombes of Crocodiles, and slayeth them, as Isidore sayth.

Also fish kinde is divers in manner of foode and of nourishing. For libro. 2. Avicen [Avicenna] saith, that that Fish that eateth good hearbes, grasse, and roots of plants, bée better then they that eate filth, that is throwen out of cities into watry places: and in Exameron it is sayde, that also Fish bee diverse in eating. For some eate each other, and be fedde with each others Fish, and the lesse is the mores meate: and so the greater eat them that be lesse, and so he that eateth the one, is eaten of other at last, as Aristotle sayth libro. 6. and he sayth, That a fish that is called Carabo, overcommeth greate Fishes & eateth them: and another that is called Multipes overcommeth the Carabo, and eateth him: also hée sayth, That fishes be fedde with dung and with durt, and with fenne, as the Carabo: and therfore he is heanie, and much fen is found in him: and Fish that eate other fishes have strong teeth, as that manner Fish that Greekes call Phagion. Isidore saith, that that Fish hath so hard téeth, that he eateth Oysters in the Sea: and therefore he is called Dentrix, as it were a fish strongly toothed, and hath that name for greatnesse and strength of téeth: and in Exameron it is sayd, That other Fish have lesse tooth and ne and thicker, and more sharp, that they may soone cut their meate that they take: and they swallowe it anone, least the meate that they hold in their mouths should be borne a|way by strength of water.

Also other Fish séeke theyr meate froting in gravell, as Isidore sayth. lib. 12. And he sayth of the sea swine, that is commonly called Suyllus, that while hée seeketh his meat he froteth under water in the ground, as it were a swine: and hath a manner mouth about the throat, and gathereth no meate but he pitcheth ye snowte in gravell.

Also lib. 7. Aristotle sayth, That for the more parte, Fish eate Fishe, and eat each other in time of bréeding, except the Fish Fuscaleon. And generally Fish bée gluttenous, and covet much meate, & namely the Fish that is called Habatue: and therefore his wombe stretcheth, when he is fasting, and ofte hée bloweth out his wombe, and maketh it stare, and throweth from him other Fish: for his wombe stretcheth to his mouth, and hath no stomacke. Also of Fish is diversitie of time and place of meate. For some Fish séeke theyr meate onelye in Water, and some by night upon the land, as Hippotamus the water horse, and hath that name, for he is lyke to a horse in ridge & in mane, as Isidore saith, and abideth in water on the day, and eateth corne by night, and is bread in the river Nilus, as Isidore sayth. And as Aristotle sayth libro. 7. Generally Fish travayle more by day then by night, and more before midnight then after. And therefore as Aristotle sayth, they bée hunted before the Sun rise, and then Fishers set theyr nets, for that time Fish see not. Full well they sée when light increaseth: but by night they seeke theyr meate by smelling. For they have lyking in things of good savour. And therefore liber. 4. it is sayd, that kindes of fish smell and heare: and therefore it commeth ofter into new tackle, that is set for it, then into olde: & commeth not lightly into olde tackle, but into newe: and bee oft beguiled by smell, as Jorath sayth. And hée sayeth, that there is a great fish in the sea that is called Belua, that casteth out water at his jawes, with vapour of good smell, & other fish feele the smell, and follow him, & enter and come in at his jawes following after the smel: and he swalloweth them, and is so fed with them. Also he saith that there is a fish that is called Faste: ye water that he taketh in his mouth wareth swéete, and small fish follow him and go in at his mouth, & he taketh them sodeinly and swalloweth them anone. Also hee saith, that Dolphins know by the smel, if a dead man yt is in the Sea eate ever of Dolphins kinde: & if the dead man hath eaten therof, he eateth him anone: & if hee did not, he kéepeth and defendeth him fro eating & biting of other fish. And shoveth him & bringeth him to the cliffe with his owne wroting. And Aristotle sayth the same and Plinius also.

Also li. 7. Aristotle saith, that fish that liveth in cléere running water, fall not upon stinking things, but upon things of good savour: & so doe birds and fowles of such water. And in winter, fish die out of the sea, and seeke heate nigh to the land, and there they séeke their meate, & doth the contrary in Summer: for then they flye from the heat into the déep sea. Therfore in Winter they be hunted nigh the land: and in Summer in the deep sea: for immoderate heat gréeveth fish.

Item in eodem li. he saith, yt some fish die for heat when the star ariseth, that is called Canicula. Also great colde graveth them sore, and namelye them that have stones in their heads, as Crabs, & other such. For the stone in the head runneth and fréeseth, and such a Fish dyeth soone.

Also kinde of fish hath diversitie of shape, and of disposition both in quality & in quantitie. For there is some kinde of great huge fish, with great bodies & huge, as it were mountaines and hills, as Isi[dore] saith: such was the whale that swallowed Jonas the Prophet, his wombe was so great that it might be called hell: for the Prophet saith: In that wombe of hell he heard me. And ther be some fish so small, yt unneth they be taken with hooks, as Isi[dore] saith, li. 12. Asforus is a litle fish, & for litlenesse it may not be taken with hooks: and there it is said, yt Enchirius is a fish unneth halfe a foote long, and hath that name of Herendo, cleaving: for though he be full little of body, nevertheles he is most of vertue: for he cleaveth to ye ship & holdeth it still steadfastly in the sea, as though the ship were on grounde therein. Though windes blowe, and waves arise strongly, and woode stormes, that ships may not moove neyther passe. And that Fish holdeth not still the shippe by any craft, but onely by cleaving to ye ship. Latines call this fish Moron. For by strength he maketh the ship to stand, as it is said.

Also in Exameron it said of the same Fish, that when he knoweth and feeleth, that tempest of winde and weathers bée great, he commeth & taketh a great stone and holdeth him fast thereby, as it were by an Anker, least he be smitten away, & throwen about with waves of the sea. And so he saveth not himselfe by his own strength, but helpeth to save himselfe by heavinesse and weight, that is not his owne. And is made stedfast and stable against the comming of tempest & storme: and ship men see this, & beware that they be not over set unwarilye with tempest and with stormes, as Ambrose saith, and Beda also.

Also li. 4. Aristotle saith, that the female fishes be more long then male fishes: and have more harde fish. And males be more harde before, and also above: and females be more harde behinde and beneath.

Also lib. 2. Avicen[na] sayth, that those Fishes be best, that have not full grease bodyes, neither too harde Fish and drye in whome is not too great fatnesse: nor too much gristle, in whome is no evill smell, nor evill savour. Those that be of sweete savour, be convenient and covenable, not too fat, nor with superfluitie of fatnesse nor sowrenesse, which stinketh not, anon as it commeth out of the water. And those fishes that be somewhat harde, bée better when they bée salted. And among Fish that is harde of Fish, that is best, that is least soft. And so in Fish diversitie is knowen of substaunce and of qualitye, for as he saith, generally fish is cold and moist: but yet some bée hotter then other some in comparison of the complection of fish, & namely when they be salte. And therefore when they be fresh, they breede watrye fleame, and softe the sinewes, and be not according but to right hot stomackes: and if they be salted, they be more according to the stomacke, and also to medicine. And heads of salte fish burnt, healeth the biting of a madde dogge, and the stinging of a Scorpion, and rooteth up dead flesh in Botches, and helpeth rotted and festured Botches.

Also the juyce of everye Fish helpeth against venim that is dronken, and against venimous stinginges, and hath many other effectes, as it is sayde there: But this that is sayde of theyr qualitye and substaunce shall suffice now in this place.

Also Fish bée diverse in sharpnesse of feeling, and in sleyght of witte: for many be very warye. And some be wonderfully sleight and wily to scape, when they be ware of gins of Fishers, as Isidore saith. lib. 12. And he saith, that there is a manner fish that is called Mugil, which is full nimble and swift. For where he is disposed to swimme, and is ware of grins, and pearceth them, & that he is beset with fishers: he turneth sodeinly backward, and overleapeth the net so swiftly, that it seemeth to them, which are present, that he flieth as a bird.

Also in lyke wise it is sayd there of a Fish which is called Estaurus: For among Fish, onelye that Fish cheweth his kudde. And it is sayd that this Fish is right wittye. For when he knoweth that hee is entered, and is within the daunger of the Fishers ginne, hée reeseth not foorth headlong, neyther putteth his head betweene the rowles of the gunne: but he beateth fast on the other with his tayle, and beginneth to make him away with breaking and renting of roddes, and so pasieth backwarde. And if it happen that another Fish of the same kinde seeth his doing, and how he travaileth for to break out: he busieth to helpe him, and taketh his tayle in his mouth, and helpeth as hée maye to drawe him out, and deliver him of the ginne. And yet he sayth, that the Cunger hath manye wiles, and is wittye and wylye of getting of meate: for when hee seeth meate on a hooke, hee dreadeth the hooke, and biteth not the baite, but holdeth the hooke with his finnes, and letteth it not passe till hée have gnawen the meate.

Also the Crabbe is enimye to the Oyster. For hee liveth by Fish thereof with a wonderfull witte. For because that hee may not open the harde shell of the Oyster, hée spyeth and awayteth when the Oyster openeth, and then the Crabbe, that lyeth in waite taketh a little stone, and putteth betweene the shelles, that the Oyster maye not close himselfe: And when the closing is so let, the Crabbe eateth and gnaweth the Fish of the Oyster. Oysters bee called Oilica, and have that name of shelles, that defend and warde softe fish within. And the Greekes call an Oyster testam, and all that Fish with the shells is called Ostrium in the Newter gender: but the Fish thereof and the meate that is wtin the shels, is called Ostrea in the Feminine gender: And such shell Fish bee called Conche and Conchilia also: for when the Moone falleth, such Fishes bee voide: And the waxing of the Moone increaseth the humoure, and the humoure vanisheth, when the Moone vanisheth. And therefore shell Fish ware, when the Moone wareth, and bée voyde, when the Moone waneth. And in shell Fish bée Pearles bread. And thereof speaketh Plinius and other that write of such things. For by night shell Fish come to cliffes, and conceive Pearles of the dewe of Heaven. And therefore the shell Fish be called Conchile and Margarete, and Herelie, when in theyr fish precious stones be pight. And that precious stone that is gendered of dewe in Springing time, is most worthy and noble, and the more white and bright he is, the more effectuall and vertuous it is held. And some shell fish is called Murice, and have that name of roughnesse and sharpnesse, and have another name, and be called Conchilia. And if they be kitte about with yron, of them drop teares of red colour, and with those teares purple is died, and this coulour and hiew is called Ostrium. For it is taken of the humour of shel fish, as Isidore saith.

Thou maist finde all these propertyes and kindes, and many other in lib. Plinii, and Aristotle, and Isidore, and in Exameron Saint Ambrosii, and Bas[il] but for that we will not noy them that shal read héerein, this is inough of this matter at this time.

Also Plinius saith, and Isidore libro 12. that there be in waters. C.xliiii. manner of kindes of fish. And many of them knowe the order of theyr time, by a manner wit of kinde: and some goe about in theyr own place without chaunging: and some live without consideration of time: and some conceive whelpes by deede of generation betwéene male and female, as the Whale.

Also the Whale and Balena is al one, and Balene be anou great and huge, and be called Belue ab emittendo, of outcasting and shedding of water. For they throwe water higher then other greate Fishes of the Sea. For Balen is understoode out casting. And the whale is called Cete for hugenesse of bodye, as Isidore sayth libro. 22. Also in libro Jorath it is sayde. That the Whale hath great plentye of spearme. And after that hee gendereth with the Female, superfluitye thereof fleeteth above the water: And if it be gathered and dryed, it tourneth to the substaunce of Ambre. And when the Whale hungereth sore, hée casteth out of his mouth a vapour, that smelleth as the smell of Ambre. And Fish have liking in that smell, and for the odour and smell of that vapour, they goe into the Whales mouth, and bée so deceyved and eaten. Also (as he sayth) in this fish earthly matter hath more mastrye then watrye: And therefore hée is soone great and fatte. And so in age for greatnesse of bodye, on his ridge powder and earth is gathered, and so digged together, that hearbes and small trees and bushes grow thereon: so that that great Fish séemeth an Ilande. And if shippe men come unwarily thereby, unneth they scape without perill. For hée throweth so much water out of his mouth upon the shippe, that he overturneth it somtime or drowneth it.

Also hée is so faste, that when hée is smit with Fishers dartes, he feeleth not the wounde, but it passeth through out the fatnesse: But when the inner Fish is wounded, then he is most easily take. For hée may not suffer the bitternesse of the Salt water, and therefore he draweth to the shoare warde. And also hée is so huge in quantitie, that when he is taken all the Countrey is the better for the taking. Also he loveth his whelpes with a wonderfull love, and leadeth them about in the Sea long time. And if it hapneth that his whelpes bée let with heapes of gravell, and by defaut of water: hée taketh much water in his mouth, and throweth uppon them, and delivereth them in that wise out of perill, and bringeth them againe into the déepe sea. And for to defende them, hée putteth himself against al things that hée meeleth, if it bée noyfull to them, and setteth them alway betwéene himselfe and the Sunne on the more safer side. And when strong tempest ariseth while his whelpes bee tender and young, he swalloweth them up unto his owne wombe: and when the tempest is gone and faire weather come, then he casteth them up whole & sound, as he sayth.

Also Jorath sayth, That against the Whale fishteth a Fish of Serpentes kind, and is venimous, as the Crocodile: and then other fish come to the Whales tayle, and if the Whale be overcome, the other Fish die: and if the venimous Fish maye not overcome the Whale, then he throweth out of his jawes into ye water a fumous smell most stinking: and the Whale throweth out of his mouth a swéete smelling smoake, and putteth off the stinking smell, and defendeth and saveth himselfe and his, in that manner wise.

Book 18, chapter 1: Animals in General

Forasmuch as the foresaid treatise is ended and finished, as touching those things that beautifieth & maketh faire ye earth, touching their vertues & properties, as of are, mettall, stones, and things that grow under the ground, & of trées, hearbes, & grasse, and wéeds, which groweth & springeth out of the earth, of whom mention is made in holy writ: now followeth to our purpose to shewe and intreate of the vertues & properties of those things that have life & feeling. And first in generall, and after in speciall, of all beastes tame and wilde, and of all Wormes that créepe on the grounde, that he named in Text and Glose.

And all that is comprehended of flesh and of spirite of lyfe, and so of bodye and soule, is called Animallia beast whether hée be airse, as soules that flye: or watry, as fish that swim or earthy, as beasts: that goe on the grounde and in fieldes, as men and beastes, wilde and tame, or other that créepe and glide on the ground.

And Moses assigneth thrée manner of beasts in kinde, tame beasts & wilde, and other that créepe on the grounde, as it is written Gen. 1. Héereof Basilius speaketh in Exameron, and calleth tame beastes Iumenta, and sayth, that they be beastes graunted and ordeyned to use and to helpe of mankinde. And some be ordeyned to travaile, as horses. Oxen, and Camells, and other such: and some to beare wooll for clothing of men, as shéepe and other such, & some to be eaten, as swine and pigges. Those bée créeping beastes and worms that passe from place to place by stretching of the bodye, and drawing againe togethers, and move and passe upward by such drawing and stretching of the body, as the Wormes, Adders, and Serpents, And thrée manner kinde is of such, for some draweth by the mouth, as small Wormes that drawe themselves by the mouth, and some drawe so forwarde by strength of the sides and plyauntnesse of the body, as Serpents, Adders, and Snakes: and some creepe on feete, as Ewevetes, and Botractes, that be venimous Frogs, and other such beasts, and be called Bestie, as it were Vastie, wasting.

For they have kindly kinde of cruelnesse, & réeseth and sheweth their strength now with clawes, nowe with strength of hornes, now with téeth, as Bores, Lions, Tigres, and wolves. But commonly some be called Bestie, that be not tame but wilde, and bée kindly more stirring then tame beasts, and more milde then cruell beasts, as Harts, and other such. And in all beastes is vertue of mooving and of féeling, but in some more, and in some lesse, for as the bloud is more pure and cléere, some féels better and have better estimation and knowing, & bee more wittye and wilye.

Therefore it is that the Oxe is slow and stable, and the Asse dull of wit, and horse servent in desire, and covetous of females, the Woulfe wilde, and not tamed, the Lyon bolde and hardy, the Foxe wilye, the hound with minde of friendship, & so of other beasts. And some goodnesse of males of manners in beasts followeth goodnesse either mallice of complection, as Basilius sayth. And Aristotle sayth the same in libro de Animalibus, and sayth, that beasts be divers in manners, for some bée right milde, as the Cow and the Shéepe, and some be right wilde and not tame, as the Tygres & the wilde Boare, and some be right hardye, bolde, and proud, as the Lyon. And some beasted be strong, wilde, and guilefull, as the woulfe & the Foxe, and other such. And this diversity commeth of diversitye of vertue, that worketh diverslye in divers beasts. For as he sayeth, libro. 1. Some beasts have bloud, and some have none, as Bées and other beasts with riveled bodyes. But such beastes have other humour in steade of bloud.

And beasts that have bloud, be more then other in body and in vertue. Therefore it is, that some beasts love fellowshippe, and goe in company, and are wilde, as Hartes, wilde Asses, and Camells: And some flye and voyde company, and maye not dwel together in company, as foules, and birds with crooked cleas, and beasts that live by pray. Héereto Avicen[na] sayth, that some beasts be tame, and some bée wilde, and some live in towns, and some in fieldes. And among all beastes, man yt may not live alone, as Cranes, Bérs, and Ampts, that accordeth with man in that. And also he saith, that beasts be divers in nourishing and in feeding, for onely some eate flesh, as the Lion or the tiger, & the Woulfe, & other such: and some eat flesh, and other meat, as Hounds, and Cats, & other such: and some eate grasse, corne, & other fruit, as horses & hartes, and other such. And Arist[otle] saith, libr. 1. some beastes have their owne savour and tast, that them liketh, as Bées have liking in tast of hony, & few other swéet things, as the Spider hath liking & tast in flies, & liveth by hunting of flies; and some beasts not other beasts, as the Lion & the Woulfe, & other such: & some gather store of meat & féeding, as the Irchin & the Ampt. And why every beast néedeth meat & nourishing it is, as Avicen[na] saith, Moisture of substance, and heat that dissolveth & wasteth moisture, & hot aire that is about the heart. And so alwaye by working of heat, is wasting and losse of humour: & that that is lost, is néedfull to be restored, and that by goodnesse of meat and nourishing. And some beasts séeke their meate by night, as soules that hate light, and some by day. And Aristotle and Avicen[na] saye, that some beasts be alwaye wilde, and some alwaye tame, as Man, Mule, & the Goate: and some be soone made tame, as the Elephant. Of all kinde of tamè beasts, some be found wilde, as a wilde man, a wilde Fore, wilde Horses, wilde Hounds, & wild Swine. And some beasts be full cruell, readye to réese and to fight, and namely in time of love, & in all service of Venus. In all beasts is appetite of love liking, and then the males wooeth and pleaseth the females, and fight for them. And some beasts do slily & warily, that their hornes and tuskes be hard and sharpe in that time, as wild Swine frote themselves against trées, and their tusks whet, as Arist[otle] saith. And some refraineth them much, and some be right wrathfull and angry & of great memory, as the hound, the Camell, & the Asse: and some have but feeble memory, as the Estridge & Culver. And onely man calleth to mind that that was forgotten, as Aui. saith. But many beastes holde in minde things yt they see & learne, as Arist[otle] saith li. 1. And onely in man is mindfulnes, as the minde is obedient to reason. Therefore li. 11. de Ciuitate Dei, Austen saith, yt in unreasonable beastes is wonderfull redinesse & wit, but in them is no science properly to speake of science: but in them likenesse of science is found, for they have readinesse of wit, in bréeding & rearing of their brood, and in building and making of bowers and dens, in seeking and getting of meat and nourishing: In medicine and healing of woundes, in flight and voiding of harme in boding or changing of time and weathers, of knowing of love of their makes. For the Hart loveth the Hind, & the Lyon the Lionesse, and the male beare the female, and so of other.

Also Aristotle sayeth, that in everye beast is a radicall member, that is well & head of all the vertues natural and spirituall, and of feeling, and that member is the heart, or somewhat els in stéed of the heart, of the which roote or heart, as Avicen[na] sayth, beginneth creation, making and shape of all beasts. When an unreasonable beast is perfectly made & shapen, the face therof boweth toward the earth, that is the originall & materiall matter, whereof it commeth, and onely to man, kind ordeyneth & dseth upright stature, wherein mankinde is wonderfully made noble, and passing all other beasts, as the Poet sayth. Os homini sublime dedit coelum{que} videre.

Kind hath given to man an high mouth & vertue to looke on heaven. Therefore Basilius sayeth, that if a man be defiled with lust & liking of flesh in obeieng to lechery of the wombe, he is made pere to unwise and unreasonable beastes, and is made like to them. Also Basilius saith, that all beasts of the earth be comforted and hearted to gender & to get broods of their owne kind, to multiply after them, by gendring heat that tickleth and pricketh, & that falleth most in springing time, when the vertue of the heate of heaven beginneth to have mastrye of bodyes of beasts. And in such forme meaneth Aristotle. And also Avicen[na] sayth, that every beast that hath Semen, gendereth another beast, which is lyke to it selfe. And therefore to everye beast, which may not kéepe and save alwaye kinde in it selfe, kind giveth it a member, by which it puteth out Semen, & another member, wherin it may be received, as the mother in the female taketh Semen: and this is general in all kinde of beastes, in the which is male and female. For the male is at it were a manner worker & shaper, and the female as it were matter to worke in. Therefore every female beast hath such a member, called the mother, or els somwhat els in stéede of the mother, wherin she may receive semen and broode. And that falleth diversly in divers maner of beastes: for otherwise in such beastes, which lay egges, than in other maner of beasts, which containeth perfect beastes within themselves, as Avicen[na] setteth ensample of many, following Aristotle. And he setteth all beasts with bloud, afore beasts which have no bloud. & saith, that they be alwayes more noble and more huge and great in quantitie and in vertue, except a fewe beasts of the water and sea. And he saith, yt every beast having noble bloud, moveth with foure instruments, as unreasonable beastes, with foure féete: or els it moveth and stirreth with two handes and with two féete, as it fareth in mankinde: and some mooveth and stirreth with winges, and with two féete, as it fareth in birds and in fowles with feathers.

But divers and manye manner of beasts be found, having moe féete than foure, as it fareth in fishes that be called Crabs, and small shragges, and other such. And also some have moe winges the twayn, as it fareth in butterflyes, & in Bées, and in some long flyes, and in such is but little bloud, which is treasure of kinde. And therfore the sore lims worke more effectually in the first maner, then many lims doe in the seconde manner, as in beasts the sore lyms are more able and worke more effectuallye than the hinder: for they have more heat, and more part of heate of bloud of the heart, and be néere thereto. And Avicen[na] toucheth ye generall properties of beasts and sayth.

In some manner, some beastes communeth and accordeth in members, as man and horse in flesh & in sinewes, and are divers in many things: First in qualitie and in manner of setting and moving of members, both of the simple members and of the compouned, as it fareth of the Snaile, that hath shelles, and of the Irchin, that hath pricks, and man hath none: and the horse hath a tayle, and man hath none.

And beastes be also divers in quantitie, as many in mouth, and in opening of eyen. The opening of the Owles eye is much: and the opening of Eagles eyen is lyttle.

Also the members be divers in number and tale, for in some beasts are two feete, and in some foure feete: & in some be more fóete than foure, as it fareth in Spiders: for some Spider hath eyght fáete, and some other Spider hath tenne féete. Also in qualitie, colour, figure and shape, or in softnesse and hardnesse: as and Oxe foote is full harde, and a mans foote is full softe. And are also diverslye set, as it fareth in the teates of a Mare, and an Elephant: for an Elephant hath teates under the breast, and the Mare in the flanke, betwéene the thighes behinde.

And are also divers in working, as it fareth in the nosethrills of ye Elephant, with the which he fighteth. And are also divers in suffering, as it fareth in the eyen of the Reremouse, which be full féeble and in the eyen of the Swallow, which contrariwise are right strong, as Avicen[na] saith. And be divers in appetite, for some have a great appetite and desire to serve Venus, and some féeble, as the Elephant and the Turtle: and some have appetite to serve Venus with all manner kinde of beasts, and some onely with beasts of their owne kinde: & some are continent & chast alwayes, as Bées. And some be great gluttons, and great devourers of meate, and therefore they hunt by night, as Wolves which be called Hahala.

And some of those ravenous beasts séeke foode by daye, as the Goshawke, and the Eagle: and some other both by daye and by night, as Cattes.

Also in every beast néedeth divers members to serve each other for divers workings. And so the bones be needfull to sustaine all the bodie: the gristles be needfull to defend the flesh from the hurting of the bones: and sinewes be needfull to binde and to joyne members togethers, and to beare and to lead, and to bring fóeling into al the members, and be hard to cutting, and plyant to stretch and to binde flesh, and be right néedefull to the Well of lyfe, and for gendering of spirites.

The lungs be right needfull for breathing, and for gathering and drawing of colde aire, that it may coole the servent heate of the heart. The stomack is needfull for the first digestion of meats. The lyver is needfull to gendering of bloud: veynes be néedefull to beare bloud into all the members of the body. The guts be néedfull to heare the drastes and dirte to voyde it out of the body. The raynes be néedfull, and the gendring stones, to saving of kinde: the gall is néedfull to comfort digestion: the splene is néedfull to gathering superfluitie of the humour melancholicke: the head is needfull to wits that be therein, to give feeling and ruling to all the body: the neck is néedfull for joyning of the head and the body together, and to bring meate & drink to the stomacke: the breast is néedfull to defend the heart and spirituall members: the armes and handes be néedfull to workes and deedes: the sides & ribs to keepe and to save the kinde members: féete and legs to underset and to move swiftlye from place to place: the skin is néedfull to keepe and defende all that is within from outwarde griefes and hurts: vaires be néedefull to save the skinne: nayles be needfull to keepe the vttermost parts, and also for defence in many maner beasts, & kinde hath wisely ordeined in all beasts som what wherewith ther may defend them against noiaunces and griefes and hurtings. And therefore Harts have hornes, and Bores have tuskes, and Lyons use clawes in stéede of swords, and so in beasts is no default nor superfluitie. And small beasts that lacke sharpe téeth, and clawes, and hornes, are defended with ablenesse of members, and swiftnesse of fligh, as it faceth in Hares, in Fawnes, and other such. Also every beast ye gendreth another beast, hath eyen except the Mole, yt hath eyen closed within a web, and that web is given to the Moale, for féeblenesse of sight: and every beast that hath eares, moveth the eares except man: and everye beast breatheth, but some by wayes which are knowen, as by the mouth, or els by the nose: and some by prevye wayes, as by prevy holes and poores, as Bées, and Flyes, and beasts which glide on the ground. And everye foure footed beast which hath bloud hath marrow, & namely man hath much marrow in co¯parison to his body, and that is needfull to man, for many and divers workes, & dooings. And every beast yt hath horns, is clove footed with hornes without, except one beast, that is, an Unicorne, that hath but one horne in the forehead, and one hoofe in the foote, as an horse.

And every horned beast hath hollow hornes, except the Harte and the Unicorne: and every horned beast is foure footed, with material and hard horne, except a manner Serpent, which is in the region of Aegypt, which is found horned, and many call that serpent Serastes. And héere I speak of beasts which have hornes of kinde of bone: for Snayles have certaine hornes softe and gleymie, but they are not properly hornes, but things given to Snayles for helpe and succour. For Snailes be féeble of sight, and grope and séeke their wayes, with those horns. And if the Snayle méeteth with any hard thing, anone he draweth in his hornes: and then he closeth himselfe within his shelles: For hée useth his shelles in stéede of houses and Castles.

Also some beasts have téeth in either jaw, and some have onely in the nether jaw, & those which have no téeth in the over jaw, be horned, for that matter passeth and turneth into hornes.

And no Beast which hath crooked féeth or tuskes, as ye Bore, hath hornes, for that matter passeth and turneth into turkes: for tuskes and hornes accord not in the same beast: Beasts of praye have téeth departed and sharpe, that they may the better enter and come to the praye, and bite thereof gobbets and péeces, as Wolves and Lyons. And tame beasts, as the Cowe, and beasts that be made tame, as the Elephant & Camell, have téeth lyke high and nigh togethers, as if were one bone, that they may the better eate grasse and hearbes, and bite them the more even nigh the ground, and no beast: hath more rowes of téethe in his mouth than twayne, except certaine fish, that have great teeth in their jawes set farre asunder, as the téeth of of a Sawe, and have also teeth set within, and with those inner, they gather and holde the meate, least the water shoulde wash it soone out of their mouthes, as it fareth in water Wolves, that are Luties, and in manye other, as Aristotle sayth.

But it is sayd, that in Inde is a beast wonderfully shapen, and is lyke to the Beare in body & in the haire, and to a man in face, and hath a right red head, and a full great mouth and an horrible, and in either jawe thrée rowes of téeth distinguished asunder. The utter limmes thereof, be as it were the utter syins of a Lyon, and his tayle is lyke to a with scorpion with a sting, and smiteth with hard bristle prickes as a wilde Swine, and hath an horrible voyce, as the voies of a trumpe, and he runneth full swiftly and eateth men; & among all beasts of the earth, is none found more cruell nor more wonderfully shapen, as Avicen[na] saith, and this beast is called Baricus in Greeke, as he saith. Also libro. 8. cap. 22. Plinius saith, that Helia writeth and fareth, that among the Medes is a beast, that is most wicked & evill, which he calleth Mantichora, and hath three rowes of teeth set a rowe, and togethers in a combe wise, and is lyke to a man in eares and in face and hath [?] and red colour like to a Lion, with a Scorpions tayle, and stingeth with bristle prickes, and hath a voyce, lyke to the voyce of a man. And if a man singeth to a pipe and to a trumpe, it seemeth that this beasts voyce accordeth with the trumpe and tune melodie. And so this is the same beast, that Avicen[na] and Plinius speake of. Also everye beast that gendreth and getteth a beast, hath two reynes & a bladder, but beasts that lay egges, have neither bladders, neither reynes: for in birds and soules superfluitie of moysture passeth into fethers and clawes, and in fish, into the shelles and scales; and therefore them néedeth no instrument to receive superfluitie of moysture.

Also every beast that hath hornes & to téeth above, cheweth his cudde, and hath many wombes, and full great, and another lesse, one long & another wide, & many manner digestions be the cause, whereof such a Beast, hath so manye wombes: for his meate is drye, and is not right well chewed in the beginning when the beast féedeth, and that is for hast of eating, and for this cause this meate so swallowed, néedeth to be chewed againe, and then the meate is drawen out of ye more wombe to ye mouth, and so the beast doth chewe it againe. And when the meate is chewed, it is sent to the second wombe, that it maye be there digested; & so to chew is called Ruminate, as Avicen[na] saith, and Ruminate is to chew the cud.

Also libro. a. cap. 1. Avicen[na] sayth in this manner, I saye that each Beast with tallowe hath fatte braine, and that the beast that hath no tallowe, hath no unctuous marrough: and everye beast that bretheth hath lungs, as fishes have braunches, whereby they drawe in, and put out water and ayre: and every beast that hath bloud, hath hart and liver, and beasts that be without bloud, have no heart, but have somewhat els in seede of heart, that is feare and Well of life.

Also all beastes that gender, have gall, some prevely and hid, as the Hart, Horse, and Mule, and some openly knowen and séene. Onelye the Dolphin wanteth gall, though he gendreth & bretheth.

And other beasts that lay egges, have gall great or small, as fishes and Serpents. Also he saith, that everye Beast that hath bloud hath semen: and everie beast without bloud that gendreth another, hath five wits, except the mouse with eyen healed and covered, and hath the blacke of the eye under a skinne: and in some beasts the wayes of wit and of feelyng, bée preuye and bée hidde, as eares and nosethrills in fish, which heare as it is well knowen: for they flye and voyd flushing and noyse: & they smell well also, els would they not come to the net, for milke, nor for flesh rosted. For flesh rosted, crabs come into willowes and pitches. Therefore Aristotle saith, as Avicen[na] meaneth, that the Dolphin, and other manner of fish, fall to the bottome sodainly, as it were in Epilencia, when they heare sodaine thundering, or great mouing and noyse, and be taken as they were dronke. And fish flyeth and voydeth the place of washing and slaughter of other fish, and the bloud of other fish, and flye and voyd also hoarie and uncleane nets, and come glably into new. And beastes with crimping bodies have sharpe wit & féeling, though it be privie and hid, as Bées and Antes, that heare and smell a farre, and have liking in certaine odor and smell, and dye in some odour of Brimstone, and of burnt leather, and of burnt Harfes hornes: and so Bées abide not in places of evill smell, but they rest in places with good smell and sweetnesse, as he sayth.

Also hée sayth, that beasts are divers in manner of voyce of crieng: for some have strong voyce and sharpe, and some féeble and lowe and some with lytle voyce or none, and onely beasts that have the wosen of voyce, and lungs, and breath, have voyce. But some breatheth not, and maketh somtime noyse & sometime an hissing. And beastes that have voyce make tunes and melodie, & some crye, chitter and sing, namely in time of gendering and of love, and they knowe each other by their owne voyce, and call and pray each other to love. Also he saieth, that each beast, that hath bloud and goeth, waketh and sléepeth, and everye beast that hath eye lyddes, closeth them when he sleepeth: and every beast that layeth egges, maketh small sléepe.

Also every beast néedeth meate and norishing according to his complection, and that is right needfull and necessary for sustenaunce and wexing of the beast, or for the restoring of that thing, which is lost by kindly heate.

But in receiving and taking of meat and drinke there is great difference: for some going beastes with complete and even lyppes, drinketh sucking, as man, horse, cowe and mule, and other such: and beastes with uneven lyppes, in the which the neather lippe is shorter then that over, drinke lapping, as an hound, & cat, and other such: and so by the disposition of eyennesse and unevennesse of lippes, some beasts in drinking sucke, & some lappe: and therefore kinde ordayneth wisely in hounds, and in other lapping beasts, tender tongue, long and plyaunt, & the tongue is the more able to licke & to holde the water, and bring it to the mouth. But many foure footed beastes, drinke not but seldome, as Lonyes, and Hares and other such: for meate of such beasts is right moyst, and that moisture sufficeth to them in stéede of drinke, & to bring their meate into the members, & to coole kinde heate. And other beasts that be full hot and drye, either of complection, or by accidentall heate and drinesse, and use drye meate or hotte, néede therefore drinke to the foresaid things & doings: and this is the cause why Culvers and other birds that be not ravenners drink: for they eate corne & graines and other such and their meate is fatte, hot and drye.

And fowles and birds of prane, use moyst meate indeed, and drinke therefore but seldome, and when they drink, it is token of sicknesse and that unkind heat hath passing, masterie in them, as Avicen[na] and Aristotle meane. And Avicen[na] meaneth, that beasts with little bodyes, be more slye and hardie, and wittie, than other beastes with great bodyes: is it fareth in Spiders, Bees, & Antes, their workes be so slighe and subtill, that mans wit may not comprise to doe such workes, for in them kinde rewardeth in sleight and in wit, that that séemeth to be withdrawen from them in might and in strength, as he saith.

Also in li. de mirabilibus mundi, circa finem, Solinus saith: that every beasts with crooked téeth as a sawe, is a Glutton, and fighteth: as it fareth of hounds, Panthers, Lyons, and Beares. And the females of such beasts bring forth young, unperfect and uncomplete, as the Bitche bringeth forth blinde whelpes, and the female Bears bringeth forth a lumpe of flesh not devided by shape of members: and she kéepeth that lumpe hot, under hir armes pits, as the Den sitteth on hir egges: and the female Beare, licketh that lumpe of flesh, and shapeth it some and some, untill it receive perfect figure and shape of a Beare. Also the Panther & the Lions bringeth forth whelps, but not complete nor perfectly shapen, and every beast that bringeth foorth many young, loveth best the first, and accounteth it most kindly hir owne, and therefore some beasts eate and devoure their owne broode, except the first, as some Swine doe oftentimes.

Also he sayth, that in all beasts that bring young foorth, uncomplete and unperfect, the cause is gluttonie, for if kinde would abide untill they were complete and perfect, the whelpes would slaye the damme with sucking, for immoderate & over passing appetite: and therefore in such beasts, kinde is swift to bring them foorth soone, or to make them soone dye, least they shoulde grieve the damme too sore, and such beastes, brought foorth in that manner, fight for meate and food, as Avicen[na] saith, and hate each other. Therfore kinde hath ordayned remedie to sane the kinde of those beasts, and ordaineth that such beastes may bring foorthe manye young at once, so that if it happen that many of them be dead and lost in sighting, the kinde of them maye bee saved in few & not too many. Therefore the female Wolfe, whelpeth manye whelpes, as the Bitche doeth. And the Idder [adder] that is called Vipera hath twentie young at once, as he sayth: and so for the increase of this Vipera bet many alive at once in the wombe, for desire of nourishing they sucke much, & drawe of the humour so much, that the damme sufficeth not to sustaine so many in hir wombe: therefore she sayleth and dyeth ere she may bring foorth hir kinde at full. Also Aristotle and Avicen[na] say, that beasts with téeth joyned togethers and blunt, have few increase, and beasts with téeth departed farre a sunder and sharpe, and set with many chinnes, have many young, and much semen, & beasts with little bodies, gender more than beasts with great bodyes. And beastes that gender little and have few of their kinde, have few teates and diversly, and set in divers places. And therefore the Bitch hath many teates, and the Sowe also, & be beasts that have many young. Also beasts that use superfluitie and continuance of the service of Venus, have much shorter life than those beasts that serve Venus temperately and seldem: and therefore gelded men lyve longer than other for in them the sinewes are cut, by the which semen shoulde come downward to effect and working of generation.

Also in libro de spermate Galen and also Constantine tell the cause and reason thereof. And Avicen[na] libro de Animalibus affirmeth the same and sayeth, that Sperma is gendered and commeth of good bloud and ful digested, the which bloud is readie to turne and to passe into nourishing of membes, and therefore when a man sheddeth that humour seminall, the man is greatly discoloured, and the body more féebled than though he bled fortie times so much: for sperma is a thing able and made readye to passe into nourishing of members: and therefore when Sperma passeth out of the bodie, kinde féeding and nourishing of the members, is taken and withdrawen, and thereof is great losse of spirites and of vertue in the bodye of the Beast. And so immoderate and ofte gendering is cause of spoyling and undoing of the body, and so the lyfe is shortened.

And therefore the Elephant lyveth longest for hée loveth chastitie, and useth lecherie but seldome. Huc usque Aristoteles.

Avicen[na], and Solinus, and Isaac in dietis universalibus, treateth of beastes, in that they be féeding and norishing for mans body: for some beastes accorde to mans complection, as Lambe, Kidde, Shéepe and Swine among tame beasts: Hart and Hindes, Backes and Roes among wilde beastes. And some be all contrary to mans complection, and that for great heate, as the Adder Tyrus, and other Serpents: or els for too great cold, as Spiders and Scorpions. And some are unlyke to mans kinde, but they be not all contrary, neither poyson: as Irthins, Hares, and Fores, & other beasts with flesh of heavie smell, for of suche beastes, commeth worst nourishing of mans body. And wilde beasts be more hot and drye, & leane, than tame beasts, and that for continuall mouing, and for heate of the ayre that they be in, and also for drinesse of their meate and nourishing, and therefore their flesh is more hard, and harder to digest, and that is knowen, for when they be slaine, theyr flesh rotteth not so soone as the flesh of tame beasts.

Therefore all flesh of wilde beastes, is lesse savoury and norisheth lesse, than flesh of tame beasts, except the flesh of wilde Roes, that is much more savorie than other, and better, and more nourishing. Their bodies be made softe by mouing, and humours be made small & thin, and the pores be opened, and humours that be cause of heauie smell, be dissolved and amended, and so because of mouing and of travaile, they be accidentally made more savourie, for by suche running and mouing about, theyr kinde coldnesse is tempered: and therefore in wild beasts that run and travaile much, the heauie smell and savour is taken awaye, and their flesh is made the more sender, for their pores be opened, and the humours are tempered, that their flesh may be the better and sooner dissolved, & corporate into members, and because of kinde drinesse, their flesh is the later dissolved in the members.

Also some beasts are fed and nourished in moist places and watry, and their flesh nourisheth soone, and is soone digested, but it is soone dissolved of the members. And some are fed in mountaines and in drye places, and their flesh is better in kéeping and governing of health, and more according in comforting, and more perfect in during in the members.

And other beasts that he made tame and fed in houses, have more gleymie & great flesh, because of great eating, and of corrupt meate, and therefore theyr flesh is hard nourishing, and dissolveth slowly both in the stomacke, and in the liver: for as Hippocrates saieth, To know goodnesse of kinde of beastes, as touching nourishing and féeding of the body, it helpeth to know place & pasture where they be fed, and aire moyst or drie where they dwell, and quantitie of mouing and of rest, and how they are disposed accidentally or kindlye in idlenesse or in travaile. And beasts that are kindly tame, be lesse hot & more moist than wilde beasts, and therefore ye flesh is more softe, and the sooner digested, for by great rest and ease the pores be closed, and the thicke humours be tempered by heat that is closed within, and so the flesh softeneth and tendereth. And for they eate and drinke much, their superfluitie of humours increaseth soone, and fatnesse is increased, and therefore the bodyes of such beastes, are much nourishing and savoury, and passeth soone into the members and into the veynes.

And for multitude of gleaminesse and of moysture, such flesh rotteth soone, and gendereth superfluitie of humours. And though it féede kindly and much, yet for passing moysture it is soone dissolved, and passeth out of the members. And so accidentally it nourisheth the body lesse then flesh of wilde beasts. For though ye flesh of wilde beasts nourisheth but little: yet for it is hard to dissolve and slow, it abideth longer in the members, in which it is incorporate. Therefore men in olde time sayd that it norisheth the members accidentally.

Also in all manner kinde of beastes, the male is more hot and lesse moist than the female, and therefore flesh of male beasts is more subtill and better féeding than the flesh of females, except Goats flesh, that is better in the female than in the male, for in the female moisture tempereth the drinesse of complection, and in the male, heate kindeleth or tempereth not ye kind drines of the male: & therefore in this manner kinde of beasts, the flesh of the female is better than the flesh of the male, for it is more temperate, and not passing drye, & that though it be fresh or olde, and namely when it passeth not from age of sucking, for then the goodnesse of milke of the female tempereth kinde drinesse therof. And gelded beastes be meane betwéene complection of male and of female: for flesh of gelded beasts heateth lesse, than doth flesh of males, and more than flesh of females: and is digested flower than male flesh, and sooner than female flesh: and are therefore lesse nourishing, and worse than be males, and better than females. And it is a generall rule, that among beasts that be kindly moyst, the male is better than the female, and better in perfect age, than in unperfect age: and among beasts that be kindly drye, the female is much better than the male, and more in unperfect age, than in perfect age, as be saith.

Also goodnesse of beastes, varieth by diversitie of age, for beasts that be nigh the age of seeking, be of great moysture and gleyminesse, and also of sledernesse, and therefore their flesh gendreth superfluitie and fleame: but if it be beastes that are kindly drye, as Rotherne, and Goates. And flesh of such beastes, as Calves, is good in such an age, & namely if they be nourished with good milk, and best if they be weaned, for it is lesse moyst and gleymie, and of more temperate sadnesse. And in young age, when beasts be full-waxen, then theyr flesh is more hard and drye, and namely if the beasts be of drye complection, and therefore their flesh is more hard to digest: and is better in comforte of the members, and in during more than in ruling of health, as he saith.

And in the fourth age when they be ful olde, their flesh is more unprofitable to meate, and that for double cause: For than kinde heate is nigh quenched, and substaunciall moysture is full nigh wasted, and therefore their flesh is full hard and not good to digest, and namely if the beasts be of drye complection. And it is generall among all beasts and fowles, that while they grow and wexe: theyr flesh is better to meate, and better féeding, than it is when it passeth into féeblenesse for age, as hée sayth.

Also in pasture and féeding is diversitie, for beasts that be fedde in mountaines, have better bloud, and more subtill and sharpe, for scarcitie of meate.

And those that be fed in marreys, have more great bloud and more fatnesse, and lesse heate, and lesse stopping. And beasts that eate grasse and hearbes, as meate, are more boyde in Winter, than in Springing time or in Summer, for in Winter their meate faileth, and therefore they wexe fat, after the middle of Springing time or before, and wexeth much, and their flesh is more savourye and better because of plentie of covenable meate.

And beasts that eate smal grasse and hearbes, are more fat from the beginning of springing time to the middle of Summer, and their flesh is then best, for then they finde covenable meate and good and tender, for then they have covenable meate and foode. And other beasts that eate crops, boughs, twigs, & also braunches, are good from the beginning of Summer unto Winter: For then boughes and braunches, are both full moyst and tender. And so beastes, that eate full small grasse and drye, are better than those that eate moyst grasse and hearbes: and those that eate tender boughes and braunches are much better than those that be fedde at home with fruite. And those that eate and drincke lyttle, are better than those that eate & drinke much: for beasts that are fed in fieldes and in mountaines, have great travaile and mooving, and are therefore better than those that are fedde at home.

For those that be in mountaines and in fields, have and draw more subtill ayre and drye, because of running about.

And so superfluitie of humours is foredried, & their complection is made temperate. And againward, beasts that are fed at home, be found lesse good and profitable in complection, for scarcitie of pure aire, and for default of mouing, and for plentie of meate and of drinke.

Also beasts are divers, for some are fat, and some are leane, and some are meane: for the flesh of them that are fat, is worst to meate, for it grieveth & letteth digestion, for it fleeteth about the meate, and maketh the meate to swell, and softeneth the roughnesse of the stomacke, and causeth the stomacke to bée sudder and gleymie: and therefore too great fatnes dissolveth a moyst stomack by reason of failing of the vertue contentiue, comfortatiue, and expulsiue: and it kindleth and heateth too soone an hot stomacke, as fire is ofte kindeled without by fatnesse: and therefore men in olde time bad and commaunded, that of most fat beasts onely the red flesh shuld be eaten, and the fatnesse done awaye. And most leane beaste are sinewie and tough, and have lyttle bloud and lyttle moysture, and giveth therefore lyttle norishing to manns bodye. But beastes that are meane betweene sat and leane are most profitable, for they have not so much fatnesse to kindle the heate of the stomacke, nor to make the roughnesse of the stomacke slider: nor so much leannesse to coole the stomacke, and to spoyle it of bloud.

Also beasts are divers in chaunging of time, for some beasts have scarsitie of marrow and of bloud in one time, and are full thereof in the contrary time, as it is openly knowen in shell fish of the sea, and in mans braine, and percase in every beasts braine, as Aristotle sayth, openly in libro de proprietatibus Elementorum. And therefore many wex sicke in one part of the month or of the yeare, ye another time be knowen whole and sound, and cleane of all sicknesse in contrary time, as it fareth in Lunaticke men and in mad men, and in Caduc men that have the falling evill. Héereof seek more before cap. de Luna. And so Avicen[na] speaketh of the Ape and saieth, that the Ape is glad or sory by chaunging of times, and namely by the course of the Moone: & also in some season, beasts wex leane, though they have never so much meate, and wexe fat in sléeping in the contrary time, as Avicen[na] saith: and he sayth, that Glyres a manner kinde of mice, that moveth not in Winter, but lye as they were dead, and eateth not, wexe fat in sléeping, and wake in Summer time, and move themselves against the heate of the Sunne: and he telleth wonderfully of the Swallowes and of other foules, that be found as it were dead in hollow trees in winter time, and quickeneth and waketh after, as it were sleeping they are made strong, and shew themselves strong and swifte in Summer time: and so the female Beare, after that she hath conceived, hideth hir selfe long time in privie places, and taketh no meate that time, as Avicen[na] sayeth, and Aristotle and Solinus meaneth. Looke within cap. de Viso. Also fish in one month wexeth fat, and soone afterward wexe leane: and some wexeth fat in the Northerne winde, as fish with long bodies, & some in Southern winde, as fish with broad bodies: and some in raine time, as Aristotle sayeth. Rayne water accordeth to all manner shell fish, except the Fish that is called Roytera, that dyeth in the same daye, if he tasts rayne water: and too much rayne water grieveth some fish: for it blyndeth them. And some beasts sometime change and renew themselves, and cast of and chaunge their superfluitie, as Crabbes change their shells, and Hartes theyr hornes, and Goshaukes their feathers. And Isaac meaneth and sayeth, flesh of beasts in which drinesse & heat hath mastry, is not full good, as Camell flesh, and is not full good in Summer, but Camells flesh is according in winter: and flesh of beasts that be hot and moyst, as sheepes flesh, is good in springing time: and competent in harvest. Flesh that is colde and drye, is not full good, as Goats flesh colde and moyst.

And Swines flesh is best from ye middle of Summer to the ende, and worst in Winter, and meane in Springing time and in harvest. And so Hippocrates saieth, that Swines flesh is good in Springing time, and lesse worth in harvest, and lesse worth in Winter. And Goates flesh is good in Summer, and Shéepes flesh in Springing time: and in the beginning of Summer, flesh of beasts, as it is ordained to mans meate, is diversly dressed & ordained to mans meate. For as Isaac saith, flesh of beasts is sometime rosted, and sometime fryed, and sometime sod in water with salt. Flesh rosted and fryed is great and dry in féeding and nourishing, and harde to digest, for the moysture thereof is wasted, and then the flesh taketh drinesse of the fire: and right fat flesh should not be eaten but rosted, so that the moysture thereof may be drawen out of the substaunce thereof. Sodde flesh is more moyst and more easie to digest, for the water tempereth & maketh it moist: and somtime in the water in the which flesh is sodden, is spicerie put, & thereof is made divers sauce, and kéepeth and saveth the flesh in his kinde goodnesse, and amendeth it both in smell and in savor, and maketh it vertuous to destroye and put out divers sicknesses and evills. And it is necessary to séeth flesh of dry beasts, and to rost flesh of moyst beasts & fat, and to dresse flesh of meane beastes betwéene these twaine, with divers manner of sauce, and this dressing is done in many manner of wise: for some flesh of beasts is wholsome, and accordeth to rosting, and is not ful good sod. And Rothen flesh and Goates flesh is better sod than rosted, & Swines flesh & Shéepes flesh is better rosted than sod: for by séething dry flesh is made moyst, & by rosting moyst flesh is dried, and therefore for the moysture thereof, it is good to rost swines flesh, and for passing drines thereof, it is good to seeth Goates flesh & Oxe flesh.

Also flesh of those beasts varieth and is divers, by such accident and dressing, for swines flesh rosted, is amended and made better by rosting, and appaired by séething, and Goates flesh is better sodde, and worse rosted: and so it is to know of other. Huc usque Isaac in Dietis.

Also beasts are ordained, not onelye for meate of the bodye, but also for remedie of evills, and also for many manner of medicines. All kinde of beastes, wilde and tame, going and créeping, is made and ordayned for the best use of mankinde, as Plinius and John Damascenus meaneth. But some beastes are ordained for mans meate, as Shéepe, Harts, and other such: and some serve for the seruice of mankinde, as Horses, Asses, Oxen and Camells, & other such: and some for mans mirshe, as Apes, Marmusets, and Popiniayes: and some be made for exercitation of man, for man should know his owne infirmitie, and the might of God, and therefore are made flyes and lice: and Lyons & Tygers, and Beares be made, that man may by the first know his owne infirmitie, and be afeard of the second & have succour by callyng of Gods name. Also some beasts are made to reléeve & helpe the néede of many maner infirmityes of mankinde, as ye flesh of ye adder Vipera to make Triacle, and the gall of a Bull and of other beasts and fowles, to do awaye dimnesse of eyen: and an Adders skin sod in Oyle, abateth ache of the eares, and that in wonderfull manner, as Dioscorides sayth in libro Aesculapij, De occultis membrorum virtutibus.

It is sayd, that if he that hath the Emoroides sitteth on Lyons skinnès, the Emoroydes shall passe away from him, and Wolves flye from him, that is annoynted with Lyons dirte: also there he saith, yt if the tayle of an old Woolfe be hanged at the Cowes stall, ye wolves will not come there nigh: also Dioscorides saith, that Beares eyen taken out of the head, and bounde together under the right arme of a man, abateth his feaver quartains. Also the long téeth of a Woolfe healeth Lunaticke men, as hée saith, and so sayth Pythagoras and Plinius also, and telleth, that tame foure footed beasts dread and flye, if they sée a Wolves eye taken out of the head. In libro Viatico Constantine saieth, that the haire of a white hound without any blacke speck, helpeth them that have the falling evill, and kéepeth them from falling if that haire be hanged about their necke: and such a thing saith Phythagoras in lib. Romanorum, and saith. If a ring be made of the hoofe of a white Asse, that hath no blacke speckes, and he that hath the falling evill beare & weare that ring, that ring kéepeth him from falling. And also he saith, that the gall of a Bull anoynted under the navell, laxeth and softeneth the wombe.

Also he saith, that the teeth of a Serpent, which ought to be taken out of the head while the Serpent is a lyve, and hanged after about him that hath the fever quartane, that tooth destroyeth his quartane. And if thou besmoakest the house with the lungs of an Asse, thou cleansest the house of serpents and other créeping wormes. Plin[y] saith, that these vertues and properties, and many other wonderfull, be hidde in lims and members of beasts, as it shall be saide more héereafter in the kinde and properties of perticular beasts: for nothing is in the body of a beast, without medicine, open, or hid: for the skin, haire, horne, naile, clawes, flesh and bloud, be not without remedie, nor the onely dirte.