Texts : Liber rerum

The quotes by Thomas of Cantimpré are the only known source of the content of the lost Liber rerum text. Without the original that that Thomas presumably had access to, it is not possible to determine if Thomas quoted the Liber rerum accurately.

While it is relatively easy to see where Thomas's Liber rerum quotes begin, it is not always clear where the quote ends, and, of course, there is no "original text" to consult. Some of the quotes shown here may therefore include less or more of the text than Thomas intended to ascribe to the Liber rerum.

The following quotes have been extracted from the Liber de natura rerum. The Latin text, and the identification of the Liber rerum quotes, is based on the work of Mattia Cipriani (Thomas Cantimpratensis - Liber de natura rerum, versions I-II on the Sources des Encyclopédies Medievalese (SourcEncyMe) web site). The English text is a translation/paraphrase by David Badke.

In the table below, the first column (labeled LNR) is the book and chapter number from the Liber de natura rerum. In the text column, the Latin text follows the English; a slash (/) in the text indicates that the sections of Experimentator text are separated with non-related text between them. The table is in book and chapter order.

LNR Animal Text (English/Latin)
4.2 Ass As the Liber rerum says, the ass is a deformed animal, vile and contemptible, with a large head, broad and long ears beyond the cubit length, a thin body, not knowing how to be affected. On its shoulders it bears the stigmata of the cross, and this with merit, because Christ hastening to his passion to redeem the world by death, sat behind him lowly, poor and meek. The ass, then, is an animal ignorant of discord, a friend of peace, meek, patient in spite of the hardest blows, burdened and not rebelling against burdens, even beyond what it can bear. They are good by nature. The vices are these: the ass is a lustful animal, stronger and more powerful in the hindquarters than in the forequarters (for it carries the burden in the hindquarters), sluggish in walking and slow, brutish and unreasonable beyond all living things, while walking on the road it does not know how to give way to those who come across it, and it has a horrible braying. Asinus, ut dicit Liber rerum, animal deforme est, vile et despectum, grandi capite, latis et longis auribus ultra cubitalem modum, corpore macilento, nescium impinguari. In humeris stigmata Christi portat crucis, et hoc eo merito, quia Christus ad passionem properans mundum morte redempturus tergo illius humilis, pauper et mansuetus insedit. Est itaque animal asinus discordie nescium, amicum pacis, mansuetum, patiens ac durissimum inter verbera, oneriferum et non rebellans sarcinis, etiam ultra quam ferre potest sibi impositis. Hec illi insunt nature bona. Vitia vero hec sunt: animal luxuriosum asinus est, fortius ac potentius in posterioribus quam in anterioribus (onus enim in posterioribus portat ), pigrum incessu et tardum, brutum et irrationabile ultra omnia animantia, via incedens nescit cedere obvianti, hinnitu horrificum.
4.3 Boar (wild) The wild boar, as the Liber rerum says, is powerful, and accepts no instruction of good behavior at any time, but it is always savage and defiant. It is of a dark color. It has large and curved tusks of a half-foot long, which are fit for incising. But this thing about the teeth is quite extraordinary, which is that in a live beast they are able to be used as a weapon, but having been removed from the boar they are proven to truly lose their power of cutting. Some cruel men of the age may be branded as wild boars, who receive literally no teaching of good works, but are always judged selfish and ferocious, black, that is, base and impious in their actions. They have crooked teeth in themselves, because he who injures another injures himself first in his conscience through the purpose of evil. He has half-foot teeth, because although they hurt the body, they have no control over the soul. And this is worthy of such: as long as they live, they can sow only; But when they are dead and cast into hell, their tyranny ceases. This animal, if it is attacked by hunters in the morning before it performs its urinary digestion, is easily tired. If, however, he urinates before or in the meantime when he is being hunted, he is difficult to capture, but he does not give in when tired, for he stops and disguises his fatigue with a stiff fury, offering a duel to the hunter. However, he does not presume to strike or attack a man, unless he has first received a blow from him. And so a man should be careful, because unless he gives a fatal wound at the first blow of the spear's point between the arm and the side ribs, he may be in danger of his life, unless he may find a tree nearby which he can climb for refuge, or press himself with all his limbs in a lower place on the rest of the ground. He will, however, endure as long as he lies thus assisted by his neighbor. For, as we have said, his teeth are bent and curved, as if they are capable of inflicting death with the most terrible weapons, but they cannot touch anyone unless the teeth are raised and upright. He runs into the bushes to get rid of the dogs that follow him or even hold him in their teeth. Aper silvester, ut dicit Liber rerum, bestia fortis est, que nullam doctrinam bonorum morum recipit unquam, sed semper seva et ferox est. Nigri coloris est. Dentes magnos et recurvos habet, semipedalis longitudinis, qui incisionibus apti sunt. Sed hoc satis mirabile est in dentibus, quod scilicet in viva bestia idem possunt quod ferrum, detracti vero mortue vim incisionis perdidisse probantur. Apro silvestri quidam truces homines seculi signari possunt, qui ad litteram nullam doctrinam bonorum operim recipiunt, sed semper sevi atque feroces, nigri, id est turpes atque impii in gestibus iudicantur. Dentes recurvos in se habent, quia qui nocet alteri, primo se ipsum per mali propositum ledit in conscientia. Semipedales dentes habet, quia etsi ledunt corpus, animam in potestate non habent. Et hoc dignum in talibus: dum vivunt, sevire tantum possunt; mortuis vero illis et in infernum pessundatis cessat eorum tyrannidis. Hoc animal, si mane antequam urinariam digestionem faciat, a venatoribus impetitur, de facili lassatur. Si vero urinam ante vel interim quando venatur fecerit, difficulter capture cedit, verumtamen lassatum non cedit, nam subsistit in posterioribus et lassitudinem atrocitate rigida anceps dissimulat, duellum offerens venatori. Ferire tamen vel invadere hominem non presumit, nisi prius ictum ab illo acceperit. Itaque bene sibi homo caveat, quia nisi primo ictu pungentis cuspidis vulnus letale inter armum et laterales costas dedent, de vita periclitari poterit, nisi forte iuxta ad refugium arborem inveniat quam ascendat aut in loco humiliori reliqua terre planitie totis membris se premat; sustinebit tamen pedum illius proculcationem, quousque sic iacenti a proximo succurratur. Adversi namque, ut diximus, et recurvi dentes eius quasi quibusdam valent ad inferendam mortem atrocissimis armis, non possunt quemquam nisi elatum et rectum attingere. In vepribus fugit, ut canes qui ipsum sequuntur aut etiam dentibus tenent amoveat.
4.4 Pig (domestic) The domestic pig, as the Liber rerum says, is both a clean and unclean animal, which dwells most agreeably in obscene and muddy places, and does not suffer long, when it has been washed, to wallow again and again in such places. Among domestic boars, one always dominates the others by his strength, because if a stronger one comes to him, he tries to fight his predecessor and tries to obtain the victory by strength, nor does the conqueror delay in defeating the vanquished, and dominates the rest. At the squeal of one the whole herd of pigs is animated to a frenzy, running from every direction. Aper domesticus, ut dicit Liber rerum, bestia similiter est seva et immunda, que in obscenis et lutosis locis gratissime commoratur, nec diu patitur, cum lota fuerit, iterato se in talibus volutari. Inter apros domesticos unus semper fortitudine prevalens reliquis dominatur, quod si fortior illo supervenerit, predecessorem pugna impetens nititur fortitudine obtinere victoriam; nec mora cedente victo victor reliquis dominatur. Stridore unius totus porcorum grex undequaque accurrens ad rabiem animatur.
4.10 Buffalo Bubalus, says the Liber rerum, is an animal bigger than an ox and taller in body, black in color. It has long and crooked horns, a long neck, a huge head, slender limbs, a small tail, a kind and simple appearance, but it is extremely destructive and cruel when provoked to anger. It is most suitable for human uses. It is of the greatest strength. Bubalus, ut dicit Liber rerum, animal est bove maius et altius corpore, colore nigrum. Cornua habet longa et tortuosa, collum longum, caput ingens, membra macilenta, caudam parvam, aspectum benignum et simplicem, sed summe pernicitatis et crudelitatis est, cum ad iram fuerit provocatum. Usibus humanis accommodatissimum est. Fortitudine maxima pollet.
4.12 Camel Swallowing quickly, they reserve the food, so that they can chew again all night long, Liber rerum [says]. Ordeum cito transglutientes reservant, ut rursum ruminando tota nocte manducent, Liber rerum.
4.13 Dog Liber rerum: There are three kinds of dogs. The most noble of these are those whose form is more elegant and swifter for running and more suitable for hunting. These barkers do not know how to eat, and unless they are brought out to run, they keep to themselves below the house. They run at high speed and are strong in the chest. These are called leverarii. There are others who are suitable for hunting, with long and hanging ears. Smelling odors and intrusively barking they pursue the beast, and force it to weariness, until they bring it down to the plains into the hands of the hunters, or the mouths of the noble hounds. These do not abandon the beast which they are commanded by the hunters to follow, even if they have come upon many others; and this is what the Apostle admonishes: let us continue in the vocation to which we have been called. And although these are more rustic than the rest, yet they are more suitable for the services of men. In this genus there are many kinds: for of these there are large and strong, there are medium, there are small, and there are even the smallest little dogs, which the noble matrons carry in their bosoms. As for these, they defend all their houses by barking, and are intrusive to strangers. Liber rerum : Tria sunt canum genera. Nobilissimi ex hiis sunt illi, quibus forma elegantior et ad cursum celerior aptiorque venatui. Hii latratus edere ignorant et, nisi producantur ad cursum, infra domum se continent. Summa celeritate vigent, pectore valentes sunt. Hii ‘leverarii’ dicuntur. Sunt et alii apti venatui, longis auribus et dependentibus. Hii odore et importunis latratibus bestiam insequuntur coguntque ad lassitudinem, donec eam ad camporum plana in manibus venatorum vel ora canum nobilium fatigatam deiciant. Hii bestiam, quam iussu venatorum sequi ceperint, non relinquunt, etiam si alias multas in venerint; et hoc est quod apostolus monet: in ea vocatione qua vocati sumus permaneamus. Unde Iacob pergebat itinere quo ceperat, et fuerunt ei obviam angeli Dei.Tertium autem eorum genus est, quod commune omnibus in custodiam datum est; et licet hii rusticiores sint ceteris, tamen in ministeriis hominum aptiores. In hoc genere multiformes species sunt: sunt enim ex hiis magni et fortes, sunt medii, sunt et parvi, sunt et minutissimi caniculi, quos matrone nobiles in sinibus suis portant. Hii vero omnes domos latratu defendunt et importuni sunt alienis.
4.18 Goat The goat, as is said in the Liber rerum, is a bearded animal, with long and sharp horns, it grazes in the valley, in the mountains and in the branches of trees, which it can reach with its mouth. Capra, ut dicitur in animal barbatum est, longis et acutis cornibus, pascitur in convallibus, in montibus et in ramis arborum, quos ore potest attingere.
4.22 Stag The Liber rerum: They flee from all things poisoned and distinguish them by their smell. Hence the ancient hunters shot arrows infected with poison through the places where the deer had to pass. But they, feeling the poison, avoided the arrows. Liber rerum : Venenata omnia fugiunt et miro odore discernunt. Unde antiqui venatores veneno infecta iacula iaciebant per loca, ubi transire habebant cervi. Illi vero venenata sentientes iacula divertebant.
4.26 Hamster The hamster, says the Liber rerum, is a small animal in Apulia, about the size of a squirrel. It has a variegated head, white and black in color, bright on the belly, red on the back. Its fur clings so tenaciously to the skin that it could be broken off more easily than pulled out. It digs dwellings for itself in the earth, from which it cannot be easily extricated, unless you pour boiling water into the caves themselves. Crichetus, ut dicit Liber rerum, animal est exiguum in Apulea ad magnitudinem piroli. Caput varium habet albo nigroque colore diversum, in ventre candet, rubet in dorso. Pilus eius adeo tenaciter adheret pelli, quod facilius posset rumpi quam evelli. Habitacula sibi in terra fodit, e quibus de facili erui non potest, nisi ipsis antris fervidam aquam infundas.
4.32 Badger Daxus, as he says, is an animal about the size of a fox. Its legs are short, not equal on the left and right sides, but shorter on the left side. Whence it comes to pass, that they run vigorously in the ruts which the chariots make by friction, with their feet placed on the right side, and thus escape their pursuers. It has hairy skin and stiff bristles mixed with white and black hairs. Its fatness increases as the Moon waxes, and diminishes as it wanes, so that if it is killed in the last phase of the Moon, no fat is found. Ointments are made from its skin, with which pains in the kidneys and injuries of the limbs are soothed. And this is a strange thing, that although the beast is on the one hand medicinal, yet its bite is usually fatal and very serious (and this is the reason: for it lives by scavenging animals which it finds on the ground, since they are poisonous), and because the poisons infect its teeth, we believe its bite to be fatal, although human experience has proved that even without poisonous food, the teeth of wolves and foxes and many other animals are poisoned. Whence the bites of wolves inflicted on foxes and many wild animals are burned with a hot iron, lest the bite should in any case be harmful and contract corruption. But the poisoned food, by means of the internal nature well arranged, passes into the best matter, and what is on the part of the poison propels the digestion and purifies the rest, and transmits it into the nourishment of the flesh to purify it. And it is for this reason that the skin of the badger is medicinal, but the bite is fatal. Daxus, ut dicit, animal est ad magnitudinem vulpis. Crura brevia habet nec in sinistro dextroque latere equalia, sed in sinistro latere breviora. Unde fit, ut in valliculas rote, quas attritione currus faciunt, positis pedibus dextri lateris valenter currant persecutoresque suos ita effugiant. Pellem villosam habet et setis rigidam albis, et nigris pilis commixtam. Sagina eius Luna crescente augetur, decrescente minuitur adeo, ut si in ultimo Lune defectu occidatur, non invenitur sagina. Sagina eius conficiuntur unguenta, quibus dolores renum sedantur membrorumque lesiones. Et hoc mirum, quod bestia licet ex una parte medicinalis sit, morsus tamen eius plerumque exitialis est atque gravissimus (et hec est ratio: vivit enim scrabonibus et animalibus, que in terra reparat, utpote que venenifera sunt), et quia venenata dentes eius inficiunt, morsum eius credimus exitialem, quamquam etiam et sine cibo venenoso luporum et vulpium et multorum animalium dentes venenatos aliquantulum hominum experientia comprobavit. Unde morsus luporum inflicti vulpium et multes animalim bestiis ferro calido aduruntur, ne morsus utique nocivus contrahat corruptionem. Cibus vero venenatus mediante natura internorum bene disposita in materiam optimam transit, et quod est ex parte veneni propellit digestio purgatque reliquum et in nutrimentum carnis mundificare transmittit. Et hac ratione fit, ut sagina daxi medicinalis sit, morsus vero exitialis.
4.33 Elephant Liber rerum: however, it does not taste or discern the taste of food or drink itself. and this is understood by the fact that it sips the wine given to it and pours it back with its mouth, and thus, feeling the pleasantness of the wine on his palate, he congratulates the giver with a generous mouth. / Liber rerum: Now this is the reason why those who fall cannot rise: they have solid bones without joints; whence the legs and shins cannot bend. In youth, however, they can bend. Liber rerum: verumtamen non sapit neque discernit gustum ipsa promuscide cibi vel potus; et hoc comprehenditur per illud, quod vinum datum sibi sorbet promuscide orique refundit, et ita palato oris iocunditatem vini sentiens ore mulcebri danti congratulatur. / Liber rerum : Hec autem est causa, quare cadentes surgere non possunt: habent ossa solida sine iuncturis; unde crura et tybias flectere non possunt. In iuventute tamen flectere possunt.
4.38 Hemtra The hemtra, as the Liber rerum says, is a very small animal that lives in parts of Germany. The male and the female gather food in the summer, with which they live in the winter. They store these foods by making heaps on the ground. But by nature the female is greedy and prodigal in taking food. On the other hand, the male is parsimonious and avaricious beyond measure, so much so that he hardly wants to spend on himself even the meager living. But the male, knowing the greed of the female, blocks the door through which he can reach the hidden food. Now the female is naturally cunning and makes a secret opening for herself on the other side, through which she can steal the food, not knowing the sufficiency of her greed. It therefore happens from this that the male melts under the skin in the coming summer and on the contrary the female grows saturated with fat. Hemtra, ut dicit Liber rerum, in partibus Germanie animal modicum admodum est. Mas vero et femina in estate cybos congerunt, quibus vivant in hyemem. Hos cibos cumulos in terra facientes recondunt. Naturaliter autem femina in sumendis cibis avida est et prodiga. Econtrario masculus parcus et avarus super modum est adeo, ut vix sibi vel tenuissime vite alimoniam velit impendere. Masculus autem aviditatem femine sciens adittum obstruit, per quem cibos absconditos possit attingere. Femina autem naturaliter callida est: avida autem sibi foramen facit occultum ex altera parte aditus oppositi, per quod possit furari mare nescio sufficientiam sue aviditati. Accidit ergo ex hoc, ut masculus parcus sub macie tabescat veniente estate et e contrario saturata pinguedine rutilescat femina.
4.39 Hedgehog Hence it happens that it makes itself difficult to be seen and touched, but this is known by cunning. It is thrown into hot water, by which it is at once causes the flat expansion of its spines, so that it can be seen and touched uninjured. Unde fit, ut difficulter se videndum palpandumque prebeat, sed hoc astu cognoscitur. Mittitur in aquam calidam, qua statim delectatus in planam membrorum dilatationem ostensionemque resolvitur, sicque videri palparique poterit inoffensum.
4.46 Dormouse The dormouse [glis], as he says is a small animal, varied in white, black, and red. Glis, ut dicit, animal est modicum, variatum coloribus albo, nigroque et subrubeo.
4.54 Lion As he says, it affects men more than women and this more in those who have known men than boys or girls. / Liber rerum: But even though the lion is formidable to all beasts, yet it is agitated by the sting of a little scorpion, and wherever it sees it, it flees as if it were an enemy to its life. / Liber rerum/i>: Some, however, thought that this was because of indignation or stupidity, not knowing the cause is the continuous bone in the neck. Ut dicit, sevit magis in viros quam in feminas, et hoc magis in hiis que cognoverunt viros quam in pueros vel virgines. / Cum ergo leo formidabilis sit omni bestie, exiguo tamen scorpionis aculeo agitatur et, ubicumque eum viderit, quasi hostem vite sue fugit. / Liber rerum: Aliqui vero putaverunt quod hoc esset indignationis causa vel stoliditatis, ignorantes causam ossis in collo continui.
4.56 Lamia The lamia, as he says, is a great and most cruel animal. At night it comes out of the forest and enters the forest and breaks the trees and breaks their branches, and this with strong arms too capable for every acre. But when men come up to stop it, it fights with them and bites them. Lamia, ut dicit, animal est magnum et crudelissimum. Nocte silvas exit et intrat ortos et frangit arbores et ramos eius dissipat, et hoc per brachia fortia nimis habilitata ad omnem acrum. At ubi homines supervenerint ad prohibendum, pugnat cum eis et mordet eos
4.60 Wolf Liber rerum:Wolves come together throughout the year for no more than twelve days. / A wolf passing through a fence, as some say, going to secretly lie in wait for the sheep, if by chance it makes a noise with its foot, immediately bites the foot as if it is guilty. The wolf digs food for the survivors in the ground [?]. If it finds and captures stray dogs, it buries the dead in the ground. Liber rerum: Coeunt lupi toto anno non amplius quam per dies duodecim. / Lupus per sepem transiens, sicut dicit quidam, occulte insidiaturus ovibus, si forte pede strepitum fecerit, mox pedem quasi reum mordet. Lupus escas superstites in terra fodit. Solivagos canes si invenerit et comprehendere poterit, occisos in terra fodit.
4.65 Hare A hare, as he says, is a very small animal. It grows rapidly. Among other animals it is the most timid, so that it rarely goes out to graze later in the night. Lepus, ut dicit, parva admodum bestia est. Celeritate viget. Inter ceteras bestias magis timida est, unde raro ad pastum preter in nocte exit.
4.66 Otter The otter, as he says, is a cunning and mischievous animal living around ponds and rivers. It is about the size of a walleye [fish], and the shape is almost similar. It is brown and black in color, with shiny skin. Luther, ut dicit, animal est astutum et maliciosum circa stagna et fluvios habitans. Ad magnitudinem murilegi est, forma prope consimili preter in capite. Colore fuscum est et nigrum, pelle nitens.
<4.68 Mule The mule, as he says, is an animal of extraordinary strength in labor, and is born from from the adulterous mixture of the seeds of the ass and the horse. It has the characteristics of an ass: the long ears of an ass, an ugly coat, a cross on the shoulders, small feet and a lean body; but the rest it has like a horse. Mules and similar animals which are generated from different species do not have their own species; whence, if they are left, they fail of themselves. But there are truly species and not others, which if left, are by nature perpetual. A mule can never conceive. Hence it is that their nature by no means receives the property of generation from the posterity of the seed. For it is always necessary that in the procreation of a mule, an ass and a horse should come together. But there is a reason why a mule cannot conceive, since the animal was born contrary to nature, and its nature is diversified in the horse, which is hot by nature, and in the ass, which is extremely cold. It is not possible, therefore, in a diversely generated and ill-complexioned foetus, that its parts be concordant and nature ordered, so as to beget, as if from its own substance, something similar to itself, which is known to have no proper substance of its own kind, although it was begotten from the proper substances of a horse and an ass by a friendly nature. The more a mule drinks when it is a youngster, the bigger and stronger it becomes. Mulus, ut dicit, animal est viribus in labore eximium, ex adulterina commixtione seminum asini et equi. Hec propria habet: asini aures longas, hynnitum horridum, crucem in humeris, pedes exiguos et corpus macilentum; reliqua vero habet ut equus. Muli et burdones et huiusmodi animalia que ex diversis animalibus generantur, propriam speciem non habent; unde si relinquantur, sibi deficiunt. Vere autem species sunt et non alie, que, si relinquantur, nature perpetue sunt. Mule nunquam concipere possunt. Unde fit, ut nequaquam eorum natura ex seminis posteritate proprietatem generationis accipiat. Semper enim oportet, ut in procreatione muli asinus et equus conveniant. Et hec est causa, quare non possunt mule concipere: menstrui superfluitas transit cum cibo in mulabus in nutrimentum corporum earum. Ipse vero sanguis, quo non indiget natura, exit cum superfluitate vesice. Alia vero ratio est, quare concipere non possunt mule, quoniam animal contra naturam generatum sit et eius natura diversificata est in equo, qui calide nature est, et in asina, que summe frigiditatis est. Non ergo potest esse in fetu diversifice generato et male complexionato concordantia partium et ordinata natura, ut quasi ex propria substantia sui sibi simile generet, qui nullam propriam sui generis substantiam habere dinoscitur, licet ex propriis substantiis equi et asini sit nature amminiculo generatus. Mulus quanto plus bibit quando pullus est, tanto maior fit et fortior.
4.74 Mammonetus The mammonetus is an animal, as he says, with a smaller body than an ape. It has a brown color on the back, white on the belly. It has a long and hairy tail, and a neck as large as its head, so that when it is tied, it is not tied in the same way as other beasts, because a snare cannot hold it in the neck; but it is tied around the belly so that it cannot escape. In this animal this is almost unique: that it has a face very similar to a human face, black, except that it is hairless from the neck to the forehead; nor is the nose continuous with the mouth, as in the ape, but there is a definite space between the mouth and the nose, as in man. They say that the hatred between these beasts and the apes is implacable, and that they often prevail over each other, but although they do not prevail in strength, yet they are preferred to the apes in their cunning and spirit of war. This beast is born in East, but also lives in the West as if in its own land. This beast is tenacious and strong. Mamonetus est animal, ut dicit, corpore minori quam symia. Fuscum colorem in dorso habet, in ventre candidum. Caudam longam habet et villosam, et ita magnum collum ut caput, ita ut, cum ligatur, non illo ligatur modo quo cetere bestie, cum in collo laqueus id tenere non possit; sed circa ventrem ligatur, ne possit evadere. Hoc, in isto animali prope singulare est: quod faciem propriissime faciei humane habet similem, nigram dumtaxat sine pilis a collo desuper frontem; nec est nasus ori continuum sicut in symia, sed certum spatium inter os et nasum est, sicut in homine. Inter has bestias et symias odium dicunt implacabile et sepius invicem preliari, sed licet viribus non prevaleant, astutia tamen et animositate bellandi symiis preferuntur. Hec bestia in partibus Orientis nascitur, sed in Occidente quoque quasi in propria terra vivit. Hanc bestiam tenaci et ingenti pollere memoria dicunt.
4.93 Polecat The beast, he says, is called putore, because it stinks so much, and this especially when it is angry. It, like the badger, has short legs on the left side and longer legs on the right side. It inhabits the inner walls and higher places of houses. It is very fond of hens and their young, since it lives only on meat and the like. But when it catches a chicken, it first removes its head, so that when this is gone it will not be difficult for it to work on the other members, and the hen will not be able to cry out while it is being caught.
4.94 Squirrel Pyrolus, he says, is a small beast, larger but not longer than a weasel. The body is red and the belly is white. It has wonderful agility and moves restlessly. It lives in trees and nurtures its offspring there. It migrates from tree to tree but not by flight, although it sometimes uses its tail as a wing. For having a hairy tail nearly equal to its own size, it moves without effort in leaping. It lives more willingly on nuts and food that is sweet. It accumulates food in the summer, by which it lives in the winter. Pyrolus, ut dicit, parva bestia est, maior sed non longior quam mustela. Corpore rubeus est et in ventre candidus. Mira agilitate viget et inquiete gestit. In arboribus habitat et fetus fovet. De saltu arbore in arborem potius quam volatu migrat, quamvis cauda aliquando pro pennis utatur. Caudam enim villosam prope ad magnitudinem sui habens ad nisum in saltu movet. Vivit nucibus et cibo libentius, qui dulcis est. Estate victum congerit, quo vivat in hyeme.
4.96 Ape Liber rerum: For where the hunters see apes dwelling (for they dwell in trees or rocks, as Pliny says), they take men's shoes and go to sit in places where they can be seen by the apes from above in the trees, then they put on their shoes and bind them carefully. Finally, the hunters leave their shoes under the tree and go far away. Liber rerum : Nam ubi ipsas habitare venatores viderint (habitant enim in arboribus vel rupibus, ut dicit Plinius), accipiunt calciamenta hominum et eunt sedere in loca, ubi ab illis desuper in arboribus videri possint, induunt que pedibus suis calciamenta et diligentius ligant. Demum exponentes ipsa calciamenta relinquunt sub arbore et procul abeunt.
4.98 Bull The bull, he says, is an animal robust in strength, and among all social animals tame enough to surpass those who oppose the rest with rapacity. Several together fight most bitterly, but when alone, it easily succumbs to cowardice. When they are taken, they have their tongues stuck out, they do nothing with their teeth, but only with their horns: for there is no terror in their teeth. When they graze on the grass, they do not injure the roots, but only take what is visible on the surface. Bulls are gentler, and are made suitable for all work, and especially for the hills, if they are kept from lust by being castrated. And the older they are, the more tender their flesh, if they have been fattened. Taurus, ut dicit, animal est robustum viribus et inter omnes sociales bestias mansuetum satis preter ad eas, que ceteris rapacitate adversantur. Plures adunati acerbissime pugnant; solus vero cum quis fuerit, conscius ignavie facile succumbit. Cum preliantur, linguas exertas habent, dentibus nil agunt, sed tantum cornibus: nullus enim eis in dentibus horror. Cum depascunt herbas, radices non ledunt, sed hoc tantum sumunt, quod in superficie patet. Tauri mitiores sunt aptique fiunt ad omne opus et maxime ad iuga, si castrati libidine arceantur. Quanto autem seniores, tanto teneriores habent carnes, si fuerint impinguati.
4.103 Mole Liber rerum: Sometimes the earth is parched with a drought. But because it is blind, it does not know how to return to the place from which it came out, and therefore it usually happens that it is killed early. It can destroy many crops of vegetables and different types of plants. Liber rerum: Aliquando terra siti arescente egreditur. Sed quia cecum est, redire nescit ad locum unde egrediebatur, ideoque plerumque fit, ut anticipatum occidatur. Fruges olerum et diversarum herbarum bona quam maxime demolitur.
5.8 Goose Geese or auce,as he says, are birds of the size of an eagle. Of these, those that are strong, and properly seek the freedom of the high air, are of a gray color. They fly like cranes in an orderly line. According to the blowing of the winds, either from the South or from the North, they direct their flights. When it is blowing north they head south, knowing that colder times are imminent. Except when they graze in the meantime, they hardly rest from flying. For flight is so delightful to them that they rarely sleep. But for domestic geese, flight is heavy, feeding is most important, and resting and sleeping are most important. The hours of the night are ended at the crowing of a rooster. Anseres vel ‘auce’, ut dicit, aves sunt magnitudine aquilina. E quibus ille, que indomite sunt, et proprie libertatis aeris alta petunt, glaucique coloris sunt. Volant ut grues ordine litterato. Secundum flatus ventorum, vel Austri, vel Aquilonis, suos volatus dirigunt. Flante Aquilone austrum petunt, conscie satis frigidiora tempora imminere. Nisi interim commanducantes depascant, vix a volatu quiescunt. Adeo enim delectabilis illis volatus est, ut raro dormiant. At contra aucis domesticis volatus gravis est, pascere officiosissimum, quiescere ac dormire precipuum. Horas noctis ut gallus clangore produnt.
5.9 Duck A duck, as he says, is a bird somewhat larger than a cock. The male has a green neck and head; but it has a wide beak, white, green, and black wings, and a white collar around its neck. He has red and broad feet, with which he wades in the waters. For it delights in the waters of the rivers, and can hardly live without them, especially when dry food makes it drink more. Anas, ut dicit, avis est per aliquantulum gallo maior. Masculus collum et caput viridis coloris habet; rostrum vero latum, alas albo, viridi et nigro distinctas, torquem album circa collum habet. Pedes rufos et latos habet, quibus in aquis subremigat. Nam aquis fluminum gaudet difficileque sine hiis vivere potest, maxime cum sicci cybi eam citius ingurgitant.
5.10 Hawk The hawk, as he says, is a very noble bird, certainly greater, but much slower than a heron, yet more careful in his guard. For in flight it is more controlled and wonderfully composed. Accipiter, ut dicit, avis est nobilis valde, maior utique, sed multo tardior herodio, tamen cautior in custodiam sui. Nam in volatu moderatior est et mire disposita.
5.14 Lark The lark, as he says, is a bird called a lauda ("in praise"), because of the wonderful joy of its flight in the air, the melody of its voice delights the ear with its gentleness. / Alauda, ut dicit, avis est ‘a laude’ dicta, eo quod mira iocunditate exertis in aere pennis vocis modulamine aure temporis leti oris ac lenioris congaudeat.
5.19 Hawk Buteus, as he says, is a bird of the kind of hawk, but it is a little blacker. It is too slow and too lazy to fly. This bird is very sweet in flavor and taste when taken as food. Butheus, ut dicit, avis est de genere accipitrum, sed est paulo nigrior. Tarda nimium est, et pigra ad volandum. Preda tamen vivit, quam dolo vel languore aliquo, aut pigritia detentam assequi possit. Hec avis sapore ac gustu dulcissima est in cibum sumpta.
5.20 Bittern Butorius, as he says, is a bird so called from the sound of its voice. It has long legs, an elongated neck, and a long and sharp beak like a heron. Buthorius, ut dicit, avis a sono vocis est sic dicta. Crura habet longa, collum extentum, rostrum longum et acutum ut ardea habet, colore tantum distat ab illa, nam terre simillima est.
5.30 Lark Calendris is a small bird almost like a lark, as he says. It is brown in color, and the feathers are unattractive, but it delights its listeners with the wonderful modulation of its voice. Hence it is that those taken by men are kept in cages. But forgetful of its captivity and calamity, it scarcely passes an hour of the day without singing; so that it does not look elsewhere, nor is it worried about food or the present life, but one thing necessary to it is that it enjoys being entertained by songs and being awakened at all hours by the different voices of the birds. For it imitates the voices of all, and you would not be able to judge, if you did not see the bird, whether it is the proper voice of the calendris or of that which it imitates. Calendris avis parva est alaude prope consimilis, ut dicit. Hec colore fusca est, et plumis despecta, sed mira vocis modulatione audientes se letificat. Unde fit, ut ab hominibus capta ergastulis includatur. Sed illa captivitatis sue oblita et calamitatis vix unam horam diei sine cantu preterit, immo videtur quod delicias sibi reputet taliter esse captivam, ut non intendat alibi nec etiam cibi sollicita est nec vite presentis, sed unum sibi necessarium gaudet spaciari cantibus et in diversis avium vocibus horis omnibus excitari. Imitatur enim omnium voces, nec iudicare posses, si non videres avem, propriam vocem esse calendris aut illius, quam imitatur.
5.34 Cuckoo The cuckoo, as he says, is a wicked bird. It is so called from the sound of its voice. In singing it does not change its voice, but always repeats the same song. It has almost the same color as a turtledove, but it is aloof in nature. The bird is very lazy and unstable in place. It lays its eggs in the nest of a bird of another species, and reduces the number of eggs which it finds in another's nest to the number of eggs which it lays of its own, that is to say, lest, while the bird finds an excess of eggs in number, it should be rejected as if it were another's. A deceived bird, therefore, fosters an egg of a foreign species, and brings it forth, and is not so clever as to distinguish the size of the cuckoo chick from the smaller chicks. Cuculus, ut dicit, avis est improba. A sono vocis ita vocatur. In cantando vocem non mutat, sed semper eadem replicat. Turturis fere colorem habet, sed nature distantiam. Avis pigerrima est et loco instabilis. Ponit ova sua in nido avicule alterius generis demitque numerum ovorum, que in nido invenit alieno, ad numerum ovorum que propria ponit, videlicet ne, dum avicula numero superflua ova inveniat, quasi aliena repudiet. Fovet ergo decepta avicula alieni generis ovum appositum et fetum educit nec est tam callida, ut magnitudine fetum discernat a pullis forma minoribus.
5.38 Quail The quail, as he says, is a bird which we commonly call quisculam. By the Greeks it is called ortigia, because these birds were first seen on the island of Ortigia. It is also called ortigometra as in 'leading the flock'. Coturnix, ut dicit, avis est, quam vulgariter ‘quisculam’ dicimus. A Grecis vero ‘ortigia’ vocatur, eo quod huiusmodi aves primo sunt vise in Ortigia insula. Dicitur etiam ‘ortigometra’ quasi ‘gregem ducens'.
5.44 Falcon As he says, the bird is the most noble of all the noble birds. It is cerulean in color, but in the greater part of the body it shades to a white color beyond the chest and wings, where it imitates the blue color more evidently. Ut dicit, avis est inter omnes aves nobiles nobilissima. Colore ceruleo est, in maxima tamen parte corporis ad album colorem declinans preter in pectore et alis, ubi celestem colorem evidentius imitatur.
5.59 Cock The Gallus gallinacius, as he says, is a bird with his testicles cut off, which the scripture calls a peponem, but we commonly call him caponem [capon]. But they are said to be more quickly grown because they are restrained from lust. Gallus gallinacius avis est, ut dicit, testiculis viduatus, quem scriptura ‘peponem’ nominat; nos vero vulgariter ‘caponem’. Dicuntur autem, quia libidine arcentur, citius impinguari.
5.66 Swallow The swallow is a bird, as he says, very light, with a small beak, a pleasant form, and a very decent blackness. It is white in the belly, rufous under the throat. Hyrundo avis est, ut dicit, levissima, rostro parvo, forma grata, nigredine decentissima. In ventre candida est, ruffa sub gutture.
5.75 Hercinia Lucidi are birds, as he says, that are named because they give light [lucem dantes]; their feathers shine through the darkness in the night. Hence it is that the wings of those birds, when they wish, show the way by the grace of their bright feathers, when they lie down among the darkness. Lucidii aves sunt, ut dicit, dicte quasi lucem dantes, quarum penne per obscurum in nocte micant. Unde fit, ut qui illarum avium pennas habent, cum voluerint, preiactis inter tenebras pennis luciferarum pennarum gratia vias dirigunt.
5.84 Meauce Meauce are birds of the sea, larger than ducks, as he says [i.e. Liber rerum]. Meauce aves sunt marine, anaribus maiores, ut dicit.
5.85 Merilliones Merillions are birds, as he says, as they are commonly called. For they are not much different in shape or color from blackbirds, except that they have different feet, claws, and beaks. They are avid prey for birds, and because they are small and of little strength, they are not chasers of small birds. For they fly socially, like harriers or hawks, and four of them are able to seize the swan in this way: the first of them seizes the swan's head, the second and third the two wings on each side, and the fourth invades the breast or neck, so that the enclosed bird, surrounded by constrictions, cannot move. Not being able to escape the swan is captured and killed. Merilliones’ aves sunt, ut dicit, sic vulgariter nominate. Nam non multum maioris forme sunt vel colore dissimiles quam merule, excepto quod pedes, ungues et rostrum habent dissimiles. Prede cupide aves sunt et, quia parve et parvi roboris sunt, parvarum avium insecutrices sunt. Socialiter enim volant ut herodii vel accipitres imbuique quatuor ex illis possunt, ut cygnum hoc modo capiant: primus ex illis cygni caput, secundus et tertius binas ex utroque latere alas, quartus autem pectus vel collum invadit, sicque gravida avis cygnus circumcepta angustiis se movere non valens ab aucupe preventa et capta occiditur.
5.90 Mergus Liber rerum: As soon as the eggs are hatched, the young of these are so vigorous that if the mother should happen to destroy them, they live by their own strength. Liber rerum: Harum pulli statim ut ova exeunt tanto vigore pollent, ut si matrem eos perdere contigerit, propria virtute vivant.
5.91 Hawk Nysus is a noble bird, as the Liber rerum~> says, smaller both in form and strength than the falcon [herodius]. Both have the same color of feathers, and yet they refuse to fly together. For envy is carried away by pride, but when it strives, and surrounds itself, it is only by victory that honor can be obtained. This can be appreciated, and perhaps deservedly so. But in truth this is more credible, that the prey only sneers, lest, having had a companion in flight, he should receive a companion in the pasture. Nysus avis est nobilis, ut dicit Liber rerum, minor et forma et robore quam herodius. Unus tamen ambobus color plumarum est, et tamen recusant socialiter volare. Nam invidia fertur et fastu, cum autem impetit, solusque ambit victorie honore potiri. Hoc autem estimari potest et forte merito. Sed revera hoc magis credibile est prede solum inhyare, ne dum in volatu socium habuerit, in pastu sodalem accipiat.
5.97 Oriole Orioles are birds, as he says, that are named from the sound of their voice, so to speak. They are of a golden color throughout, except that on the wings they have certain distinct blue feathers. Orioli aves sunt, ut dicit, a sono vocis sic dicte vulgariter. Coloris aurei sunt per totum, excepto quod in alis pennas quasdam cerulea varietate distinctas habent.
5.100 Peacock Liber rerum:When a peacock with an outstretched tail sees the ugliness of his feet, he immediately lowers his tail. Liber rerum : Pavo extenta cauda cum pedum deformitatem viderit, extentam caudam mox deponit.
5.105 Woodpecker Pycus martius is a small bird, as he says, that penetrates trees with its bill. Pycus martius parva avis est, ut dicit, arbores rostro penetrans.
5.106 Sparrow A sparrow is a bird, as he says, that likes to live in the roofs of houses or in the walls. Birds of this kind fly in flocks to feed, and their favorite food is the pith of barley. And this is a wonder, that they separate the grain from the chaff with such fineness, that there seems to be an almost no delay between picking and separating. Sometimes, however, when it is in a hurry and wants to swallow the barley with the chaff, it is strangled by the chaff. Sitting on the ground before flying, it strikes the ground with its foot and is then lifted into the air. They are more quickly excited into fury, but there is no delay in discord. Passer avis est, ut dicit, in tectis domorum vel in parietinis libenter habitans. Gregatim ad pastum huiusmodi aves volant, gratissimamque ordei medullam in cibum habent. Et hoc mirum, quod granum a palea tanta subtilitate seponunt, ut inter carpere et distinguere invisibilis pene mora putetur. Aliquando tamen cum festinat et ordeum cum palea transglutire vult, aristis palee strangulatur. Sedens in terra antequam evolet, pede terram percutit et tunc ad aera sublevatur. In furorem citius concitantur, sed nulla mora discordie.
5.113 Starling Liber rerum: Silent at night, the red dawn stirs them to a murmur; finally, they fly in groups for food. Liber rerum : Nocte silentes, aurora rubente murmur excitant; demum divise ad cibum per turmas volant.
5.116 Bat Vespertilio is called vespere using ala, as he says, for it flies only in the evening and at night. It hides in the winter. It rarely or never proceeds to pasture. It hangs on walls or lies in caves like the dead. And if you bring it to the heat of the sun and the clear air, it gradually stirs itself up and returns to its original vigor and returns to slumber. There are no feathers on the body, no feathers on the wings. Vespertilio dicitur quasi ‘vespere’ utens ‘ala’; ut dicit, vespere enim tantum et nocte volat. In hyeme latet. Raro vel nunquam procedit ad pastum. Dependet in parietibus vel in cavernis iacet mortuis similis. Quam si ad Solis calorem et aeris serena detuleris, paulatim se commovet redditaque vigori pristino revolat ad soporem. In corpore pluma nulla, nulle in alis penne sunt.
5.117 Stymphalis Vanellis are birds, as he says, as they are commonly called. Vanellis sunt aves, ut dicit, sic vulgariter appellate.
7.5 Allec Allecia are sea fish, as he says, living in the western sea, which is the ocean between Britain and Germany. The season at which these fish are usually caught is said to be the best in almost every kind of sea fish. For every kind of sea fish generally has its season, and at another season it is not good. The best catch of allecia is around the month of August or around September. Its season can last until December, but this is rare because of time constraints. This fish is very small, but when it is freshly caught, it makes the most delicious food. When salted it can last longer than other fish used by humans. There is sweetness in its head, which is hardly ever spoiled by the bitterness of salt. Almost all fish live only in water, and can only live in water, and as soon as it is taken into the air it expires, and there is no delay between the contact of the air and its death. Its eyes shine in the night in the sea like a light, but the power of these dies with the fish itself. Wherever in the sea they see a light upon the waters, they come in flocks, and by this artifice are attracted to the nets. At the said times, as if ready to be taken into use by men, they are brought down by divine gift. But in winter they are hidden in secret in the sea until the appointed time, and this around Germany. Allecia are the best in the country of Scotland, but the worst towards Germany. Allecia pisces marini sunt, ut dicit, in occiduo mari quod mediterraneum est inter Britanniam atque Germaniam. Tempus quo allecia capi solent optimum dicitur in omni fere genere piscium marinorum. Unumquodque enim genus piscium marinorum habet fere tempus suum et in alio tempore bonum non est. Optima alleciorum piscis captura est circa Augustum mensem aut circa Septembrem. Durat autem captura eius usque ad Decembrem, sed hoc raro propter angustias temporis. Hic piscis admodum parvus est, sed cum recens captus fuerit, delicatiorem cybum prebet. Salsus durare potest sanus ultra quam alii pisces in hominum usus. Dulcedo in capite eius est, que vix unquam corrumpitur amaritudine salis. Hic fere omnium piscium solus aqua tantum vivit nec nisi in aqua vivere potest, statimque ut aeris serena contigerit, exspirat, nec ulla mora est inter contactum aeris et exspirationem. Oculi eius de nocte lucent in mari instar luminis, sed horum virtus moritur cum ipso pisce. Ubicumque in mari super aquas lumen vident, gregatim adventant et hoc astu alliciuntur ad rethia. Dictis temporibus quasi parati ad capiendum in usus hominum divino munere deducuntur. Hybernis vero temporibus secreto maris usque ad tempus debitum absconduntur, et hoc circa Germaniam. Allecia optima sunt in regione Scotie, pessima vero versus Germaniam.
7.19 Whale The capture of whales is done in this way. The male whale, after he is three years old, mates with a female whale. Nor is the delay in intercourse itself impaired by the virtue of the virgin's genitalia, so that she can no longer copulate, but on entering the deep sea she grows to such an extent that no human skill can capture her. She must therefore be taken below three years of his age, and this, as he says [i.e. Liber rerum], in this way: the fishermen, marking the place where the shoal is, gather there with many ships, and by making a concert of pipes and flutes around it they attract the whale: for it delights in such sounds. And when the fishermen see the horrid things near the ships, astonished by the sound of the melody, they secretly throw an instrument prepared for this purpose, like a rake, sharpened with iron teeth, on the back of the whale, and flee with a cry. Nor does he delay, if he has given the instrument a certain place for the wound, he seeks the bottom of the sea, and rubbing his back against the ground, pushes himself violently against the wounds of the iron, until it pierces the fat and penetrates the living flesh inside, so that, following the iron, the salt water of the sea enters the wound and kills the wounded whale. So the dead whale floats on the sea. When the fishermen notice, they come with ropes and drag the dead whale to the shore with a great dance, as if they were sure to succeed with so many forces Captura cethorum talis dicitur. Cethus postquam excedit etatem annorum trium coit cum balena femina. Nec mora in ipso coitu emutilatur virtute virge genitalis, ita ut ultra coire non possit, sed intrans pelagus alti maris in tantum excrescit, ut nulla hominum arte capi possit. Infra tres annos ergo etatis sue capi potest, et hoc, ut dicit, tali modo: piscatores notantes locum ubi cethus est aggregantur ibidem cum navibus multis et facto concentu tybiarum ac fistularum circa eum alliciunt insequentem: gaudet enim sonis huiusmodi. Cumque piscatores horrentem viderint iuxta naves sono modulationis attonitum, preparatum ad hoc instrumentum quoddam ad instar rastri ferreiis dentibus acuminatum clam in dorsum cethi proiciunt clamque diffugiunt. Nec mora si certum locum vulneris dederit instrumentum, fundum maris petit cethus et affricans se dorso ad terram ferrum vulneribus violenter impellit, quoadusque perfossa pinguedine vivam carnem interius penetraverit, sicque subsecuta ferrum salsa maris aqua vulnus intrat et perimit vulneratum. Mortuus ergo cethus fluitat super mare. Quod ut piscatores advertunt, cum funibus adeunt mortuum et ad litus cum magno tripudio trahunt utpote certi tantis copiis habundare.
7.20 Crab Some count crabs (cancris) among fish, as he says. Cancros inter pisces quidam computant, ut dicit.
7.24 Carp Carpo or carpera, as he says, is said to have its name from this: for one can say carpera as if 'a carp gives birth' [carpens parit, an obscure reference]. Carpo vel ‘carpera’, ut dicit, a re nomen habere dicitur: dici enim potest carpera quasi que ‘carpens parit’.
7.25 Capito The capitone fish, as he says , is very small, rarely so large as to grow half a foot. And this one indeed has a name from its nature: for it has a large head [Latin capito] almost as large as the rest of the body. De capitone] piscis est, ut dicit, parvus admodum, raro tam magnus, ut semipedalis excrescat. Et hic quidem a re nomen habet: caput enim magnum habet prope ad magnitudinem reliqui corporis.
7.41 Gudgeon The gobio [gudgeon] is a small fish, as he says, and although it is small, where it has waters with sandy bottoms and pebbles to feed in, it finds more suitable food. Some say that this little fish, in hot summer days, has some white worms in its belly, and that it is corrupted by their ugliness. The shape of this fish is almost round with small silvery scales. Gobio pisciculus parvus est, ut dicit, et licet parvus sit, tamen ubi aquas harenosas lapillulis in nutrimentum habet, accommodatiorem utique cibum prestat. Dicere nonnulli hunc pisciculum diebus estatis calidis quosdam vermiculos albos habere in ventrem interius horumque turpitudine vitiari. Forma huic pisciculo fere rotunda squamis parvis argento similibus.
7.50 Pike The pike [lucius piscis], as he says, is a fish which is also called a sea wolf. Lucius piscis est, ut dicit, qui etiam dicitur ‘lupus aquaticus’.
7.70 Ray Raithe ... are fish of the sea, as it were. This fish is considered very cheap among noble fish where there is an abundance of fish. But where there is a scarcity of fish, their rarity makes them have a higher price. In breadth and length, which is almost equal in them, it is two or three cubits. They are almost round in shape. They have horrible eyes, and their mouths are hideous with deformity, and this mouth is not in the same place as other fishes, but in the belly; but where the head and eyes are, they have no mouth. It has a tail as long as a lizard's, and on it are some very sharp spines. These fishes sometimes have a stone in their heads, and we do not believe that nature has created it useless. The meat of these is indigestible like beef. Raithe ... pisces maris sunt, ut habet. Hic inter pisces nobiles vilis admodum reputatur, et hoc ubi copia piscium est. Ubi vero piscium egestas est, ibi et eis raritas pretium facit. In latitudinem et longitudinem, que eis fere equalis, duos aut tres cubitos habet. Prope modum rotundi sunt. Oculos habent horribiles, os deformitate luridum et hoc non eo loco quo pisces ceteri, sed loco ventris; ubi vero caput et oculi sunt, os non habent. Caudam habet longam ut coluber et in ea spinulas quasdam valde acutas. Hii pisces quandoque lapidem habent in capite, nec credimus, quod hunc natura creavit inutilem. Horum carnes indigestibiles sunt ut carnes bovine.
7.71 Salmon Salmon, as he says, are fish which the barbarians call lastas. They grow to a great width and length. They are robust in strength, and all their agility is from the power of their strength rather than from lightness of body. For they are ponderous and heavy. Salmones, ut dicit, pisces sunt, quos barbari ‘lastas’ vocant. Excrescunt in latitudinem et longitudinem magnam. Robore fortes sunt, omnemque quam habent agilitatem a potentia virtutis potius quam a levitate corporis est. Nam ponderosi et graves sunt.
8.44 Tyliacus Tyliacus is a worm, as the Liber rerum says, a snake frequently seen in several parts of the world. Tyliacus vermis est, ut dicit Liber rerum, anguis in pluribus orbis partibus frequenter visus.
9.5 Buffones As he says, buffones are among others are considered worms. But it is a poisonous reptile, having a pestilent sight, and foul to the touch. It feeds on earth, and this in weight and measure. For as much as it can hold in its forefoot, this is its daily food. Buffones, ut dicit, inter alios vermes deputantur. Est autem reptile venenosum, visum pestilentem habens, ad tactum sordidum. Terra vescitur, et hoc in pondere et mensura. Quantum enim concludere in anteriori possit pede, hoc illi pro cibo cotidiano est.
9.14 Gnat Cynyphes, as he says, are small flying worms. Cynifes, ut dicit, vermes minimi atque volantes sunt.
9.19 Cicada Cycadas, as he says, are worms. Cycade, ut dicit, vermes sunt.
9.20 Caterpillar Eruca, as he says, is a worm that has many feet. Eruca, ut dicit, vermis est longus ex multis pedibus distans.
9.29 Fly As the Liber rerum says, a fly flies recklessly. It loves the light and does not know how to walk in the dark. It lends itself more willingly to the heat. It is wet inside; it craves blood. It infests every animal, and especially man. Musca proterva volat, ut dicit Liber rerum. Amat lucem nec novit in tenebris ambulare. Ad calorem se libentius confert. Insidet humidis; cruorem appetit. Omni animali infesta est, et hoc maxime homini.
9.32 Butterfly Butterflies, as the Liber rerum says, are flying worms which mainly rely on flowers and take food from them. Papiliones, ut dicit Liber rerum, vermes volantes sunt, qui maxime floribus innituntur et ex eis cibum capiunt.
9.34 Flea Fleas [pulices], as the Liber rerum~> says, prefer to jump rather than fly on a dark color. Pulices, ut dicit Liber rerum, colore atro saliunt potius quam volant.
9.35 Louse Lice [pediculi], as the Liber rerum says, are called from the number of feet: for they have of innumerable feet [pedes]. Pediculi, ut dicit Liber rerum, a numerositate pedum dicuntur: innumeris enim constant pedibus.
9.36 Frog The frog, as the Liber rerum says, is classed among the worms. Rana, ut dicit Liber rerum, inter alios vermes deputatur.
9.41 Spoliator colubri The spoliator colubri [spoiler of snakes] is a worm, as he says, of a golden color, whence it is called by some 'golden worms' [vermis aureus]. Spoliator colubri vermis est, ut dicit, coloris aurei, unde a quibusdam ‘vermis aureus’ appellatur.