Texts : Experimentator

The quotes by Thomas of Cantimpré are the only known source of the content of the lost Experimentator text. Without the original that that Thomas presumably had access to, it is not possible to determine if Thomas quoted the Experimentator accurately.

While it is relatively easy to see where Thomas's Experimentator quotes begin (they generally start with "As the Experimentator says", Ut dicit Experimentator), it is not always clear where the quote ends, and, of course, there is no "original text" to consult. Some of the quotes shown here may therefore include less or more of the text than Thomas intended to ascribe to the Experimentator.

The following quotes have been extracted from the Liber de natura rerum. The Latin text, and the identification of the Experimentator quotes, is based on the work of Mattia Cipriani (Thomas Cantimpratensis - Liber de natura rerum, versions I-II on the Sources des Encyclopédies Medievalese (SourcEncyMe) web site). The English text is a translation/paraphrase by David Badke.

In the table below, the first column (labeled LNR) is the book and chapter number from the Liber de natura rerum. In the text column, the Latin text follows the English; a slash (/) in the text indicates that the sections of Experimentator text are separated with non-related text between them. The table is in book and chapter order.

LNR Animal Text (English/Latin)
4.2 Ass As the Experimentator says, asses are for the most part weak, having rheumatism on one side; if it flows internally from the nose and flows over the lungs, it dies. Eating the flesh of asses generates the worst blood and is difficult to digest; but they are finer than the flesh of horses. Ut dicit Experimentator, asini ex maiori parte infirmantur in uno latere reuma habentes; si fluat a naribus interius et fluat super pulmonem, moritur. Carnes asinorum comeste pessimum sanguinem generant et difficulter digeruntur; subtiliores tamen sunt quam carnes equorum.
4.3 Boar (wild) As the Experimentator says, fresh and warm boar's dung is an excellent remedy against bleeding from the nose. The boar has in his mouth on the right the form of a shield, and he opposes it to the spear and the lance. Pierced with a spear or a sword, he actually walks forward against the shaft. As the aforesaid author says, the flesh of swine is cold and moist, and this especially in domestic pigs; it lactates more than the rest: it is more moist and turns into various fluids and putrefactions, especially if it finds an ill-disposed stomach. If a sow eats many acorns when she is pregnant, she will miscarry. It is characteristic of swine to seek food buried in the ground, and to fill their mouths on muddy and cheap things. The first-born pig will be smaller and weaker than the others. When she has many children, then the sow will have little milk. In warm regions the piglet of the pig is better in the summer, but in cold regions the opposite is true; and this because of the bad weather of those regions. In India the tusks of the wild boars are a cubit long. There are also boars, from whose foreheads horns extend like those of calves. In Arabia, however, the pig species does not live. Ut dicit Experimentator, apri fimus recens et calidus precipuum remedium est contra fluxum sanguinis e naribus. Aper a dextris habet os in modum scuti et illud venabulis et macere opponit. Venabulis vel gladio perforatus super lanceam contra perforantem incedit. Ut dicit predictus auctor, caro porcina frigida est et humida, et hoc maxime domestica; lactans ceteris es: humidior et convertitur in varios humores et putridos, precipue si male dispositum stomachum invenit. Si porca multas glandes comederit quando impregnata est, abortum faciet. Proprium porcorum est escam terram subactam querere et oretenus lutosis et vilibus insudare. Primus partus porce minor erit et invalidior ceteris partubus. Quando multos habet fetus, tunc lac eius parvissimum est. In calidis regionibus melior est fetus porce yeme quam estate, in frigidis vero contrarium; et hoc propter intemperiem regionum. In India cubitales flexus dentium sunt apris. Sunt etiam apri, de quorum frontibus cornua procedunt velut vitulis. In Arabya vero suillum genus non vivit.
4.10 Buffalo As the Experimentator says, buffalo milk easily softens the stomach, heals fresh wounds, and benefits those who have drunk poison. The buffalo is patient with labor, has few hairs, a terrible voice, and a very rough forehead; it scatters the ground with its foot. Its bile is medicinal because it heals the scars of wounds; a rich mixture soothes earaches. It has a very hard skin. A silver ring with a cord is placed in the nose of this animal, so that it will more easily yield to the work that has been imposed on it; but if a task has been imposed on it beyond its will, moved by fury it immediately lies down on the ground, and cannot easily be forced to rise by a blow, unless it is relieved of the task with which it was burdened. Ut dicit Experimentator, lac buballinum facile emollit ventrem, vulnera recentia sanat, hiis qui venenum hauserunt prodest. Bubalus patiens est laboris, pilos habet paucos, vocem terribilem, frontem asperrimam; pede spargit terram. Fel eius medicinale est, quia vulnerum cicatrices sanat; mixtum laeti dolores aurium sedat. Cutem habet durissimam. In huius nare anulus ereus cum funiculo ponitur, ut facilius cedat homini in opus, quod ei fuerit impositum; quod si ei fuerit honus grave ultra voluntatem suam impositum, statim furore commotum in terra sternitur nec de facili ad surgendum ictibus cogitur, nisi alleviato honere quo gravabatur.
4.12 Camel As the Experimentator says, camels get rabies and gout, from which they die very easily. They do not have hooves, so they vehemently dislike having to walk on hard and long and stony roads, for they do not have shoes on their feet of strong leather. Ut dicit Experimentator, rabies accidit camelis et podagra, de quibus facillime moriuntur. Non eiciunt ungulas, sed vehementissime gravantur quando duras et longas et lapidosas vias incedunt, nec habent in pedibus de forti corio sotulares.
4.14 Beaver As the Experimentator says, its tail has the taste and appearance of a fish, whence it is eaten by Christians when fasting. A part of the tail can be used, but a part is prohibited for use; but the rest of its body is flesh. Now the tail of the beaver, as has been said, is like the tail of a fish, a cubit in length, and having much fat. / As the Experimentator says, beavers live in herds, and they go to the woods in multitudes, and, having cut wood with their teeth, they carry it to their dens in a wonderful manner. For they throw one of them on the ground on its back with its feet raised as a vehicle, and artfully arrange cut wood between its legs, and in this way, dragging it by its tail, bring him down to it own home. As the same Experimentator says, the beavers do not do such a wrong to the beavers who have been brought up among them, but to those who have come to them from foreign parts, and they reduce them to slavery under strong guard. / Hunters recognize such enslaved beavers by the loss of the hairs on their backs, and moved with pity, they allow them to go unharmed. The same Experimentator above says a very surprising thing, but whether it is true, I do not know. they allow luter [otter] to live with them in the water, and this only by the grace of servitude at great cost, so that they move the water around with their tails in the season of cold, so that the water does not suddenly freeze through their tails, when they should be held by ice and captured. If they have no protectors for their tails, they worry about themselves and go down into the water only up to their knees, lest the water freeze in their middle despite their natural heat. / The hunting of the beaver is done in this way: when the hunters come to the beaver's dwelling, a dog trained for this purpose is thrown into the water, which, reaching the opening of the dwelling, enters, and does not yield to the bites of the beaver, until that artificial dwelling of the beaver is broken by the hunters. This animal is after the manner of a Pontic dog, long, of course, and slender. It has very sharp teeth. Ut dicit Experimentato, castores in grege vivunt, et ad silvas, in multitudine vadunt lignisque dentibus abscisis ea ad cavernas suas miro modo deferunt. Nam unum pro vehiculo resupinatum pedibus elevatis in terram proiciunt, et inter eius crura ligna abscisa artificiose componunt, et sic eum cauda trahentes ad propria tecta deducunt. Ut idem Experimentator dicit, talem iniuriam castores non faciunt hiis castoribus, qui inter eos educati sunt, sed illis qui de alienis partibus ad se venerunt talesque sub certa custodia in servitutem redigunt. / Tales in servitutem redactos venatores cognoscunt per absumptionem pilorum in dorso pietateque commoti illesos abire permittunt. Idem qui supra Experimentator dicit rem satis mirabilem, si tamen vera sit, nescio: Lutherum (bestiolam) secum in aqua vivere permittunt, et hoc nisi gratia servitutis impense, ut videlicet tempore yemali circa caudas eorum aquas moveant, ne aqua subito congelata per caudas in glacie teneantur et capiantur. Si luteros caudarum suarum protectores non habuerint, sunt de semetipsis solliciti descenduntque in aquam usque ad renes, ne aqua calore naturali medio congeletur. / Venatio castoris hoc modo fit: venientibus venatoribus ad mansionem castoris canis ad hoc instructus in aquam proicitur, qui ad foramen mansionis perveniens intrat, nec cedit castoris morsibus, quousque illa castoris artificiosa mansio a venatoribus confringatur. Hoc animal ad modum canis est Pontici, longum scilicet, et gracile. Dentes habet acutissimos.
4.18 Goat As the Experimentator says, the bile of a goat having been placed upon the hairs of the eyelid annihilates them. Ut dicit Experimentator, fel hirci pilis superpositum palpebrarum eos annichilat.
4.22 Stag For, as the Experimentator says, they are hunted in this way: two hunters go into the forest, where there are plenty of deer, and one whistles and sings, and the deer follows the concert. One of the deer, more avidly listening to the song, is pierced by an arrow and perishes.As the Experimentator says, venison is melancholy and hard to digest. The calf that is the son of a deer, has better meat; if the calf is castrated, it will be better, because it is more temperate in heat and humidity. Ut enim dicit Experimentator, venantur huiusmodi occasione: duo venatores vadunt in silvam, ubi cervorum copia est, et unus sibilat atque canit, sequiturque concentum cervus. Quem quidem avidius captantem cantum, alter venatorum traicit sagitta et perimit. Venatores pro experimento certissimo prodiderunt, quod cervo ad etatem gravidam veniente, osse capitis sub oculo naturaliter terebrato, vespe concrete et formate interius ex humore superfluo vel, ut alii auptumant, ex medulla prodeunt evolantes, tuncque dicunt eum diutius non posse vivere nisi in proximo secundum hoc, quod supra dictum est, innovetur. Prodire etiam aliquando dicunt easdem vespas concretas e naribus cervi. Ut dicit Experimentator, caro cervi melancolica est et dura ad digerendum. Hynnulus, qui est cervi filius, habet carnes meliores; quodsi hynnulus castratus sit, melior erit, quia in calore et humiditate temperatior est.
4.30 Doe As the Experimentator says, when the dampmula gives birth, it quickly eats the afterbirth, before it falls to the ground. And he thinks - the same Experimentator - about these things, that it is poison. For she is a timid animal and weak; of which Martial: The boar is feared for its teeth, the horns defend the stag; what are we, but prey? Ut dicit Experimentator, cum parit dampmula, subito comedit secundinam, antequam super terram cadat. Et opinatur – idem Experimentator – de ista secundina, quod venenum sit. Timidum enim animal est et imbecille; de quo Martialis: Dente timetur aper, defendunt cornua cervum; imbecilles dampme quid nisi preda sumus?
4.33 Elephant As the Experimentator says, sometimes the elephant also attacks a snake found on the road and tramples it underfoot until it kills it. The elephant is also very formidable to wild bulls; and no wonder, because it persecutes them very much. Its bones are very large. But its flesh is very small in comparison with the body. They have legs almost equal in thickness like a log from the bottom of the foot to the belly. As the Experimentator says, it bends its hind legs like a man. Ut dicit Experimentator, aliquando etiam inventum in via serpentem invadit invasumque conculcat pedibus, donec occidat eum. Tauris agrestibus etiam multum formidabilis est elephas; nec mirum, quia illos valde persequitur. Ossa eius maxima sunt. Caro vero eius parvissima respectu corporis. Crura fere equalia habent in grossitudine instar stipitum ab imo pedis usque ad ventrem. Ut dicit Experimentator, pedes posteriores flectit ut homo.
4.34 Horse As the Experimentator says, Spanish and French horses have a shorter life; but Persian, Pyrian, Sicilian, and Dacian horses live longer. There are three kinds of horses: one of them is for war, another is fit for carriage and riding, and another is fit for ploughing. Ut dicit Experimentator, brevior vita est hyspanis equis et gallicis; longeva vero persicis, pyrontis, syculis et dacis. Tria genera equorum sunt: unum eorum est bellicosum, aliud ad vehyculum aptum et equitandum, aliud aptum aratris.
4.39 Hedgehog The Experimentator says that the nourishment of the hedgehog's body passes into the spines because of the scarcity of heat, and because the food is not digested, a great deal of superfluity is generated in their bodies, from which spines are generated, hard as stones, and this because of their great coldness. The flesh of the hedgehog has a drying and dissolving power; it properly strengthens the stomach, loosens the bowels, and provokes urination; it is useful to those who are disposed to elephantine leprosy. Ericius is rich in medicinal properties. It is skinned like a young pig. Experimentator dicit quod nutrimentum corporis ericii transit in spinas propter paucitatem caloris et, quia cibus non digeritur, generatur in corporibus eorum multa superfluitas; unde generantur spine dure sicut lapides, et hoc propter multam frigiditatem. Carnes ericii vim habent desiccativam et dissolutivam; proprie stomachum confortat, ventrem solvit et urinam provocat; utilis est hiis, qui ad lepram elephantinam dispositi sunt. Ericius pinguis est et medicinalis. Excoriatus porcello assimilatur.
4.54 Lion As the Experimentator says, the fat of a lion is the a cure for poison. If a man is anointed with wine and the fat of a lion it drives away all the beasts; it also drives away snakes. Its fat is hotter than the fat of all four-footed animals. The lion almost always has a fever, and this for a quarter; and then it eats chiefly the flesh of an ape, that it may be healed. To its roar all the animals halt their steps, even those who have never seen or experienced it, and this being commanded by domineering nature; for nature has instilled in them the fear of lions. A lion, when it treads on hard and stony ground, spares its claws as if it were its teeth. Ut dicit Experimentator, adeps leonis contrarius est venenis. Cum vino et adipe leonino homo perunctus bestias omnes propellit; fugat et serpentes. Calidior est adeps eius omnium quadrupedum adipibus. Leo fere semper febricitat, et hoc quartana; et tunc maxime appetit carnes symie, ut sanetur. Ad eius rugitum omnia animalia figunt gradum, etiam que eum nunquam viderunt vel experta sunt, et hoc iubente dominatrice natura; natura enim eis leonis timorem indidit. Leo quando per terram duram graditur et lapidosam, unguibus quasi suis mucronibus parcit.
4.60 Wolf And this is the reason, as the Experimentator says: It sends the rays of its eyes into the man and dries up his visible spirit, which, being dried, dries up the other spirits of the man, and finally desiccates his arteries, and thus the man becomes hoarse. It has a liver that is different than that of other animals, like it is armored. The Experimentator: It gathers the leaves of the willow in its mouth and hides itself under them, so that it can secretly catch the goats coming to the leaves. When a wolf walks among the leaves, so as not to be perceived by the noise, it licks his feet with his tongue, and thus makes them slippery and moist, so that the dogs may not hear them. A wolf has dull vision by day, but sees more clearly at night. But the animals which see more clearly at night are often overshadowed by day. As the Experimentator says, the Ethiopian wolf has a hairy neck like that of a horse, and it is of such variety that it is believed that it lacks no color. Et hec ratio, ut dicit Experimentator : radios oculorum suorum mittit in hominem [et] desiccat spiritum eius visibilem, qui desiccatus alios hominis spiritus desiccat, et illi tandem desiccant arterias, et sic homo raucus efficitur. Epar habet diversum a ceteris animalibus secundum similitudinem armorum. Experimentator : Folia salicis in ore colligit et sub illis se abscondit, ut capras venientes ad folia latenter capiat. Cum inter folia lupus incedit, ne ex sonitu percipiatur, pedes suos lingua lambit, et sic lubricos et humidos facit, ne a canibus audiatur. Lupus de die obtusum habet visum, nocte clarius videt. Animalia autem que nocte clarius vident, de die sepius obumbrantur. Ut dicit Experimentator, lupus ethiopicus cervicem habet ad modum equi crinitam et tante varietatis est, ut nullus ei color deesse credatur.
4.61 Lynx The lynx is a four-footed animal, as the Experimentator says in his book, an animal from the mixture of a dog and a wolf. and this happens to the female wolf and the male dog. For each parent is so lustful that, contrary to the natural hatred that exists between a dog and a wolf, they nevertheless come together in a copulation because of desire. And so it happens that the child takes on the color and manners of both parents. These beasts are strong and fierce. Lincisius animal quadrupes est, ut dicit Experimentator in libro suo, animal ex commixtione canis et lupi et hoc fit matre lupa et patre cane. Est enim uterque parens adeo luxuriosus, ut sibi contradicente odio naturali, quod est inter canem et lupum, propter delectamentum tamen luxurie in copulam conveniant. Et ita fit, ut fetus attrahat sibi colorem et mores utriusque parentis. Hee bestie fortes sunt et acerrime.
4.65 Hare As the Experimentator says, the hare, in the time of sowing and reaping, rejoices and is moved to play, as if it were playing a game, because it thinks it has time in abundance, and therefore a time for pleasure, not for merit. Lepus, ut dicit Experimentator, tempore segetum et messis, exultat et movetur ad ludum, ut quasi suo ludo loquatur, quia tempus habundans instat et ideo tempus letitie, non meroris.
4.75 Shrew As the Experimentator says, it vexes horses and mules the most, and especially the pregnant mares; and in a strange way, when it has no power to press, it flatters itself with immoderate praise, to which, if power is ever given to it, it immediately reveals the cruelty hidden in its heart. Ut dicit Experimentator, equos et mulos maxime infestat, et hoc equam pregnantem precipue; et mirum in modum, cum nulla preminet potestate, immoderata adulatione blanditur, cui, si data fuerit aliquando potestas, crudelitatem in animo latitantem continuo manifestat.
4.76 Cat As the Experimentator says, the cat at the time of copulation is willingly made wild. It imitates washing his face by licking it with his front feet. They have serrated teeth. They fight with each other most cruelly, and this often, in order to obtain the usual boundaries of their hunting. They are very easily provoked to play by men; they rejoice in flattery. They love warm places, whence they burn their skins from excessive laziness. They have long hairs around the edges, which, if removed, cause them to lose their boldness. They rejoice at the hand of a man, whence they express their joy in their way of singing. The furriers lie in wait for them, and therefore it is necessary that they be clipped. They are inflamed with the most impatient lust. When the domestic cat begins to grow wild, the owner must cut off its ears, so that, of course, the open places of the ears can not withstand the infusion of the drops of the night rain, and therefore it is forced to return to the roofs of the house. The cat is affected by so much love around his likeness, that if it stood over a well and contemplated its reflection in the water of the well, so that it might enjoy the company of its likeness, it would spontaneously fall from the height and fall into the deep, and thus, deceived by the shadow's vanity, would be drowned by the overwhelming waters. This happens especially when the female is more impatiently fired with lust for the male, and this is especially so in younger cats, who are less experienced and do not know the dangers. Ut dicit Experimentator, musio tempore coitus libenter silvester efficitur. Loturam faciei lambendo prioribus pedibus imitatur. Dentes habent ad modum serre. Pugnant inter se crudelissime et hoc frequentius, ut terminos consuetos sue venationis obtineant. Ad ludum ab hominibus facillime provocantur; gaudent blanditiis. Loca calida diligunt, unde ex nimia pigritia pelles suas comburunt. Pilos longos circa ora habent quibus ablatis audaciam perdunt. Manu hominis contrectate gaudent unde suo modo cantandi gaudium exprimunt. Insidiantur illis pellifices, et ideo cautum est, ut tondeantur. Libidine impatientissime accenduntur. Murilegus domesticus cum silvescere ceperit, amputante illi aures, ut scilicet locis aurium patentibus infusioni guttas noctis vel pluvie sustinere non possit ideoque cogatur domus tecta repetere. Murilegus circa simile sibi tanto amore afficitur, ut, si super puteum steterit et umbram suam in aqua putei fuerit contemplatus, ut similis sui societate fruatur, sponte ab alto cadens decidat in profundum et sic umbre vanitate deceptus aquis obruentibus submergatur. Hoc fit maxime cum femina marem requirens libidine impatientius accenduntur, et hoc precipue in iunioribus cattis, qui minus experti pericula non noverunt.
4.77 Weasel As the Experimentator says, the weasel sleeps very long and very deeply. It inhabits rocks and caves. When it wants to fight with a snake, it defends itself with wild rue [herb]. Accordingly they are said to be expert in all the arts of medicine, so that, if they find their offspring dead, they make them naturally recuperate by means of a herb. it chases rats and snakes. Ut dicit Experimentator, ?mustela diutissime et fortissime dormit. Rupes et cavernas inhabitat. Quando cum serpente pugnare vult, munit se ruta agresti. Proinde et super omnem medicorum artem dicuntur esse perite, ita ut, si mortuos suos fetus invenerint, per herbam naturaliter notam faciunt redivivos. Mures et serpentes persequitur.
4.80 Onager As the Experimentator says, the onager, by natural energy, when pursued by dogs, emits its odorous dung to the dogs, by which it delays the dogs and escapes and runs away to safer places. Of all animals it hates the presence and habitation of men. it is intolerant of thirst. It cannot be tamed. It drinks the clearest water and no other. The male onagers who have no females, when the time of copulation has come, ascend to the summits of the mountains, and, in lustful desire, draw the wind with their noses, and bray so violently that the other animals are shaken with horror by their brays. Ut dicit Experimentator, onager ex naturali industria, quando eum persequuntur canes, emittit stercus suum odoriferum canibus, circa quod detentis canibus eos illudit et evadit et fugit ad tutiora. Inter omnia animalia odit hominum frequentiam et habitationem. Sitis impatiens est. Domari non potest. Aquam limpidissimam bibit nec de facili aliam. Onagri masculi feminas non habentes, cum tempus coitus advenerit, in summitatibus montium ascendunt et desiderio libidinis estuantes naribus ventum attrahunt et vehementer rugiunt, ita ut cetera animantia rugitus sui horrore concutiant.
4.82 Onocentaur After those who pursue him, as the Experimentator~> says, it sends sticks or stones. Post insequentes se, ut dicit Experimentator, mittit ligna vel lapides.
4.85 Sheep As the Experimentator~> says, the ram or sheep sometimes, but rarely has horns formed in the shape of a circle, with which it tries to defend the flock. His meat is harder to digest than that of sheep. They are warmer and less humid. Out of natural ferocity he strikes the ground with his right foot (when he is angry, or stupefied, or afraid), and this especially in the time of love. For half the year it lies on one side, and for half on the other, and in winter on the left, because that is cooler. The lamb is said to be 'acknowledging its mother' [agnoscendo matrem]. The meat of the lamb is difficult to digest, yet it easily descends from the stomach, but is very difficult to dissolve from the limbs, whence they generate a viscous fluid. The lamb of the year - that is 'of one year' [unius anni] - is more laudable for its moderation of humidity and dryness. Ut dicit Experimentator – aries vel ovis aliquando, sed raro – cornua habet in modum circuli replicata, quibus gregem defendere nititur. Carnes eius ad digerendum duriores quam ovium. Calidiores sunt, et minoris humiditatis. Ex naturali feritate pede dextro terram percutit, (quando irascitur, aut stupet, aut timet), et hoc maxime amoris tempore. Per dimidium annum super unum latus iacet et per dimidium super aliud hyeme autem super sinistrum, quia illud habet frigidius. Agnus ab ‘agnoscendo matrem’ dicitur. Carnes agni digestioni difficile [cedunt], facile tamen a stomacho descendunt, sed a membris difficillime solvuntur, unde viscosum generant humorem. Agnus anniculus – id est ‘unius anni’ – laudabilior est propter humiditatis et siccitatis temperiem.
4.86 Pard As the Experimentator says, the pard pursues its prey by leaping rather than running, and is very quick to blood. It happened many times, therefore, that he rushed to his death with a violent leap. Ut dicit Experimentator, pardus saltu potius quam cursu insequitur predam et est valde preceps ad sanguinem. Accidit ergo multotiens, ut vehementi saltu ruat ad mortem.
4.96 Ape But it happens, as the Experimentator says, that when it flees from pursuing hunters, carrying its beloved son in its arms, it drops the one it holds and carries the other unwillingly on its neck, whom he hates; for it holds itself firmly on the neck of the fleeing mother. And so it happens that when the mother has lost her beloved child, she begins to love the son whom she neglected. For she gives birth to two children; she loves one, but hates the other. As the Experimentator says, the ape likes to play with its children and sometimes strangles them with is hugs. It eats apples and nuts with pleasure; but when it finds in them a bitter skin, he throws away the skin with the nut, refusing the sweet because of the bitterness Sed accidit, ut dicit Experimentator, ut cum venatores persequentes fugerit, dilectum filium inter brachia portans et fugiens onerata deicit et portat in collo nolens quem odit; ille enim fortiter tenet se in collo matris fugientis. Et sic fit, ut cum mater dilectum perdiderit, amare incipiat filium quem neglexit. Ut dicit Experimentator, libenter ludit cum pueris et, si data fuerit copia, eos aliquando strangulat. Poma et nuces libenter comedit; sed cum invenerit in eis amaram corticem, corticem cum nuce abicit, propter amarum recusans dulce.
4.98 Bull, Cow, Ox As the Experimentator says, the ox has stronger and harder heart nerves than other animals; the bull, however, has more strength. The flesh of cattle is dry in comparison with that of pigs and goats, and therefore generates blood that is thick, turbid, and melancholy. However, it gives a lot of nourishment and is very strong; and this worse evil (because it is slowly digested except with strong wine and garlic). Bulls, if they remain many years in a partnership, will be greatly fattened. And when their death comes, they will die suddenly and will not suffer from a long illness before death. We see the same thing in the peasants [hominibus rusticis] and farmers, who were inexperienced in the pleasures and hardships experienced every day. The bull likes to drink clear water. The horns of females are harder than the horns of males. The fetus which the cow gives birth to before ten months does not live, because the hooves will not be completed. When the cows are very fertile, people say that the rainy season will follow in the winter. The bull's horns, if heated, can be bent at will. Cows get gout, and they can't be taken care of easily. Another infirmity happens to cows, and the sign of this infirmity is the decline of the ears, and they are not easily cured. And if the chest is opened when they die, it is evident that the corruption of the lungs was the cause. Ut dicit Experimentator, bos nervos cordis habet fortiores et duriores quam cetera animalia; taurus tamen fortiores habet. Caro bovina sicca est ad comparationem porcorum et hyrcorum, ideoque generat sanguinem grossum, turbidum et melancolicum. Multum tamen dat nutrimentum et valde confortat; et hoc peius malum (quia tarde digeritur nisi cum vino forti et allio). Tauri, si manserint multis annis in coitu, multum impinguantur. Et cum venerit excessus subito morientur et non laborabunt infirmitate diutina ante mortem. Hoc idem videmus in hominibus rusticis et agricultoribus, qui inexperti erant deliciarum et laborum expertus, cotidie. Taurus libenter bibit aquam claram. Cornua vacce duriora sunt cornibus masculorum. Fetus quem vacca parit ante menses decem, non vivit, quoniam ungule non complebuntur. Quando vacce multum fetifere sunt, pluviosum tempus in hyeme sequi homines dicunt. Cornua tauri, si calefiant, flecti possunt ad libitum. Vaccis accidit podagra, nec de facili curari possunt. Alia infirmitas accidit vaccis, et signum huius infirmitatis aurium declinatio est, et non sanantur de facili. Et eis mortuis si aperiatur pectus, apparet, quia corruptio pulmonis in causa fuit.
4.103 Mole As the Experimentator says, it works the soil and eats the roots of the dry crops under the ground. It eats earth when in hunger. Its skin is very hairy and soft. It has a very dark color, so the Greeks call it alfalcam. A mole burnt to dust and sprinkled with the white of an egg over the face is a remedy against leprosy. It is said that the blood of a slain mole, if it be put upon a bald head, causes the hair to return. Ut dicit Experimentator, humum egerit et siccaturis frugibus sub terra radices edit. In fame terram comedit. Pellis eius est multorum pilorum et suavis valde. Teterrimum colorem habet, unde Greci ‘alfalcam’ eam vocant. Talpa combusta in pulverem et sparsa cum albugine ovi super faciem, contra lepram remedium est. Sanguis occisi, si super nudatum pilis caput deliniatur, pilos redire cogit, ut dicitur.
4.106 Bear The Experimentator, however, says that the stronger opinion is that which is said to bring out pains by the bear licking its paws. When a bear is captured (and does not tame to the will of man), its eyes are blinded by the blazing fire. It can hardly stand [immobilis] without moving from place to place [instabilis]. Experimentator tamen dicit validiorem opinionem illam, qua dicitur ursum lambendo dolores educere. Ursus quando capitur (nec ad nutum hominis mansuescit), excecantur oculi eius ere candenti: dum enim es candens respicit, quasi insensibiliter, visum amittit. Vix stare potest (immobilis), quin se de loco ad locum (instabilis) moveat.
4.109 Fox Experimentator: when the dog pursues it and tries to catch it, the fox drags its hairy tail through the mouth of the pursuer and thus deceives the dog as much as it can to reach the dense forest. The Experimentator says that the fox does not labor in digging burrows, but a certain beast, which we call a badger digs them; for when the daxus [badger] has dug a hole in the ground to rest, the cunning fox, on entering the hole, empties its belly of dung, so that the hole, polluted by the stench of its putrid digestion, becomes despicable; and in truth the daxus animal detests the stench of digested dung and leaves immediately; and thus the treacherous beast takes possession of the place. The Experimentator says that the fox does not labor in digging burrows, but a certain beast, which we call a badger digs them; for when the daxus [badger] has dug a hole in the ground to rest, the cunning fox, on entering the hole, empties its belly of dung, so that the hole, polluted by the stench of its putrid digestion, becomes despicable; and in truth the daxus animal detests the stench of digested dung and leaves immediately; and thus the treacherous beast takes possession of the place. The Experimentator says that the fox has a stinky mouth and is also stinky at the back. It is especially interested in houses. Its bile heals the ears and eyes. Its fat is good for the ears and gout. Its skin wrapped around a gouty foot heals, with the skin turned inside out. Its liver, roasted and drunk with wine, cures iliac affections. Its heart is capable of stopping the flow of blood; the liver likewise. Its brain, given to children, often permanently frees them from epilepsy. Its fat is good for all pains in the limbs. Its spleen also dissolves contracted organs. If the flesh of a fox is burnt, its dust is worth taking with wine for asthmatics. If a fox eats almonds, it is said to die. It suffers a heating of the liver in the summer season, whence the blood flowing to the exterior relieves him and his skin becomes ulcerated, and by this the hairs fall from his body, as Constantine says. Experimentator : cum canis insequitur eam assecutamque nititur apprehendere, vulpes villosam caudam suam per ora illius insequentis trahit sicque deludit canem, quousque silvarum condensa possit attingere. Dicit Experimentator, quod vulpes in fodiendis foveis non laborat, sed bestia quedam, quam daxum dicimus; daxus enim cum foveam in terram foderit ad quietem, vulpes dolosa in ingressu fovee ventrem suum stercoribus exonerat, ut fetore digestionis putride fovea polluta vilescat; et revera daxus bestia fetorem digesti stercoris abhominabiliter detestatur locumque dimittit; et sic dolosa bestia locum possidet. Dicit Experimentator, quod vulpes os fetidum habet et fetidus etiam est a parte posteriori. Maxime domesticis insidiatur.Fel eius aures sanat et oculos. Auribus et podagricis prodest adeps. Pellicula circumvoluta pedi podagrico sanat, cute intus versa. Iecur eius assum et cum vino bibitum yliacam passionem sanat. Cor eius valet fluxui sanguinis; iecur similiter. Cerebrum eius infantibus datum sepe ab epilentia perpetua liberat. Sepum eius vel adeps omnibus doloribus membrorum valet. Splen quoque bibitum contracta membra resolvit. Carnes vulpis si comburantur, pulvis earum valet asmaticis cum vino sumptus. Sagimen adipis eius multum confert doloribus aurium. Si amigdalas vulpes comederit, mori dicitur. Calefactionem epatis patitur tempore estivali, unde sanguis fluens ad exteriora eum relevat et ulceratur cutis eius, et per hoc cadunt pili de corpore eius, sicut dicit Constantinus in Viatico.
5.2 Eagle Other philosophers also say, as the Experimentator relates, that the eagle places two precious stones called indes [Indian stone] in its nest, without whose presence it cannot endure. As the Experimentator says, the eagle fasts many days, and teaches its chicks to lick blood. When it sits, it always looks at its claws, lest they become curved. The eagle shares its prey with other birds and allows the food to be eaten; but let them beware: if the fish being shared is not enough for it, it seizes one of the birds that are flying and eats it. A crow sometimes pursues an eagle, and when the eagle has long concealed itself, it finally seizes the crow with its talons. Dicunt et alii phylosophi, sicut refert Experimentator, quod duos lapides pretiosos nomine ‘indes’ in suo nido collocat, sine quorum presentia parere non potest. Aquila, ut idem dicit Experimentator, ieiunat multis diebus. Docet pullos lambere sanguinem. Quando sedet, semper respicit ungues suos, ne recurvi facti sint. Partitur aquila predam aliis avibus secumque comedere patitur; sed caveant: si ei non sufficit cybus in medium positus, unam ex convescentibus avibus rapit et comedit. Cornix aliquando insequitur aquilam, et cum aquila diu dissimulaverit, tandem cornicem cum unguibus apprehendit.
5.6 Heron The hawks are hostile to them, says the Experimentator. And the heron opposes the hawk by casting out its dung, at the touch of which the hawk's feathers rot. It has a single intestine like the stork. Some call this tantalum. Most of these birds have a gray color, but some are white. Accipitres eis infesti sunt, ut dicit Experimentator. Ardea autem anum opponit accipitri et stercus eicit, ad cuius tactum penne accipitris computrescunt. Unicum habet intestinum sicut cyconia. Hanc nonnulli ‘tantalum’ vocant. Plurimeque istarum avium colorem habent cinereum, quedam vero album.
5.8 Goose They hiss to protect their chicks, as the Experimentator~> says. Pro pullis defendendis sibilant, ut dicit Experimentator.
5.10 Hawk He carries a hawk in his left hand, as the Experimentator says, when he wants to catch something on the right. In sinistra manu accipiter portatur, ut dicit Experimentator, ut in dextram aliquid capturus volet.
5.14 Lark As the Experimentator says, [the lark] ascends little by little, but suddenly comes down like a stone. In descending, it joins its wings to its body and controls its flight with a light movement of its tail. If captured by a man in its youth, it is kept in in a cage, where, although it sometimes sings, it clearly testifies that it is being wronged, because it is not allowed to go free in the air while singing. Sicut dicit Experimentator, paulatim ascendit, sed subito descendit instar lapis. In descendendo alas corpori coniungit et levi motu cum cauda se regit. In iuventute capta ab homine tenetur ergastulo, ubi etsi aliquando cantat, plumarum hyrsutiis interim dum edit modulos aperte testatur sibi iniuriam fieri, ut cantans auras liberas adire non sinitur.
5.18 Owl As the Experimentator says, the owl eats the eggs of the dove. It hunts mice. Dwelling in the churches, it drinks oil from the lamps and yet wears it out with dung. When attacked by these birds (which live in the light) it lies on its back and defends itself with the claws of its feet. These birds signify in the church unusual and dissolute clerics, who, although they live on the rich beneficence of the church, yet use it with luxury and scandals, and when they are rebuked by the good, they attack them with cruelty of mind. A bird indeed is loaded with feathers of the sun, but laziness is always restrained by a heavy weight. The owl dwells in graves night and day, and always abiding in caves, flees from the light. Ut dicit Experimentator, bubo bibit ova columbe. Mures venatur. In ecclesiis habitans, oleum de lampadibus bibit et tamen eam defedat stercoribus. Quando impugnatur ab hiis avibus (que in luce habitant) resupina pedum unguibus se defendit. Hee aves signant in ecclesia insolentes et dissolutos clericos, qui etsi vivant de pingui beneficio ecclesie, eam tamen luxurie spurcitiis et scandalis fedant, et cum arguuntur a bonis, in eos animi crudelitate grassantur. Avis quidem est solis plumis onusta, sed gravi semper detenta pigritia. In sepulchris nocte dieque versatur et semper commorans in cavernis fugit lucem.
5.20 Bittern As the Experimentator says, it has a long and very sharp beak, which it always raises to defend itself when sleeping and awake. When the hawk thinks it has caught the bird, it rushes to its death in its beak. It eats poisoned frogs. This bird alone in the springtime sings with a horrible voice. Nor is this said to be possible unless it immerses its head in water, so that the voice which it has conceived within itself, subdued by the element, may sound like a kind of thunder. Ut enim dicit Experimentator, rostrum habet longum et acutissimum, quem dormiendo atque vigilando semper erigit ad defendendum se. Cum accipiter eum apprehendere credit, in eius rostrum ad mortem ruit. Ranas et venenata comedit. Hec sola veris tempore pro cantu vocem edit horrificam. Nec hoc posse dicitur, nisi caput suum aquis immergat, ut intra se elementi dempsitas conceptam vocem instar cuiusdam tonitruationis sonoram reddat.
5.26 Swan As the Experimentator says, the swan has its strength in its wings. At the instant of death he fastens its feather in his brain [?] and sings most sweetly. It is of a choleric complexion, and therefore passionate. With one foot it swims, and with the other it governs itself like a sail. When fed with fish it is harmless to them. It eats little according to the size of it body. It has very small teeth in his beak, with which It cuts food. It nests above the waters, anxious to raise its young. Ut dicit Experimentator, cygnus fortitudinem suam habet in alis. Instante morte pennam in cerebro figit et sic dulciter canit. Colerice complexionis est, et ideo iracundus. Cum uno pede natat et cum alio se regit veli modo. Cum piscibus nutritus eis innoxius est. Parum comedit secundum magnitudinem corporis sui. Dentes habet minutissimos in rostro, unde cybos incidit. Super aquas nidificat sollicitus in pullis educandis.
5.31 Raven As the Experimentator says, the females of ravens lay their eggs in the sun, and the males give them food. A raven never hatches only two chicks, but several. The raven is loud and makes different voices, namely 631, as Fulgentius says. Sometimes they meet while flying. The raven eats the owl's eggs by day, and the owl the raven's eggs by night; but the raven is stronger by day, the owl by night. There is a certain race of ravens in the East, which fight with the ass and the bull. For while they are fleeing, the raven flies over them and attacks their eyes with a rush, and when it can, it strikes the fleeing animal in the eyes with its beak, and thus blinding them renders them useless to their masters; and in consequence they were killed. Thus the wicked bird overcomes the strong animals; and a wicked woman casts down strong men. The raven by nature loves the fox, and therefore helps him against the bird called asalon, because the asalon is the enemy of the rave Ut dicit Experimentator, femine quorundam corvorum cubant ova sole, et mares dant eis escas. Nunquam corvus pullificat duos pullos tantum, sed plures. Corvus clamosus est et diversas format voces scilicet LXIIII, sicut Fulgentius dicit. Volando coeunt aliquando. Corvus comedit ova bubonis de die, et bubo corvi ova de nocte; corvus autem fortior est de die, bubo de nocte. Est quoddam corvinum genus in Oriente, quod pugnat cum asino et tauro; illis enim fugientibus corvus super eos volat et impingit se cum impetu in oculis eorum et, cum potuerit, ferit rostro fugientem in oculos; et sic cecans eos reddit inutiles dominis suis; et per consequens occisi ac decoriati cadavera efficiuntur volatilibus. Sicque improba avis fortia animalia vincit; et improba mulier fortes viros deicit. Corvus naturaliter vulpem diligit et ideo iuvat eum contra avem, que achilon dicitur: achilos autem inimicus est corvi.
5.32 Crow As the Experimentator says, the crows attack noble birds as if they were their enemies, and this often to their detriment. For when the noble birds had brought much to their assailants, at last their patience ended and they defeated and tore the intruders to pieces. They feed for some time in the sun beside the flying chicks, which the flock pursues diligently, and are careful not to lose their hold. They supply food and most of the time do not leave the nursing duties. Therefore let men learn to love their children from the practice and piety of the crows. Ut dicit Experimentator, cornices aves nobiles impugnant quasi hostes suos, et hoc frequenter in malum. Cum enim aves nobiles multum impugnantibus detulerint, tandem impatientia victe lacerant importunas. Hee sole iuxta pullos volantes aliquamdiu pascunt, quos comitatu sedulo prosequuntur, et sollicite sunt, ne teneri forte deficiant. Cybum suggerunt ac plurimi temporis nutriendi officia non relinquunt. Discant ergo homines amare filios ex usu et pietate cornicum.
5.36 Dove As the Experimentator says, the dove first penetrates the shell and then divides it. When they find a stray dove, the others gather it together with them. They eat pebbles for the sake of tempering their stomachs (for they are very hot by nature). They fight with raised feathers. It has very hot dung, which it throws out of the nest and teaches its young to throw out. The blood of a dove, a tern, and a tortoise, taken from under the right wing, and applied to the eye, heals; for it is sharp and has the power to dissolve. Ut dicit Experimentator, columba primum penetrat testam et post illam dividit. Columbe quando errantem columbam invenerint, aggregant sibi. Comedunt lapillos propter stomachi temperantiam (calidissime enim nature sunt). Elevatis pennis pugnant. Fimum habet ardentem nimis, quem quidem nido eicit et pullos suos docet eicere. Sanguis columbe et yrundinis et turturis, desub dextra ala acceptus, oculo impositus medetur; est enim acutus et habet potentiam dissolvendi.
5.44 Falcon As the Experimentator says, it eats raw meat but not preserved meat, but fresh. It ascends to a height and with a sudden descent it throws down its prey. In flying towards the prey it holds its legs to its chest and thus strikes the prey. If it does not catch the prey in the first attack, it rushes to the depths and reluctantly returns to the hunter because of annoyance. When it sees a prey, it shakes itself, and if it is fit to be caught, it knows. There is a certain kind of gyrfalcon which is known as sacred; and these are stronger. But they have a brown color. Carnes crudas et servatas, ut dicit Experimentator, non comedit, sed recentes. In altum ascendit et cum impetu descendendo predam deicit. In volando ad predam pedes pectori coniungit et sic predam ferit. Si non capit predam in primo impetu, in altum contendit et pre indignatione vix ad reclamatorium redit. Cum videt predam, excutiens se animat et, si apta sit ad capiendum, discernit. Quoddam genus girfalcorum est quod ‘sacrum’ cognominatur; et hii validiores sunt. Habent autem colorem fuscum.
5.52 Griffin As the Experimentator says, the griffin puts an agate stone in its nest, no doubt but for some remedy. It is clear, therefore, that the stones were given by God for some remedy. Ut dicit Experimentator, in nido suo agathem lapidem ponit, nec dubium, quin ad remedium aliquod. Constat ergo, quia ad remedium aliquod lapides a Deo dati sunt.
5.55 Crane As the Experimentator says, if the cranes see rain-clouds, they cry out and shout, urging the leader to take swifter flight. When they have descended to the ground to eat, the leader watches with a high head, and this is for the protection of all, but the rest graze securely. If the leader sees a man, it cries out, so that it may warn the unwary. They have heavier meat than the rest of the birds, so when a crane is killed it must be kept for one day in summer and two in winter, before it is eaten, that is to say, so that the meat becomes more digestible and tender. Ut dicit Experimentator, grues si prospexerint nubes pluviosas, clamant et vociferant sollicitantque ducem celeriores captare volatus. Quando ceciderint super terram, ut comedant, erigit dux earum in altum caput et hoc in custodiam omnium, cetere vero secure depascunt, qui, si viderit hominem, clamat, ut sollicitas reddat incautas. avibus carnes habent graviores, unde fieri debet, ut occisa grus uno die in estate, duobus in hyeme servari debet, antequam comedatur, scilicet ut caro fiat digestibilior atque tenerior.
5.57 Cock As the Experimentator says, the cock raises its tail and holds its body in a semicircle. Its likeness rests on the church towers and turns its face against the wind. It climbs up to sleep and rests on one foot. When it raises its feathers around his neck, it shakes itelf more boldly. Ut dicit Experimentator, gallus caudam sustollit et ad modum semicirculi reflectit. Forma eius insidet turribus ecclesie et rostrum suum contra ventum vertit. Dormiturus in altum scandit et super unum pedem quiescit. Cum pennas circa collum erigit, se excutiens audaciorem reddit.
5.58 Hen As the Experimentator says, There are certain chickens that always produce twins. There is indeed a wonder in the cock, who feeds the hens by calling them, and, while feeding them, compels them to the labors of impregnation and delivery. For, as the Experimentator says, the hen labors a great deal in ovulation; and yet (as John the Philosopher says), she sings after childbirth, and this according to the Gospel: A woman when she gives birth has sorrow, etc. She turns the dust with her feet, and thus obtains sustenance. Ut dicit Experimentator, quedam galline sunt, que semper faciunt gemellos. Mirum quidem in gallo est qui gallinas advocans pascit, et, dum paverit eas, ad labores impregnationis et partus cogit. Ut enim dicit Experimentator, in ovatione gallina multum laborat; et tamen (sicut dicit Iohannes philosophus), post partum cantat, et hoc secundum evangelium: Mulier cum parit tristitiam habet, etc.. Querendo cybum pulverem cum pedibus vertit et sic victum acquirit.
5.59 Cock Ut dicit Experimentator, gallus gallinacius cum gallinis impinguatur, sed nequaquam eas impregnando fecundat; cum eis pascitur, sed nequaquam eas defendit. Non cantat in horas diei vel noctis discutit. Hii ad nichil aliud utiles sunt quam ad coquinam. Carnes enim validiores habent omnibus volatilibus: generant enim bonum sanguinem et optimum nutrimentum.
5.60 Pheasant As the Experimentator says, the wild cock (or, as Pliny calls it, the pheasant), putting his beak on the ground, hides his head and thus believes himself completely hidden. It grows sad in the rainy breeze, hiding then in the bushes and woods. At evening or dawn it comes out of the forest, and then hunts easily. It changes its feathers to those of youth and renews itself again. Its meat is finer and lighter than that of other wild birds, with the exception of partridge chicks. Ut dicit Experimentator, gallus silvester (vel, ut eum Plinius vocat, ‘phasianus’), rostrum in terra figens, caput abscondit et sic se totum absconditum credit. In aura pluviosa tristatur, et tunc in rubis et silvis latet. Circa vesperam vel auroram de silva egreditur, et tunc de facili venatur. (Pennas pre pinguedine mutat et iterum sese renovat). Carnes subtiliores habet, et leviores, quam cetere aves silvatice, exceptis pullis perdicum.
5.61 Jay It is said that it often goes mad, so that the Experimentator says that it hangs itself in a tree between the forked branches in a fit of rage. Frequenter insanire dicitur, ita ut Experimentator dicat, quod pre furore nimio in arborem inter furcatos ramos insaniens se suspendat.
5.66 Swallow As the Experimentator says, it has little flesh and that is black, many feathers and large wings and therefore it has a quick flight. It announces the day (by ringing), awakens the sleeping (and invites to the praise of the Creator). Its blood, drawn from under its right wing, heals the eyes. It has a forked tail. Ut dicit Experimentator, modicam carnem habet et nigram, multas plumas et magnas alas et ideo citum habet volatum. Diem nuntiat (precinendo), excitat dormientes (et ad laudem Creatoris invitat). Sanguis eius desub dextra ala extractus oculis medetur. Caudam habet furcatam.
5.79 kite As the Experimentator says, the kite is bold in small things, timid in big things. It is driven away by its enemies, although It is three times bigger than them. Ut dicit Experimentator, milvus audax est in parvis, timidus in magnis. A niso fugatur, quamvis in triplo maior sit illo.
5.88 Blackbird As the Experimentatorsays, the domesticated blackbird eats meat contrary to its nature and sings sweeter because of this. In winter it can hardly fly because of its fat. It likes to bathe itself and clean his feathers with his beak. Even though it is black and ugly, because of the pleasantness of its voice it moves itself into the affection of the mind. Ut dicit Experimentator, domesticata merula contra naturam suam carnes comedit et ex hoc dulcius canit. In hyeme propter pinguedinem vix potest volare. Libenter se balneat et rostro plumas purgat. Cum sit tamen nigra et turpis, propter amenitatem vocis se ipsam movet in dilectionem mentis.
5.89 Jackdaw As the Experimentator says, small pieces of meat excite an itch in it head; whence it also desires to be rubbed on the head. Avis hec nigra est, sed ad modicum formosa et grata. Hominum voces perfecte satis, cum in pullo edocta fuerit, imitatur. In matutino cum ortu Solis et sollicitius discere, et tenacius retinere dicitur. Ut dicit Experimentator, monedule carnes pruritum capitis excitant; unde et ipsa appetit in capite fricari.
5.90 Mergus As the Experimentator says, they are fatter in the winter because of their lack of movement. For every animal delights in the clear air, and wanders in it more than in a turbulent one. Ut dicit Experimentator, in hyeme pinguiores sunt propter paucitatem motus. Omne enim animal sereno aere gaudet et in eo plus vagatur quam turbido.
5.94 Bittern As the Experimentator says, it is not without reason that this bird has certain follicles in its throat, in which it first deposits its food and after an hour sends it into its second stomach. For it has two stomachs, one of which is in the throat, and in the other it cooks and digests food; so not in others. Ut dicit Experimentator, non sine ratione nature hec avis in faucibus quosdam habet folliculos, in quibus primo cibum ponit et post horam receptum in secundum ventrem mittit. Duos enim tantum habet ventres, quorum unus est in gutture, in alio cibum coquit ac digerit; sic non in aliis.
5.98 Pelican The Experimentator says of this bird that after the shedding of blood, the pelican is weakened and she is unable to leave the nest, so the chicks are forced to leave the nest to get food her her and themselves. In some cases, however, the chicks are cowardly, so that they do not want to go out to feed themselves or their mother, and perish. Others, however, go out and feed their mother. But others are worse, who indeed feed themselves, but completely neglect their mother. When the mother after her recovery sees this, she nurtures pious children, but casts away and despises the impious. Experimentator de hac ave dicit quod post sanguinis effusionem debilitatur pellicanus, ita ut de nido exire non valens pulli eius pro cibatione eius et sua exire compelluntur a nido. Quidam vero pullorum ignavia segnes, ut se vel matrem pascant, exire nolunt et pereunt. Alii vero exeunt et matrem pascunt. Alii autem deteriores sunt, qui quidem se pascunt, sed matrem penitus negligunt. Quod cum mater post convalescentiam viderit, pios filios nutrit, impios vero abicit et contempnit.
5.101 Partridge And, as the Experimentator says, it forgets the nature of its of sex. The mother flies in circles around the hunters until her chicks have fled, and after the flight of the chicks she also flees; and then, overcome with fear, calls the chicks. The meat of partridges is the healthiest of all the meats of wild birds. Et, ut dicit Experimentator, obliviscitur sexum libido preceps. Mater volat in circuitu venatorum, quousque fugiant pulli sui, et post fugam pullorum fugit et ipsa; et tunc sublato timore vocat pullos. Carnes perdicum pre aliis aliarum avium silvestrium carnibus sanissime sunt.
5.105 Woodpecker The Experimentator says in a verse about the woodpecker: Little talkative bird, I greet you with a voice: If you do not see me, you will deny that I am a bird Experimentator dicit quendam in versu de pico dixisse: Parva loquax volucris dominum te voce saluto: Si me non videas, esse negabis avem.
5.106 Sparrow As the Experimentator says, sparrows are the warmest of all birds, from which they are stout and inciting to blood, and exceedingly exuberant. Its dung is very hot when it is emitted; but it is quickly chilled. ... A sparrow quickly digests whatever it swallows. Females are said to live longer than males. Ut dicit Experimentator, passeres calidiores sunt omnibus avibus, unde stiptici sunt et sanguinis incentivi sunt, et super modum luxuriosi. Stercus eius calidissimum, quando emittitur; sed citissime infrigidatur.... Passer cito digerit quicquid glutit. Unde fit, ut corpus nequaquam sumptus cibus impinguat, sed tantum sustentat.
5.110 Ostrich The Experimentator says that the ostrich has upper eyelids. Part of its head is different, and is close to the neck. It raises its wings as it runs. It eats and digests iron, because it is very hot by nature. It by nature hates the horse and pursues it in a strange way. But the horse fears and hates the ostrich to such an extent that it does not dare to see one. Under the wings it has a small bone with which it pricks itself in the side and shakes when provoked to anger. Experimentator dicit quod structio habet palpebras superiores. Pars capitis est diversa, et vicinatur collo. In eundo alas erigit. Ferrum comedit et digerit, quia calidissime nature est. Equum naturaliter odit et illum miro modo persequitur. Equus vero in tantum eum timet et odit, quod ipsum videre non audet. Sub alis parvum habet ossiculum quo, se pungunt in latere et agitant, quando provocantur ad iram.
5.113 Turtledove The Experimentator says that turtledoves lie in feathers all winter in hollow trees. It lives in the most secure and pleasant places and builds a nest among the branches of a tree. The turtledove lays eggs twice in the spring and three times in the summer, but this when one pair of eggs has been spoiled or lost by accident. Among other birds, the turtledove alone feeds its young at night. Its chicks, like the chicks of a dove, are twice as warm and moist, which is evidenced by their heaviness at the time of flight, but when they begin to fly, they lose their heaviness and their flesh becomes lighter and more acceptable for digestion (for the movement consumes too much moisture and thereby heaviness). Its blood is the proper remedy for the eyes. Experimentator dicit quod turtur per totam hyemem in concavis arboribus in plumis iacet. In locis tutissimis et delectabilibus habitat et inter ramos condense arboris nidum locat. Turtur bis ovat in vere et sepe ter, sed hoc quando unum par ovorum corruptum fuerit aut casu perdiderit. Inter ceteras aves turtur sola pullos suos in nocte pascit. Pulli eius sicut pulli columbe bini calidi sunt et humidi, quod testatur eorum gravitas ad volatum, sed volatum inchoantes ipsam gravitatem amittunt; fit et eorum caro levior et ad digerendum acceptabilior (motus enim consumit humorem nimium et per hoc gravitatem). Sanguis ale dextre medicinalis est inmissus oculis.
5.119 Hoopoe The hoopoe's heart is good against evildoers and enchanters, but how this is done, the Experimentator does not write. Huppupe cor malefactoribus et incantatoribus valet, sed quemadmodum hoc fit, Experimentator non scribit.
5.120 Vulture Experimentator: The vulture is slow; for a bird of great flesh cannot fly quickly. If it sees that its chicks are easily affected, it is in pain. Therefore it wounds them in the feet with its beak, so as to make them emaciated. As the vulture flies, if it sees a corpse, it lays itself down to eat the corpse, and because it inclines indifferently to every corpse, it does not avoid dangers and snares, and thus falls more easily into the hands of hunters. The vulture fights with herons and rushes at them. But since the heron is agile, it gets away from the rushing attack, but the pregnant birds are unable to escape and it kills them. It also fights with parrots and other birds. What is left over from its food, it stores in the nest so that it can feed itself and the chicks from there, since it does not get food easily. Experimentator :Vultur tardus est; magne enim carnis avis prepetes volatus habere non potest. Si viderit pullos suos otius impinguari, dolet. Quapropter illos rostro in pedibus vulnerat, ut sic eos efficiat macilentos. Vultur dum volat, si cadaver respicit, ad esum cadaveris se deponit, et quia indifferenter se ad omne cadaver inclinat, pericula et laqueos non evitat, sicque facilius in manus pervenit venatorum. Vultur pugnat cum herodio et in ipsum ruit. Sed cum herodius agilis sit, cum impetu ruenti cedit, avisque gravida retinere se non valens semet ipsam occidit. Pugnat etiam cum psitaco et cum aliis avibus . Quod ei superfluit de cibo, in nido reponit ut inde se cibet et pullos, quoniam cybum de facili non acquirit.
6.6 Whale And as the Experimentator says, when their offspring are small, whales receive them in the mouth. It does the same thing when it sees a storm approaching; and after the storm it throws them out. When the baby whales are prevented from following their mother because of the shallowness of the water, the mother throws the water she has collected in her mouth like a river towards the babies, so that they are free from the land. Et ut Experimentator dicit, eos si parvi sunt, in ore recipiunt. Hoc idem facit, quando tempestatem viderit imminere; et post tempestatem evomit eos. Quando fetus balene propter defectum aque impediuntur, ut matrem non sequantur, mater in ore aquam receptam instar fluvii ad fetus eicit, ut sic terre liberet inherentes.
6.7 Crocodile As the Experimentator says, when it kills a man, it mourns him. A crocodile after having his heart torn out lives for a little while, which, of course, is contrary to every animal that has its life from its heart. Non solum animalibus, sed etiam hominibus infestus est, et tamen, ut dicit Experimentator, cum hominem occiderit, luget eum. Cocodrillo avulso corde postea aliquantulum vivit, quod utique est contra omne animal quod vitam habet a corde.
6.15 Dolphin They live to the greatest number of years, namely up to a hundred and forty years, and this the Experimentator says, after their tails are cut off. / If any one eats the flesh of a dolphin, as the Experimentator says, and if he has fallen into the sea, if he is found by the dolphins, they immediately devour him. But if he does not eat dolphins, they lift him up on their beaks and drag him to land and defend him from other fish. Vivunt in annos plurimos, usque scilicet in annos centum quadraginta, et hoc Experimentator dicit, amputatis eorum caudis. / Si quis carnes delphini comederit, sicut dicit Experimentator, et in mari lapsus fuerit, si a delphinis inveniatur, statim eum devorant. Si autem non comederit, eum elevant super rostra et ad terram trahunt eumque defendunt ab aliis piscibus.
6.23 Sea-cow The sea-cow (focha bos marinus), as the Experimentator says, is the strongest animal of its kind. It does not easily change its place, but always remains where nature has placed it. Focha bos marinus, ut dicit Experimentator, animal fortissimum est in suo genere. Non mutat de facili locum suum, sed sic semper manet ubi eum natura condiderit.
7.2 Eel As the Experimentator says, the fat of the eel heals the ears. It is a hard to kill, and lives even when it is flayed. It must be cooked more, otherwise its flesh is harmful. It is more suitable to be roasted in the fire, because its bad quality evaporates. Ut dicit Experimentator, pinguedo anguille auribus medetur. Durissimam habet mortem, que etiam excoriata vivit. Plus decoquitur pisce alio; aliter nocivus est cibus eius. Ad ignem assata plus competit, quia evaporatur malitia eius.
8.2 Asp As the Experimentator says, the asp does no harm to the Africans or the Syrians; whence they expose their children to the serpents, and if they bite them, they cast the child out as the product of adultery; if not, they nourish them as if they were their own. Ut dicit Experimentator, aspis non nocet Affris vel Syris; unde pueros de se natos obiciunt serpentibus, quos si leserint, tanquam adulteros proiciunt; si vero nequaquam, eos quasi suos nutriunt.
8.4 Basilisk How this can be done [kill a man with a look], the Experimentator explains in his book. For he says that the rays from the basilisk's eyes corrupt the visible spirit of man, by which other spirits are corrupted, which descend from the brain and the life of the heart; and so a man dies. Basilisks, like scorpions, stalk each other; and - after they have reached the waters - they produce dropsy and lymphatics. Quomodo hoc possit, rationem reddit Experimentator in libro suo. Dicit enim, quod radii oculorum basilisci corrumpunt spiritum visibilem hominis, quo corrupto corrumpuntur alii spiritus, qui a cerebro et vita cordis descendunt; et sic homo moritur. Basilisci, sicut scorpiones, arentia queque sectantur; et – postquam ad aquas pervenerint – ydropicas et limphaticas faciunt.
8.6 Berus Berus is a most wicked kind of serpent, as the Experimentator says, and more cunning than all other serpents. Berus nequissimum genus serpentis est, ut dicit Experimentator, et super omnes serpentes astutior.
8.14 Dipsa As the Experimentator says, the dipsa kills in such a way that the cause of death does not allow time for sadness about dying. Ut dicit Experimentator, ?dipsa sic occidit, ut facies preventa morte nec tristitiam inducit morituri.
8.15 Dragon Its bite, however, is the worst, even if it is small, as the Experimentator says, because its eats poison. Morsus tamen eius pessimus etsi parvus, sicut dicit Experimentator, quoniam comedit venenifera.
8.35 Siren (serpent) Sirens are serpents, just as sirens are sea monsters, as the Experimentator says; they live in the region of Arabia and are faster than a running horse. Some of them have wings and can fly. Of these the venom is most effective in bringing death, so that the bite is followed by death rather than pain. Syrene serpentes sunt sicut et syrenes monstra marina. Sicut dicit Experimentator, in partibus Arabie habitant et cursu validiores equis sunt. Nonnulli ex eis sunt qui habentes alas volare possunt. Horum tantum virus est et ita efficacissimum ad inferendam mortem, ut morsum ante mors quam dolor sequatur.
8.36 Scorpion As the Experimentator says, if a black pig is struck by a scorpion, it will undoubtedly die; but a pig of another color sometimes escapes, though not always. If you drown a scorpion in oil, it immediately revives under the sun when vinegar is poured over it. Oil clogs, vinegar opens pores. Ut dicit Experimentator, porcus niger si a scorpione percutitur, proculdubio moritur; alterius vero coloris porcus evadit quandoque, etsi non semper. Si in oleo submerseris scorpionem, aceto superfuso sub Sole ilico reviviscit. Oleum obstruit, acetum aperit poros.
8.44 Viper The Experimentator says that the viper's coat - that is the skin it sheds when it is renewed - cooked in wine heals the teeth and eyes. But its fat removes the darkness of the eyes. Dicit Experimentator, quod vipere tunica - id est corium quod proicit quando innovatur - in vino cocta dentibus et oculis medetur. Adeps vero eius tollit caliginem oculorum.
9.2 Bee The bee stays in the cave during the cold days and does not eat prepared food. As the Experimentator says, the bees are especially weakened when the flowers bloom. Apis manet in cavernis diebus frigoris et non comedit de preparato cibo. Ut dicit Experimentator, apes infirmantur precipue, quando turgescunt flores.
9.3 Spider As the Experimentator says, cobwebs placed over a wound keep it free from swelling and decay. When spiders lift their webs higher it is a sign of rain. Ut dicit Experimentator, tela aranee vulneri superposita servat illud sine tumore et corruptione. Imbrium signa sunt quando telas suas altius tollunt aranee.
9.7 Botrax Borax, a kind of buffones, has the face of a frog. It is a poisonous animal, as the Experimentator says. Hence, because of the amount of poison it has, when it is touched, it inflates. It fights with a spider and is defeated by it; and this because when the borax has been punctured and it cannot defend itself, it is so inflated by blowing that it cracks in the middle. The bite of borax is very bad and becomes incurable. It has a precious stone on its forehead, for which it is killed. There are two kinds of these stones, one is white and this is better, and the other is brown and black, and has an eye in the middle of it, which it imitates a little by its blue color; but here the brown class is better. This stone is said to cure a person's internal ailments when consumed in food. For the bowels circulate and are taken care of and exit through the lower region. But it must be swallowed whole. Therefore it uses borax, a special herb, when it has an damaged eye, and with this it recovers its sight. Ruta [rue, a herb] kills it. It likes to inhabit wet and damp places. It hates the brightness of the sun and does not allow itself to be easily seen. It walks at night, and this more on roads worn by the footsteps of men; during the day it rests in secret. It flees from the smell of a blooming vine. Borax de genere buffonis est, que faciem habet rane, ut dicit Experimentator. Animal est venenosum. Borax de genere buffonis est, que faciem habet rane, Animal est venenosum, sicut dicit Experimentator. Unde propter veneni quantitatem, quando tangitur, inflatur. Pugnat cum aranea et ab ea vincitur; et hoc quia cum frequenter boracem pupugerit et ille se vindicare non potest, in tantum extuberatur inflando, quod medius crepat. Morsus boracis pessimus est et insanabilis efficitur. Lapidem pretiosum in fronte nutrit, pro quo occiditur. Duo genera ipsorum lapidum sunt, unum album et hoc melius, aliud vero fuscum et nigrum est, et in medium sui oculum habet, qui parum per colorem ceruleum imitatur; et hic in fusco genere melior. Hic lapis in cibum sumptus interna hominis mala sanare dicitur. Circuit enim intestina et facta cura per inferiorem regionem egreditur. Debet autem glutiri integer. Igitur borax herba speciali utitur, quando extinctum habet oculum, et in hac visum recuperat. Ruta interficitur. Loca humida et marcida libenter inhabitat. Odit claritatem Solis nec eum de facili videre patitur. Nocte ambulat, et hoc magis vias tritas vestigiis hominum; per diem quiescit in abditis. Odorem vinee florentis fugit.
9.10 Caterpillar A caterpillar does more harm than a locust, as the Experimentator says. Brucus plus ledit quam locusta, ut dicit Experimentator.
9.15 Gnat As the Experimentator says, the gnat loves the light so much that it sometimes burns itself on the light. Ut dicit Experimentator, culex lucem diligit ita quod se aliquando ad lumen urit.
9.19 Stag-beetle It is also said that there is a certain kind of them that we call "flying deer" [cervus volans], which the Experimentator calls scabrones [actually the hornet, crabrones]. Under the wings, as he says, they have fine and thin wings (like a caterpillar). They fly mostly before the evening. They make a noise when flying. They have medicinal horns, long and reflexed legs. Dicitur etiam quoddam earum genus est quod nos ‘cervos volantes’ dicimus, quos utique Experimentator ‘scabrones’ vocat. Sub alis, ut dicit, grossioribus alas habent subtiles et tenues (sicut brucus). Contra vesperam potissime volant. In volando strepitum faciunt. Cornua habent medicinalia, crura longa et reflexa. Dicitur etiam quoddam earum genus est quod nos ‘cervos volantes’ dicimus, quos utique Experimentator ‘scabrones’ vocat. Sub alis, ut dicit, grossioribus alas habent subtiles et tenues (sicut brucus). Contra vesperam potissime volant. In volando strepitum faciunt. Cornua habent medicinalia, crura longa et reflexa.
9.20 Caterpillar As the Experimenter says, eruca, passing through the flesh of a man, infects it, and leaves blisters behind it, and this is a sign of poison, though not of a great evil. Ut dicit Experimentator, eruca transiens per carnem hominis eam inficit, et post se pustulas relinquit, et hoc signum veneni, etsi non efficacis ad magnum malum.
9.25 Slug Lymax [slug], a genus of turtle [testudinis], as the Experimentator says, is named from mud, because it is born in mud. It eats earth. It has four horns, but two are longer. In crawling, it extends its horns, but as soon as it is touched, it retracts its horns and curls in on itself. It is hidden in winter, it is born in spring. Its blood closes the pores and effectively prevents hair from growing. It heals broken and bruised wounds in some cases. Lymax testudinis genus, ut dicit Experimentator, a limo dictus, quia in limo nascitur. Terram comedit. Quatuor habet cornua, sed duo longiora. In rependo cornua extendit, sed quam cito tangitur, cornua retrahit et se ipsam in se flectit. Hyeme latet, vere producitur. Sanguis eius poros claudit et impedit efficaciter ne pili crescant. Confracta et contrita in quibusdam vulneribus apostemata sanat.
9.26 Locust As the Experimentator says, locusts eat each other, and the older ones eat the younger ones. A locust has a square-shaped mouth; it has a thorn for a tail. its legs are turned inward. Locusts are born from the south wind, and die from the north winds. They are more quickly fattened by the flowers of almond trees. It has only one bowel, full of blood and filth. Ut dicit Experimentator, locuste mutuo se comedunt, et maiores comedunt minores. Locusta os habet ad modum quadranguli dispositum; aculeum habet pro cauda. Crura habet ad se ipsam reflexa. A vento australi generantur locuste, a septentrionali moriuntur et aquilonari. A floribus arborum amigdalarum citius impinguantur. Unicum habet intestinum, sanie et immunditia repletum.
9.29 Fly As the Experimentator says, a fly immersed in water and drowned revives. Dung is generated from corruption. In flying round it makes a noise, and this from the air which is stirred up between the wings. Ut dicit Experimentator, musca in aquam mersa exposita reviviscit . Ex corruptione generantur fimi. Circumvolando strepitum facit, et hoc ex aere circumagitato inter alas.
9.34 Flea As the Experimentator says, fleas leave a mark on the flesh of the man on whom they alight. A flea was divided into two parts and lived. If it is cold around the month of June, the fleas will quickly die and there will not be an abundance of them for the rest of the summer. Ut dicit Experimentator pulices carni hominis cui insident, vestigium relinquunt. Pulex in duas partes divisa reviviscit. Si frigus circa Iunium mensem fuerit, cito pereunt pulices nec erit earum proventuum copia reliquo estatis tempore.
9.44 Leech But of these the Experimentator says, that the leech vomits the blood which it has drunk, that it may drink fresher blood. It pricks itself with nettles and stinging nettles so that it vomits the poison, if it has ingested something from wild animals or toads or water snakes. When it sticks to the flesh, the more it is pulled, the more strongly it sticks until it breaks. When it draws putrid blood, it kills itself by healing another. It has a mouth shaped like a triangle, so it leaves a triangular wound. Sed de hiis Experimentator vero dicit, quod sanguisuga evomit sanguinem quem hausit, ut recentiorem bibat. Cum urticis et tribulis pungitur, ut venenum evomat, si quod in bestiis aut bufonibus vel serpentibus aquaticis hausit. Cum carni adheserit, quanto magis trahitur, tanto fortius insidet, donec rumpatur. Sanguinem putridum extrahit: alium sanando se ipsum occidit. Os habet ad modum trianguli, unde triangulare vulnus relinquit.
9.50 Woodworm As the Experimentator says, woodworms [teredines] have a red head and a white body. Successively it pierces wood and by reducing it to dust it builds a house for itself, and by devouring the wood it purifies itself and expels the dust. And in this nature is marked by secrecy. Ut dicit Experimentator, teredines caput habent rubeum, corpus album. Successione lignum perforat et in pulverem redigendo domum sibi edificat lignum, consumendo se purificat et pulverem eicit. Et in hoc notatur nature secretum.