Sources : Ox

Herodotus [c. 484 – c. 425 BCE] (Histories, Book 4.183) Among the Garamantes are the oxen that go backward as they graze; whereof the reason is that their horns curve forward; therefore they walk backward in their grazing, not being able to go forward, seeing that the horns would project into the ground. In all else they are like other oxen, save that their hide is thicker, and different to the touch. - [Godley translation]

Pliny the Elder [1st century CE] (Natural History, Book 8, 30; 8, 70-71): [Book 8, 30] ...Indian oxen with one and with three horns... [Book 8, 31] He says that in India there are also oxen with solid hoofs and one horn... [Book 8, 70] Indian oxen are reported to be as tall as camels and to have horns with a span of four feet. In our part of the world the most famous are those of Epirus, having been so, it is said, ever since the attention given to them by King Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus achieved this result by not requisitioning them for breeding before the age of four ; consequently his oxen were very large, and the remains of his breeds continue even to-day. ... Oxen are the only animals that graze even while walking backward; indeed among the Garamantes that is their only way of grazing. ... Syrian oxen have no dewlaps, but a hump on the back. Also the Carian breed in a district of Asia is said to be ugly in appearance, with a swelling that projects from the neck over the shoulders and with the horns displaced, but excellent in work — although when black and white in color they are said to be no good for ploughing; the bulls have smaller and thinner horns than the cows. Oxen should be broken when three years old; after that is too late and before too early... [Book 8, 71] In Egypt an ox is even worshiped in place of a god; its name is Apis. - [Rackham translation]

Aelianus [170-230 CE] (On the Characteristics of Animals, Book 2, 57; 4, 35): [Book 2, 57] Oxen are after all the most serviceable creatures. At sharing the farmer's labors, at carrying loads of various kinds, at filling the milk-pail - at all these things the ox is excellent. He graces the altars, gladdens festivals, and provides a solemn banquet. And even when dead the ox is a splendid creature deserving our praise. At any rate bees are begotten of his carcass - bees, the most industrious of creatures, which afford the best and sweetest of fruits that man has, namely honey. [Book 4, 35] A domesticated ox will never forget the man who strikes and chastises him, but he remembers and takes his revenge even after a long interval. - [Scholfield translation]

Isidore of Seville [7th century CE] (Etymologies, Book 12, 1:30): The span of its hide from the chin to the forelegs is called the dewlap [palear], from the term skin [pellis] itself, as if the word were pellear. This is a sign of good breeding in an ox. Oxen possess an extraordinary affection for their comrades, for one will seek the other with whom he has been accustomed to share the yoke, and with constant lowing show its devoted fondness if by chance the other is missing. - [Barney, Lewis, et. al. translation]

Bartholomaeus Anglicus [13th century CE] (Liber de proprietatibus rerum, Book18.13): The Oxe is called Bos, and is called Boetes in Greeke, and sometime Tero in Latine, for he treadeth the earth, and the dew lappe or fresh lap that hangeth downe under his throte, and stretcheth to the legges, is called Palliaria, & hath that name of Pelle the skinne, as it were Pelliaria, a hanging skinne or a dagge, and is a token of gentlenesse & nobilytie in an Oxe, as Isidore sayth li. 14. And he sayth, that Oxen be full mild among their fellowes, for one of them séeketh another, with whom he is used to draw at neck at the plough. And ofte lowing proveth affection and love, when he may not soone finde his fellow. Lib. 8. cap. 45. speaketh of Oxen, and sayth. That he findeth written of Oxen of Inde, that are as high as Camelles, with hornes of foure foote long. And ther it followeth: among beastes that goe backward onely Oxen be fed with foder and with other foode, and it is sayd, that they were fat by washing with hot water. And Oxen maye better travaile when they be yoaked by the horns, then when they be yoked by the necke. In Syria are Oxen that have not dew laps nor tresh laps under the throte, but bunches on the backes: and Oxen with straight hornes, be accompted excellent in worke: and blacke Oxen with lyttle hornes be accounted lesse profitable to working. Oxens hornes are more thicker than Bulles hornes: and after the gelding, the Oxe increseth in body and in horns, in might, vertue, and strength: but hee is not so bold and hardie as before hand, but he is more tame, softe, and milde, and may better away with travaile and is more slowe and heauie of going. Also Plin[y] speaketh of the kinde of Oxen and saith: that after thrée years, an Oxe is lesse fierce than within 3. yeres: and a young Cow and an Oxe may be well coupled together. And we have the Oxe fellow in travel of tillyng of land: and this beast was so worthy accounted in olde time, that men would not harte the Oxe, and who that slewe an Oxe without cause, should be as sore punished, as though he had slaine his fellowe in earth tillyng, as he saith. The Oxe is a mild beast and cleane, not onely to the use of man, but also to offer in Altars of Gods: for of Oxen be best offerings and sacrifices made, and with offering of them and Sacrifice, the Gods be best pleased. The Oxe openeth the land, and carveth with culture and with share, and tilleth fields, and maketh them able and good to beare good corne & fruite. The Oxe féedeth with his flesh, and nourisheth: the skin and hide accordeth to many manner use, and his dirte fatteth the lande: his hornes heated or sotten, were softe, and be stretched out and made right and even, and of them be made divers vessells, tooles, and instruments. Of Oxe hornes be made tapping and nockes to bowes, to arbalasters, and arrowes to shoote against Enemies, and breast plates, and other armour, by the which, unstrong places of mans bodye, be warded and defended against shot and smiting of enimies. And of Oxe hornes be lanternes made: to put off darknesse, and combes to right & to cleause heades of filth. Also Hunters use Oxe hornes to feare wilde keasts, & to comfort hounes to pursue beasts that taketh the flight. Also writers and painters use the hornes, and keepe in them divers colours at best. Also warriours life hornes and blow therewith, and co¯forteth their fellows, both such as fight, and then: that flye, and call them to the boast with blowing of hornes. Also kéepers and wardens of beasts and of Castels and waites, useth hornes, and comforteth each other to wake with blowing of hornes. And the Oxe hornes bée néedfull to all manner of use. Also that that is in the Oxe is néedfull to divers use, and also his durt is good and profitable, as Plinius sayth, libro. 28. cap. 11. And sayth, that Oxe durt helpeth against ach of the joyntes, and is a singular remedy against the dropsie, if the patient be therewith annointed in the Sun. For it consumeth and wasteth humours betwéene the skinne and the flesh: & swageth and abateth holning and swelling of the dropsie. Also li. 30. ca. 3. Plinius saith, yt there is a little beast like to Ecarabeus, and is called Bupestris, and this Bupestris beguileth and betrayeth the Oxe in the grasse, and that is (as it is sayde) for the Oxe treadeth on him.* For this Bupestris lyeth among hearbs and grasse that the Oxe loveth, and hideth him therein: and the Oxe gathereth his meate, and swalloweth this beast Bupestris, & when this beast Bupestris is swallowed, hée chafeth sodeinely the liver of the Oxe, and maketh him break with great paine and sorrow. Héerof Papias speaketh and saith, that the necke of the Oxe is wrong and grieved with charge of the yoake, & the Oxe is grieved with the ache of the pricke, with the which hée is so pricked. And the Oxe dyeth with woe and sorrowe that commeth of the venimme of that beast Bupestris, when hée commeth into the Oxe wombe amongst his meate. - [Batman]