Beast

Sources : Ox

Herodotus [c. 484 – c. 425 BCE] (Histories, Book 4.183) Among the Garamantes are the oxen that go backward as they graze; whereof the reason is that their horns curve forward; therefore they walk backward in their grazing, not being able to go forward, seeing that the horns would project into the ground. In all else they are like other oxen, save that their hide is thicker, and different to the touch. - [Godley translation]

Pliny the Elder [1st century CE] (Natural History, Book 8, 70): Indian oxen are said to be as tall as camels and to have horns up to four feet wide. Among the Garamantes oxen only graze while walking backwards. A tale is told of an ox that is worshipped as a god in Egypt.

Aelianus [170-230 CE] (On the Characteristics of Animals, Book 2, chapter 57): Oxen are after all the most serviceable creatures. At sharing the farmer's labours, at carrying loads of various kinds, at filling the milk-pail - at all these things the ox is excellent. He graces the altars, gladdens festivals, and provides a solemn banquet. And even when dead the ox is a splendid creature deserving our praise. At any rate bees are begotten of his carcase - bees, the most industrious of creatures, which afford the best and sweetest of fruits that man has, namely honey. [Book 4, chapter 35] A domesticated ox will never forget the man who strikes and chastises him, but he remembers and takes his revenge even after a long interval. - [Scholfield translation]

Isidore of Seville [7th century CE] (Etymologies, Book 12, 1:30): The span of its hide from the chin to the forelegs is called the dewlap (palear), from the term skin (pellis) itself, as if the word were pellear. This is a sign of good breeding in an ox. Oxen possess an extraordinary affection for their comrades, for one will seek the other with whom he has been accustomed to share the yoke, and with constant lowing show its devoted fondness if by chance the other is missing. - [Barney, Lewis, et. al. translation]