Sources : Lark

Thomas of Cantimpré [circa 1200-1272 CE] (Liber de natura rerum, Birds 5.14, 5.30): [Thomas describes the lark under two names, alauda and calendris.] [Birds 14] The lark, as he says [i.e. Liber rerum], is a bird called a lauda ("in praise"), because of the wonderful joy of its flight in the air, the melody of its voice delights the ear with its gentleness. For when the sky is cloudy or rainy, it hardly or never sings. In the coming of day in the dawn its voice betrays its joy. Sitting on the ground it hardly ever sings; it sings on the way up. As the Experimentator says, it ascends little by little, but suddenly comes down like a stone. In descending, it joins its wings to its body and controls its flight with a light movement of its tail. If captured by a man in its youth, it is kept in in a cage, where, although it sometimes sings, it clearly testifies that it is being wronged, because it is not allowed to go free in the air while singing. Philosophus: It fears the hawk so much, that when it is attacked by one, it flies into the bosom of men, or offers himself to be caught by his hand on the low ground, knowing that it would receive more pity from a man than from a hawk; and with merit, because the hawk would never pity a captive. [Birds 5.30] Calendris is a small bird almost like a lark, as he says [i.e. Liber rerum].. It is brown in color, and the feathers are unattractive, but it delights its listeners with the wonderful modulation of its voice. Hence it is that those taken by men are kept in cages. But forgetful of its captivity and calamity, it scarcely passes an hour of the day without singing; so that it does not look elsewhere, nor is it worried about food or the present life, but one thing necessary to it is that it enjoys being entertained by songs and being awakened at all hours by the different voices of the birds. For it imitates the voices of all, and you would not be able to judge, if you did not see the bird, whether it is the proper voice of the calendris or of that which it imitates. - [Badke translation/paraphrase]