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Aberdeen University
The Aberdeen Bestiary Project (Aberdeen University, 1996)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"The Aberdeen Bestiary (Aberdeen University Library MS 24) is considered to be one of the best examples of its type. The manuscript, written and illuminated in England around 1200, is of added interest since it contains notes, sketches and other evidence of the way it was designed and executed.

"The entire manuscript has been digitised using Photo-CD technology, thus creating a surrogate, while allowing greater access to the text itself. The digitised version, offering the display of full-page images and of detailed views of illustrations and other significant features, is complemented by a series of commentaries, and a transcription and translation of the original Latin."

The first and still the most comprehensive online edition of a Bestiary (or any manuscript, for that matter).

Language: English


Dmitri Abramov
'Liber de naturis rerum’ von Pseudo-John Folsham - eine moralisierende lateinische Enzyklopädie aus dem 13. Jahrhundert (Hamburg: University of Hamburg, 2003) [Dissertation]

Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Hamburg.

Language: German


"Die moralisierende Enzyklopädie 'Liber de naturis rerum' von Pseudo-John Folsham" (in Christel Meier, ed., Die Enzyklopädie im Wandel vom Hochmittelalter bis zur frühen Neuzeit, München: Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften 78, 2002, 123-154) [Book article]

A description of a natural-science encyclopaedia 'Liber de naturis rerum' which was written 1230-40 in England. The author is anonymous, probably an English Dominican. The encyclopaedia was sometimes falsely ascribed to John Folsham, an English Carmelite, died 1348. The work is found in Trinity College Library, R.15.13.

Language: German


Vladimir Acosta
Animales e imaginario: la zoología maravillosa medieval (Caracas: Dirección de Cultura, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 1995; Series: Colección Letras de Venezuela 125; Serie Ensayo) [Book]

376 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 980-00-0875-6; LCCN: 96193653; LC: GR825.A65 1995; DDC: 398/.469


Claudius Aelianus
De Natura Animalium (Bill Thayer, 2005)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"Although Aelian was a Roman, he preferred to write in Greek, and the original text of the De Natura Animalium is in that language. It is so difficult, however, to put Greek on the Web with uniform results across the various browsers and platforms, that if you are one of the few who read Greek, I like to think you have access to TLG, and on this site, widening the audience for the work, I provide only a translation. I know of no English translation in the public domain, though, so I've transcribed the Latin translation by Friedrich Jacobs in the Frommann edition, Jena, 1832. I must reiterate that there is no particular virtue or antiquity in this Latin: it is not the original, it is a modern translation done at a time when Latin seemed a reasonably universal language; if the translation had been undertaken today with the same desire to reach the widest possible audience, it would have been in English. As almost always, I retyped the text by hand rather than scanning it..." - Thayer

Language: Latin


Claudius Aelianus, A. F. Scholfield, trans.
On the Characteristics of Animals (Cambridge, Massachusetts: LCL, 1958) [Book]

Language: English


Aesop, Olivia & Robert Temple, trans.
Aesop: The Complete Fables (London: Penguin Books, 1998) [Book]

The complete corpus of 358 fables ascribed to Aesop. This translation is based on the earlier work by Émile Chambray (Ésope Fables, text Établi et Traduit par Émile Chambray, Paris, 1927), who established the numbering system.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-14-044649-4


Émile Agnel
Curiosités judiciaires et historiques du moyen âge. Procès contre les animaux (Paris: J. B. Dumoulin, 1858)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Legal actions taken against animals in the middle ages.

Language: French


Karl Ahrens
Buch der Naturgegenstände (Kiel: C.F. Haeseler, 1892) [Book]

A Syriac version of the Physiologus, with German translation. "Textverbesserungen von Prof. Dr. G. Hoffmann".

84 pp.

Language: German
LCCN: 44-25036; LC: PJ5671.P54; DDC: 381.45; OCLC: 6892892


Zur Geschichte des sogenannten Physiologus (Ploen: 1885) [Book]

Language: German


Pauline Aiken
"The Animal History of Albertus Magnus and Thomas of Cantimpré" (Speculum, 22 (April), 1947, 205-225)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The problem of the relationship between the last five books of Albertus Magnus' De Animalibus and the corresponding books of the De Natura Rerum of Thomas of Cantimpré was first raised nearly a century ago and has not yet been conclusively solved. ... The present paper attempts to show that Albertus borrowed extensively from Thomas. Certain restrictions as to the kinds of evidence valid for such an argument are immediately obvious. Since Thomas' statements are nearly all taken from earlier writings, which were also available to Albertus, material common to the De Natura Rerum and the De Animalibus does not necessarily constitute evidence of influence. Moreover, since Albertus usually rephrases borrowed material, it is difficult to establish conclusively by parallel phrasing alone the sources upon which he drew. It is necessary, therefore, to find in Thomas' work statements not included in his sources and to show that Albertus reproduced these passages. The obvious approach to such a purpose is a study of Thomas' errors. If it can be shown that Albertus consistently reproduces errors original with Thomas, we have, it seems to me, unmistakable evidence of borrowing." - Aiken

Language: English


Albertus Magnus, James J. Scanlan, trans.
Man and the Beasts (de Animalibus, Books 22-26) (New York: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY), 1987; Series: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, Volume 47) [Book]

"The intent of this translation is to introduce the modern reader to the zoological researches of Albertus Mangnus. Though revered as a saint and doctor of the Church and remembered as the mentor of Thomas Aquinas, Albert is less known for his accomplisments in the natural sciences, despite the fact that prominent historians have acclaimed him as the most noted naturalist of Latin Europe in the Middle Ages. ... The present translation of Books 22 to 26 .. is based on [Hermann] Stadler's edition. ... In these final five books of De Animalibus Albert doffed the cap of a scholastic philosopher and assumed the role of a naturalist, a scientist giving free rein to his powers of observation, calling upon an abundant store zoological knowledge accumulated during his travels and citing a number of authorities for animals that lay beyond the ken of his own experience." - Author, Introduction

Stadler based his edition on the manuscript copy of De Animalibus in the municipal archives of Cologne (Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln, W 258A).

Scanlan includes a biography of Albert, a discussion of his sources and methods, and an extensive biography.

516 pp. Introduction, bibliography, index, list of authors cited by Albert.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-86698-032-6


Albertus Magnus, Hermann Stadler, ed.
De animalibus libri XXVI (Munich: Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters, 1916-20; Series: Volumes 15 & 16) [Book]

Language: Latin


Rosa Alcoy
"L’ agnello e la colomba: gli animali più simbolici e il loro contesto nell’arte catalana medievale" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 103-116)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Prendendo in esame come ambito di riferimento larte catalana del periodo medievale, è possibile analizzare linserimento dellagnello e della colomba in una serie di programmi iconografici importanti che ci portano dai monumenti ai libri illustrati, dallXI e XII secolo al XV secolo. Logicamente, non è possibile esaminare tutti i esempi che ci sono arrivati nè tutte le sfumature del caso, però proverò a offrire un elenco rappresentativo in questa sede. La distanza che separa questi animali dallessere rappresentato li situa tra gli esseri più profondamente simbolici della religiosità cristiana In qualunque caso, e in termini generali, lAgnus trionfante manca di una prospettiva narrativa equivalente a quella dello Spirito Santo. Per tanto, bisogna considerare le somiglianze e differenze che separano entrambi i simboli, colomba e agnello, come proiezioni e simboli delle complesse situazioni che richiedono la visualizzazione metaforica dellessere divino." - abstract

Language: Italian
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.34


R. McN. Alexander
"The Evolution of the Basilisk" (Greece & Rome, Second series, 10:2 (October), 1963, 170-181)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

The author traces the evolution of the basilisk story from ancient Latin works, concluding that it is based on the Egyptian cobra. The story is then followed through to the middle ages, with examples from medieval authors, showing how it changed because of misunderstandings.

Language: English


Monique Alexandre
"Bestiaire chretien: Mort, renovation, resurrection dans le Physiologus; Actes du Colloque de Poitiers, 13-14 mai 1983" (in Francois Jouan, ed., Mort et fecondite dans les mythologies: Travaux et memoires, Paris: Belles Lettres, 1986, 119-137) [Book article]

Language: French


Gloria Allaire
"Animal descriptions in Andrea da Barberino's Guerrino meschino" (Romance Philology, 56:1, 2002, 23-39) [Journal article]

Aims to identify Andrea da Barberino's sources for the descriptions of exotic beasts found in his Guerrino meschino and to analyse his use of these sources.

Language: English
ISSN: 0035-8002


"New Evidence Toward Identifying Dante's Enigmatic Lonza" (Electronic Bulletin of the Dante Society of America, 1997)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

"Of the three beasts in Inferno 1, the lonza's puzzling nature is triple, comprising its etymology, its naturalistic counterpart, and its allegorical significance. Dante described it as swift, slender, and spotted. For centuries, scholars have grappled with unsatisfactory zoological identifications. The lynx, panther, leopard(ess), pard, cheetah, hyena, and even lioness have been proposed or rejected in turn." - Allaire

The author refers to Pliny and the Tuscan Bestiary in an attempt to identify the beast called the lonza.

The Electronic Bulletin of the Dante Society of America Web site can be found at

Language: English


J. Romilly Allen
Early Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and Ireland before the Thirteenth Century (London: Whiting & Co., 1887; Series: The Rhind Lectures in Archeology) [Book]

The Rhind Lectures in Archeology for 1885.

Lecture 5 (Norman Sculpture in the Architechtural Details of Churches) deals with the changes in sculptural style brought to Britain by the Normans after 1066. There is some reference to animals on stone sculptures and carvings in churches.

Lecture 6 (The Medieval Bestiaries) deals in general with bestiary subjects, and in particulr with beastiary images found in the sculptures and carvings in Norman churches and on pre-Norman sculpted stones.

Reprinted in facsimile by Llanerch Publishers in three volumes: The High Crosses of Ireland (ISBN 094799201), The Romano-Period and Celtic Monuments (ISBN 0947992952), and Norman Sculpture and the Medieval Bestiaries (ISBN 0947992960).

Contents : I. Early Christian symbolism in foreign countries.--II. Romano-British period and Celtic sepulchral monuments.--III. The high crosses of Ireland (10th cent.)--Subjects on the heads.--IV. The high crosses of Ireland.--Subjects on the shafts and bases.--V. Norman sculpture, chiefly in the architectural details of churches (A.D. 1066-1200)--VI. The mediaeval bestiaries.

408 pp., illustrations, plates.

Language: English
LCCN: 62-2407; LC: BR133.G6; OCLC: 14453521


Norman Sculpture and the Medieval Bestiaries (Dyfed, Wales: Llanerch Publishers, 1990)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Facsimile edition of Lectures 5 and 6 (pages 236 - 395) of Allen's Early Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and Ireland Before the Thirteenth Century (the Rhind Lectures in Archeology for 1885). Originally published by Whiting & Co., London in 1887.

Lecture 5 (Norman Sculpture in the Architechtural Details of Churches) deals with the changes in sculptural style brought to Britain by the Normans after 1066. There is some reference to animals on stone sculptures and carvings in churches.

Lecture 6 (The Medieval Bestiaries) deals in general with bestiary subjects, and in particulr with beastiary images found in the sculptures and carvings in Norman churches and on pre-Norman sculpted stones.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-947992-96-0; LCCN: 94119128; LC: NB1280.A45 1990z; DDC: 730/.941/0902 20; OCLC: 27768920


Judy Allen, Jeanne Griffiths
The Book of the Dragon (Secaus, NJ: Chartwell Books, 1979) [Book]

"...this ilustrated history of the dragon ... includes stories, quotations, speculations and tentative suggestions which show the dragon through the differing interpretations from ancient Greece to Mexico, from Hinduism to the pagan cults, in classical art and stonemasonary." - cover copy

128 pp., 140 color and black and white illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-89009-241-9; LCCN: 79-51123


Lillian Graham Allen
An analysis of the medieval French bestiaries (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1935) [Dissertation]

MA dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Language: English
OCLC: 39362109


Margaret Allen, Beryl Rowland & Arthur Adamson
Bestiary (Winnipeg: St. John's College Press, University of Manitoba, 1984) [Book]

A loose verse translation by Margaret Allen of the Middle English Bestiary (British Library Arundel MS 292), with and introduction and bibliography by Beryl Rowland and line drawings by Arthur Adamson.

53 p., 4 p. introduction, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-920291-00-7; LC: PR1836.A24 1984; DDC: 821'.1


Philip S. Allen
"Turteltaube" (Modern Language Notes, 19:6 (June), 1904, 175-177)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Some notes on the use of the tutledove theme in German poetry, and its sources.

Language: English


Jeffrey L. Allport
Three early Christian interpretations of nature and scripture: the Physiologus, Origen, and Basil (Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary, 1984) [Dissertation]

M. Div. dissertation at Princeton Theological Seminary.

88 p.

Language: English
OCLC: 22782229


Klaus Alpers
Untersuchungen zum griechischen Physiologus und den Kyraniden (Hamburg: Friedrich Wittig Verlag, 1984) [Book]

"Sonderdruck aus 'All Geschöpf ist Zung' und Mund' : Vestigia Bibliae 6."

92 p., bibliography.

Language: German
DDC: 881A; OCLC: 16931513


Saint Ambrose, John J. Savage, trans.
Hexameron, Paradise, and Cain and Abel (New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1961; Series: The Fathers of the Church, 42) [Book]

An English translation of the Hexameron by Ambrose, homilies on the first six days of the Genesis story of creation. The homilies for the Fifth Day describe many beasts which are found in the bestiary.

449 p., bibliography, index.

Language: English
LC: BR60 F3A56


Saint Ambrose, C. Schenkl, ed.
Hexaemeron (Vienna: Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, 1937; Series: Vol XXXII, Part 1) [Book]

Language: Latin


Manuel Ambrosio Sanchez
"Los bestiarios en la predicacion castellana medieval" (in Actas del III Congreso de la Asociacion Hispanica de Literatura Medieval, I II., Salamanca, Spain: Biblioteca Espanola del Siglo XV, Departamento de Literatura Espanola e Hispanoamericana, 1994, 915-921) [Book article]

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 84-920305-0-X


Ambrogio Amelli
Miniature sacre e profane dell'anno 1023, illustranti l'enciclopedia medioevale di Rabano Mauro, riprodotte in 133 tavole cromolitografiche da un codice di Montecassino [no 132] (Montecassino: Tipo-litografia di Montecassino, 1896; Series: Documenti per la storia della miniatura e dell'iconografia) [Book]

The manuscript of De rerum naturis or De universo of Hrababus Mauris at Montecassino (Cod. 132).

2 p. introduction, 133 color plates.

Language: Italian
LCCN: 03-6649; LC: ND3399.H8; DDC: 745; OCLC: 10186313


Sahar Amer
"A Fox Is Not Always a Fox! Or How Not to Be a Renart in Marie de France's "Fables"" (Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, 51:1, 1997, 9-20)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"In her fable collection known as the Esope, the first French female poet departs from the typological literature of her contemporaries and rejects the univocal and fixed animal symbolism of her period in order to create something new. I have chosen to focus on the representation of the fox since he, perhaps more than any other animal in the twelfth century, had a well established and well known symbolism, both in the vernacular and in the more didactic literatures. A study of the portrayal of the fox in Marie de France's Fables will thereby allow us to understand more fully the poet's innovation and her daring subversion of available models. However, the example of the fox is but one among many in Marie's recueil, and my conclusions apply to other animals and other aspects of the Esope. In other words, the example of the fox serves only as a prolegomenon to a more extended study of the representation of characters in Marie's Fables, as well as of the symbol-ism in her text, and of Marie's poetic craft in general." - Amer

Language: English


Pierre Amiet
"Le bestiaire des sceaux de l'ancien Orient" (in Pierre Dehaye, ed., Le bestiaire: des monnaies des sceaux et des médailles, Paris, 1974, 1-11) [Book article]

Language: French


M. D. Anderson
Animal Carvings in British Churches (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938) [Book]

99 pp. bibliography, illustrations, index.

Language: English
LCCN: 39027575; LC: NA3680.A6; OCLC: 640043


History and Imagery in British Churches (London: John Murray, 1971) [Book]

308 p., 49 plates (1 fold), illustrations, map.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7195-2232-3; LCCN: 70873898; LC: BR744.A58; DDC: 247


The Imagery of British Churches (London: John Murray, 1955) [Book]

An extensive survey of the symbols, emblems and attributes depicted in the sculpture and woodwork of medieval British churches. There are many animal references, and one chapter entirely on "The Mirror of Nature". An appendix gives a "List of Animals Identifiable in Churches" with references to the text.

"It is therefore the popular understanding of medieval imagery, rather than its doctrinal or aesthetic aspects, that forms the theme of this book which aims at helping its readers to look at the structure and decoraion of medieval churches through the eyes of people like themselves who lived when these churches were being built; to become in imagination those for whom the the picture books of the ecclesiatical arts were designed. ... Since, even if we disregard extremes, we cannot see the whole picture through one pair of eyes, let us attempt a sythesis of three points of view: those of the parson who served an ordinary parish church, the craftsman who built or adorned it, and the parishioner who general paid for the work. I will first try to show the ways in which such men were likely to have affected church-building and the design of religious imagery. Then we must consider the choice and arrangement of subjects according to principles evolved by scholarly theologians... Finally, I will describe the individual subjects included in a normal cycle of illustrations to this Picture Book..." - introduction

240 p., 24 p. of black & white photographs, illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
LCCN: 55002979; LC: BR133.G6 A56; OCLC: 3330793


The Medieval Carver (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935) [Book]

A discussion of stone and wood carving in Britain, mostly in churches. Chapter 7 deals specifically with beast and bestiary-related carvings, though there are scattered references to bestiary themes throughout. Chapters: The Masons; Contemporary Scenes; The Bible; Life of the Virgin, Saints and Angels; Allegory, Romance and Satire; Bestiaries and Beasts; Folliage Sculpture.

187 pp., bibliography, general index, index of place names, a few black and white photographic plates.

Language: English
LCCN: 35017483; LC: NB463.A5; DDC: 734.0942; OCLC: 1223271


Misericords: Medieval Life in English Woodcarving (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1954) [Book]

"Services were long and frequent in the Middle Ages, and monks and canons had to stand upright longer than they liked. So, comiserating with them, the carpenters made small seats on the underside of the tip-up seats in chancell stalls on which one could sit, or against which at least one could lean while apparently standing. The function and position being what it was, no strict control seems to have been kept over what the carver wished to represent to decorate these miserere or misericord seats. The author of this book tells illuminatingly and entertainingly of the many types of subjects which appear on these seats, from saints and biblical scenes to the romances of Alexander the Great and tristram and Iseult, and from the records of everyday life: boat building, football, and so on, to birds and beasts and monsters." - cover copy

Includes a discussion of the craftsmen who did the carving, dating of the works, stylistic development and sources.

30 pp. of text, 48 pages of black and white photographic plates.

Language: English
LCCN: 55004523; LC: NA5075.A5; OCLC: 648854


Lawrens Andrewe, Frederick J. Furnivall
The noble lyfe & nature of man, Of bestes, serpentys, fowles & fisshes y be moste knowen (1894; Series: The Boke of Nurture)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

"A very rare black-letter book, without date, and hitherto undescribed, except perhaps incorrectly by Ames (vol. 1, p. 412, and vol. 3, p. 1531), has been lent to me by Mr. Algernon Swinburne. Its title is given above: 'The noble lyfe and natures of man' is in large red letters, and the rest in smaller black ones, all surrounded by woodcuts of the wonderul animals, mermaids, serpents, birds, quadrupeds with men's and women's heads, a stork with its neck tied in a knot, and each other beatss 'y be most knowen.' The illustrations to each chapter are wonderfully quaint. The author of it says in his Prologus:

'In the name of ower sauiour criste Iesu, maker & redemour of al mankynd, I Lawrens Andrewe of the towne of Calis haue translated for Johannes does-borrowe, booke prenter in the cite of Andwarpe, this present volume deuyded in thre partes, which were neuer before in no maternall langage prentyd tyl now .'

As it is doubtful whether another copy of the book is known, I extract from from the Third Part of this incomplete one such notices of the fish mentioned by Russell or Wynkyn de Worde, as it contains, with a few others for curiousity's sake." - Frederick J. Furnivall, 1894.

Language: English


Lawrens Andrewe, James L. Matterer, trans.
Fantastic Fish of the Middle Ages (
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A translation of Lawrens Andrewe's "The noble lyfe & nature of man, Of bestes, serpentys, fowles & fisshes y be moste knowen". A late-medieval manuscript translated into modern English, with period illustrations. Here are the fantastic and incredible fish of the Middle Ages, which populated both the waters and the imagination of the Medieval world. Real creatures still familar to us, such as the salmon and the crayfish will be found here, but you will also read of such fabulous specimens as the Abremon, which propagated without intercourse, the Ezox, so large that a four-horsed cart could not carry one away, and the Nereydes, sea monsters that cried whenever one of them died.

Fantastic Fish of the Middle Ages is from Lawrens Andrewe's "The noble lyfe & nature of man, Of bestes, serpentys, fowles & fisshes y be moste knowen" as reprinted in The Boke of Nurture by Frederick J. Furnivall, 1894. Andrewe's original work was printed sometime between 1400 & 1550.

The modern English translations of Andrewe's text are by James L. Matterer.

Language: English


Marie Angel
Beasts in Heraldry: Twenty Heraldic Creatures in Full Color (USA: The Stephen Greene Press, 1974) [Book]

Twenty heraldic creatures in full color, introduced by the Richmond Herald of Arms.

Language: English


Marcel Angheben
"Le combat du guerrier contre un animal fantastique: à propos de trois chapiteaux de Vézelay" (Bulletin monumental, 152:3, 1994, 245-256) [Journal article]

Romanesque sculpture on capitals in Vézelay, France.

Language: French


"Dialogus creaturarum moralizatus" (in J.G.Th. Grässe, L.A.J.R. Houwen. ed., Die beiden ältesten lateinischen Fabelbücher des Mittelalters, Tübingen, 1880, 125-280)
 Web site/resource link [Book article]

A series of moralized dialogs between pairs of natural beings and/or objects, in Latin. The beings and objects include astronomical objects, the four elements, geographical features of the Earth, plants, stones and animals.

Digital edition published by Onderzoekschool Mediëvistiek (Netherlands Research School for Medieval Studies), 1998.

Language: Latin


Ver Antik
"Simbolikata na 'Fiziologot' i naseto narodno tvorestvo" (Midwest Folklore, 4 (7-8), 1971, 47-67) [Journal article]

Symbols in the Physiologus and Macedonian folklore.

Language: Macedonian


Luboš Antonín
Bestiár: bájná zvírata, zivlové bytosti, monstra, obludy a nestvury v knizní ilustraci konce stredoveké Evropy (Praha: Pudorys, 2003; Series: Tsurah) [Book]

Mythical animals in art.

372 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Czech
ISBN: 80-86018-17-2; LCCN: 2003477689; LC: N7745.A5; OCLC: 52972846


Karl Appel
Provenzalische Chrestomathie (Leipzig: 1895) [Book]

Language: German


Maria Experanza Aragones Estella
The Image of Evil in Romanesque Art of the Way of Saint James in Navarra (Navarra: Universidad de Navarra, 1994) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the Universidad de Navarra, Spain.

"This Ph.D. dissertation is a study of the images of evil in the Way of Saint James of Navarra and the Romanesque period (XI and XII centuries). These representations are compared with those located in other points of the Romanesque style in Navarra, in Spanish and European churches: especially Romanesque churches in France located in the Pilgrim's Road to Santiago. Some representations are compared with images that belong to other artistic periods; for example, pre-Romanesque images from Beatos and illuminated books from X and XII centuries or Gothic images from Spanish or French churches, are included. This study is organized in five chapters, which include in a thematic way the group of evil images in Navarra. The first one is dedicated to the devil's image in Biblical scenes: the devil in the Old Testament, New Testament and Apocalypse. We also try to study the devil in the hagiographic scenes: Saint Michael and Saint George slaying the dragon and the devil in Saint Andrew's life. Finally we discuss isolated images of the devil located in corbels of religious buildings. The second chapter refers to the image of Hell in the Romanesque art, sculpted as the cauldron and the mouth of Leviathan or a monster's mouth. Third chapter is about the deadly sins Lust, Avarice, Gluttony, Sloth, Pride and Wrath. We have not found any representations of Envy. In the fourth chapter we refer to the negative bestiaries that include beasts with evil significance, not only fantastic but also real animals. Finally, in the fifth chapter we study profane music and its negative significance. In the conclusion we summarize the main characteristics of the dissertation and we expose influences of classical art, and Jewish and Islamic scatology influences on the Way of Saint James in Navarra. Finally we prove that those artistic forms are influenced by the customs, folklore and popular culture." - abstract

450 p.

Language: Spanish


Luisa Cogliati Arano
"Dal " Fisiologo" al "Bestiario" di Leonardo" (Rivista di storia della miniatura, 1:2 (1996-97), 1998, 239-248) [Journal article]

Language: French


"Fonti figurative del Bestiario di Leonardo" (Arte lombarda: Rivista di storia dell'arte, n.s.62, 1982, 151-160) [Journal article]

Language: Italian


Alexandra Ardeleanu-Jansen
"Der bunte Söller von Schloss Streversdorp/Château Graaf : Überlegungen zu einem spätmittelalterlichen Raumprogramm" (in Burg- und Schlosskapellen, Stuttgart: K. Theiss, 1995, 109-117) [Book article]

Research on the iconographic program of the murals of the principal room of the Graaf Castle in Montzen: the mixture of Christian scenes and allegorical representations related to the text of Physiologus, the symbols of the love and the virtues. A certain number of scenes are accompanied by inscriptions.

Language: German


Carmen Elen Armijo
"El bestiario medieval: Una clave para la interpretacion del Libro de los gatos" (in Lillian von der Walde, Concepcion Company & Aurelio Gonzalez, ed., Caballeros, monjas y maestros en la Edad Media: Actas de las V Jornadas Medievales, Mexico City: Medievalia 13: Colegio de Mexico, University Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1996, 205-219) [Book article]

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 968-36-5374-X


Mary Allyson Armistead
The Middle English Physiologus: A Critical Translation and Commentary (Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, 2001)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Dissertation]

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature, April 12, 2001, Blacksburg, Virginia.

"Considering the vast importance of the Physiologus tradition in the Middle Ages, one would expect to find that scholars have edited, translated, and studied all of the various versions of the Physiologus. While most of the Latin bestiaries and versions of the Physiologus have been edited, translated, studied, and glossed, the Middle English (ME) Physiologusthe only surviving version of the Physiologus in Middle Englishhas neither been translated nor strictly studied as a literary text. In light of the Physiologus traditions importance, it would seem that the only version of the Physiologus that was translated into Middle English would be quite significant to the study of medieval literature and to the study of English literature as a whole. Thus, in light of this discovery, the current edition attempts to spotlight this frequently overlooked text by providing an accurate translation of the ME Physiologus, critical commentary, and historical background. Such efforts are put forth with the sincere hope that such a critical translation may win this significant version of the Physiologus its due critical and literary attention." - Armistead

Language: English


Peter Armour
"Griffins" (in John Cherry, ed., Mythical Beasts, London: British Museum Press/Pomegranite Artbooks, 1995, 72-103) [Book article]

A discussion of the griffin from antiquity through the Middle Ages. Illustrated in color and black & white.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-87654-606-8


Edward A. Armstrong
Saint Francis : nature mystic. The derivation and significance of the nature stories in the Franciscan legend (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973) [Book]

Language: English
ISBN: 0-520-01966-0


Lilian Armstrong
"The Illustration of Pliny's Historia naturalis: Manuscripts before 1430" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 46, 1983, 19-39)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The Historia naturalis of Pliny the Elder has been characterized by one historian of science as 'perhaps the most important single source extant for the history of ancient civilization'. That it was also important for the history of the later Middle Ages can now be gathered from three hitherto unpublished illuminated manuscripts of the Historia naturalis from the Gothic period which are the subject of the following discussion. The sources and nature of the iconographic cycle in their miniatures are the primary concern of this study, but the historical and artistic characteristics of the manuscripts must also be explored in order to appreciate fully their significance." - Armstrong

The manuscripts described are:

- Madrid, Biblioteca Real de San Lorenzo del Escorial, MS R.I.5

- Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, MSS 1.1.24-1.1.25

- Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, MS Parm. 1278 (H. H. 1.62)

- Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, MS E. 24 inf.

The article includes 10 pages of plates illustrating the manuscripts.

Language: English


M. Arnott, I. Beavan, J. Geddes
"The Aberdeen Bestiary: an Online Medieval Text" (Computers & Texts [CTI Textual Studies Newsletter], 11, 1996)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The prime objectives of the project (now well underway) are to mount the Aberdeen Bestiary (text and images) on the WWW, at the same time providing a surrogate for use by a wider, though still broadly academic, constituency. This is being achieved by supplying accompanying sets of commentaries, a transcription and a translation of the Latin text."

A description of an early stage of the project and its methodology.

Language: English


S. P. Ashby
"The Role of Zooarchaeology in the Intepretation of Socioeconomic Status: A Discussion with Reference to Medieval Europe" (in A. Pluskowski, ed., Medieval Animals, Cambridge: Archaeological Review from Cambridge 18, 2002, 37-59) [Book article]

Language: English


Genette Ashby-Beach
"Les Fables de Marie de France: Essai de Grammaire Narrative" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 13-28) [Book article]

"Dans les recherches sur la narration, [A. J.] Greimas essaie de découvrir les règles qui sous-tendent divers genres littéraires et populaires, et par là, les règles de tout récit. Nous nous proposons d'appliquer ses théories de la grammaire narrative à l'Esope de Marie de France. Par une série d'exercices pratiques nous espérons découvrir les règles qui régissent quelques fables de Marie. Une telle grammaire, quand elle sera complète, nous appredra non seulement comment fonctionne la fable de Marie mais également comment fonctionne la fable comme genre. Puisque le présent travail n'est qu'un premier pas vers la formulation d'une grammaire narrative des Fables de Marie, quatre fables seulement retiendront notre attention: «De Cane et umbra» (V), «De Vulpe et umbra lunae» (LVIII), «De Lupo et agno» (II), et «De Cane et ove» (IV). Nous passons sous silence la question de savoir s'il existe une grammaire de base de toutes les Fables de Marie." - Ashby-Beach

Language: French


John Ashton
Curious Creatures in Zoology (New York: Cassel Publishing, 1890)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"Our ancestors were content with what was given them, and being, as a rule, a stay-athome race, they could not confute the stories they read in books. That age of faith must have had its comforts, for no man could deny the truth of what he was told. But now that modern travel has subdued the globe, and inquisitive strangers have poked their noses into every portion of the world, the old order changeth, giving place to new, and, gradually, the old stories are forgotten. It is to rescue some of them from the oblivion into which they were fast falling, that I have written, or compiled, this book. It is not given to every one to be able to consult the old Naturalists; and, besides, most of them are written in Latin, and to read them through is partly unprofitable work, as they copy so largely one from another. But, for the general reader, selections can be made, and, if assisted by accurate reproductions of the very quaint wood engravings, a book may be produced which, I venture to think, will not prove tiring, even to a superficial reader. ... All the old Naturalists copied from one another, and thus compiled their writings. Pliny took from Aristotle, others quote Pliny, and so on; but it was reserved for the age of printing to render their writings available to the many, as well as to represent the creatures they describe by pictures (the books of the unlearned), which add so much piquancy to the text. Mine is not a learned disquisition. It is simply a collection of zoological curiosities, put together to suit the popular taste of to-day, and as such only should it be critically judged." - introduction

Contents include: Amazons; Pygmies; Giants; Wild Men; The Sphynx; Animal Lore; The Manticora; The Centaur; The Gorgon; The Unicorn; Were-Wolves; The Leontophonus; Cattle Feeding Backwards; Animal Medicine; The Hoopoe; The Halcyon; Woolly Hens; Four-Footed Duck Fish; Senses of Fishes; Wormes and Dragons; etc.

Language: English


Aaron Atsma
Theoi Project: a Guide to the Ancient Greek Pantheon of Gods (Aaron Atsma, 2000-03)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"Here you will find individual entries the various divinities & monsters containing quotes sourced from a wide and growing variety of Classical Texts. Many are also illustrated with pictures from C5th BC Greek Vase Painting."

On the Bestiary page: "Greek mythology was filled with a wide variety of monsters ranging from Dragons, Giants, Demons and Ghosts, to the multiformed Centaurs, Sphinxes and Griffins. There were also fabulous wild beasts - such as the Nemean Lion, the golden-fleeced Ram and the winged horse Pegasus. Even mankind was not exempt with fabulous tribes like the Libyan Umbrella-Foots, one-eyed Arimaspians, African Dog-Heads, and puny African Pygmies."

Language: English


Augustine, Philip Schaff, trans.
St. Augustin's City of God and Christian Doctrine (New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

Augustine's City of God was highly regarded and influential in the Middle Ages. This is an English translation, combined with Augustine's On Christian Doctrine. Augustine's discussion of animals in several chapters on City of God were quoted in some of the bestiaries.

Language: English


Linda Phyllis Austern, ed., Inna Naroditskaya, ed.
Music of the Sirens (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006) [Book]

"Whether referred to as mermaid, usalka, mami wata, or by some other name, the siren is the remarkable creature that has inspired music and its representations since ancient Greece. This book, co-edited by a historical musicologist and an ethnomusicologist, brings together leading scholars and some talented newcomers in classics, music, media studies, literature, and cultural studies to consider the siren and her multifaceted relationships to music across human time and geography." - publisher

376 pages, 39 b&w photos, 2 maps, bibliography, index.


Sirens in Antiquity and the Middle Ages - Leofranc Holford-Strevens / "Teach Me to Heare Mermaides Singinge": Embodiments of (Acoustic) Pleasure and Danger in the Modern West - Linda Phyllis Austern / Devils, Daydreams and Desire: Siren Traditions and Musical Creation in the Central-Southern Andes - Henry Stobart / "Sweet aluring harmony": Heavenly and Earthly Sirens in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Literary and Visual Culture - Elena Calogero / The Sirens, the Epicurean Boat, and the Poetry of Praise - Stephen Buhler / "Longindyingcall": of Music, Modernity, and the Sirens - Lawrence Kramer / Russian Rusalkas and Nationalism: Water, Power, and Women - Inna Naroditskaya / Rheinsirenen: Loreley and Other Rhine Maidens - Annegret Fauser / The Mermaid of the Meyhane: The Legend of a Greek Singer in a Turkish Tavern - John O'Connell / Siren Serenades: Music for Mami Wata/Mami Wata and Other Water Spirits in Africa - Henry Drewal (with Charles Gore and Michelle Kisliuk) / The Navel, the Corporate, the Contradictory: Pop Sirens at the Twenty-first Century - Thomasin LaMay and Robin Armstrong / The Cocktail Siren in David Lynch's Blue Velvet - Jeongwon Joe

Language: English
ISBN: 0-253-21846-2


Marino Ayerra Redín, Nilda Guglielmi
El fisiólogo; bestiario medieval (Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Beunos Aires, 1971; Series: Colección los fundamentales) [Book]

"Para realizar la presente edición se ha utilizado: Physiologus latinus. Versio Y. Editado por Francis J. Carmody." Traducido por Marino Ayerra Redín y Nilda Guglielmi. Introducción y notas de Nilda Guglielmi.

107 p. illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Spanish
LC: PA4273.P8; OCLC: 26271932


Kerry Ayre
Medieval English Figurative Roundels (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003; Series: Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi, Great Britain, Summary Catalogue) [Book]

This is a comprehensive catalogue of the large numbers of stained glass roundels produced in England between the late thirteenth century and the mid sixteenth centuries. The majority are decorated with religious images. However, roundels were commonly used in medieval homes and many of the designs provide glimpses of contemporary life and humour - including hybrid creatures.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-19-726251-1


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Janet Backhouse
The Illuminated Page: Ten Centuries of Manuscript Painting in the British Library (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997) [Book]

"In this new, lavishly illustrated survey drawn from the collections of the British Library, Janet Backhouse provides a comprehensive introduction to an exciting and colourful subject, ranging from the breathtaking intricacies of the 7th-century Lindifarne Gospels to the virtuoso pages of Renaissance and later artists." - publisher

Includes images from and descriptions of several bestiary-related manuscripts.

Janet Backhouse is Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library.

240 pp., 215 colour plates, bibliography, manuscript index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8020-4346-1


Medieval Birds in the Sherborne Missal (Toronto / London: University of Toronto Press / British Library, 2001) [Book]

"The Sherborne Missal [early 15th century, British Library Additional MS 74326], one of the most important surviving medieval English manuscripts, contains a wealth of marginal illustrations of wild birds, painted with skill and vivacity. Some of the birds are imaginary creations of the artist but the majority are evidently real birds, although not all of these can be identified with certainty. All forty-eight are reproduced here and most are well observed and readily recognizable. The majority are accompanied by their names, written out in middle English, offering and almost unparalleled source of vernacular bird names in common use during the generation after Chaucer wrote his Canterbury Tales. This is the first time that all birds from the Sherborne Missal have been reproduced together in sequence and this beautifully illustrated book provides an insight into a fascinating aspect of England's natural history in the middle ages." - publisher

64 p., color illustrations on every page, bibliography, index of bird names.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8020-8434-6; LC: ND3375.S44B295 2001; DDC: 745.6'7'0942


David Badke
The Bestiary of Anne Walshe (David Badke, 2001)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A discussion of the codicology, paleography and imagery of the Bestiary of Anne Walshe, Copenhagen Gl. kgl. S. 1633 4º.

Language: English


"The Old English Physiologus in the Exeter Book" (David Badke, 2002)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

A discussion of the three-episode Phyiologus poem found in the Exeter Book manuscript (Exeter Dean and Chapter MS 3501).

Language: English


Jana Bailey
Animal passions: animal behavior and human sexual morality in medieval bestiaries and mid-nineteenth-century periodicals (Baltimore: University of Maryland, 1996) [Dissertation]

MA dissertation at the University of Maryland.

268 p.

Language: English
OCLC: 47901168


Lorrayne Y. Baird
"Christus gallinaceus: A Chaucerian Enigma; or the Cock as Symbol for Christ in the Middle Ages" (Studies in Iconography, 9, 1983, 19-39) [Journal article]

Language: English


"The Role of the Cock in Fertility and Eroticism in Classical Antiquity and the Middle Ages"" (Studies in Iconography, 7-8, 1981-2, 81-112) [Journal article]

Language: English


Craig Baker, ed.
Le Bestiaire, Version longue attribuée à Pierre de Beauvais (Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion, 2010; Series: Classiques français du Moyen Age, N°163.1 vol., 480) [Book]

La présente publication offre la première édition critique du texte, fondée sur une étude approfondie des six témoins actuellement connus et un nouvel examen des sources mises à profit par lauteur. Pourvue dune ample introduction qui fait le point sur loeuvre et les problèmes quelle soulève, lédition reproduit également un choix dillustrations médiévales.

This publication provides the first critical edition of the text, based on a thorough study of the six witnesses known at present and new sources reviewed by the author. Provided with an ample introduction which provides an update on the work and the problems it raises, the edition also reproduces a selection of medieval illustrations.

Language: French
9782745320636; OCLC: 688494975


Etude et edition critique de la version longue du 'Bestiaire' attribuee a Pierre de Beauvais (New Jersey: Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, 2004) [Dissertation]

"According to its prologue, the Long Version of the Bestiary is the work of Pierre de Beauvais. Through the study of texts that can be surely attributed to Pierre, one may determine his period of activity with relative precision (1180-1218) and identify certain characteristic work habits. Chronological indications and the relationship between the two versions of the Bestiary indicate that the Short Version dates from before 1206 and is surely by Pierre. A careful examination of the sources of the Long Version (Le Lucidaire, The Letter of Priester John, and Gossouin de Metz's Image du monde) and the manner in which they are treated, on the other hand, leads to conclude that the second redaction dates from 1246-1260 and is not by Pierre. This conclusion is confirmed by the comparative study of the two works, which reveals important differences. While focusing on the two versions of the Bestiary, I have also sought to situate the bestiary with regards to the other branches of medieval learning, especially the encyclopedia and biblical exegesis. Although close to these two genres, the bestiary possesses its own specificity and cannot be assimilated to either. The present edition constitutes the first critical edition of this version of the text. It is based on the five known and accessible manuscript witnesses, as well as on an indepth study of the manuscript tradition, from the Physiologus and the Short Version to the Bestiary of Love by Richard de Fournival. The edition is followed by copious textual notes, indices of animals and proper names, and a glossary. A transcription of the Malines manuscript, the best witness of the Short Version, is provided in an appendix. My new edition and study of the text are intended to allow for a better understanding of this important work and of its place in the intellectual and artistic evolutions that marked the 13th century." - abstract

PhD dissertation, 2004. 816 p.

Language: French
PQDD: AAT 3117592


"De la paternité de la Version longue du Bestiaire attribué à Pierre de Beauvais" (in Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d’études médiévales, 2005, 1-29) [Book article]

Language: French


Nicolas Balachov
"Le Developpement des Structures Narratives du Fabliau a la Nouvelle" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 29-37) [Book article]

"Dans ce bref exposé, on procède à une comparison différenciatrice de quelques structures narratives des fabliaux et des plus anciennes nouvelles parues à l'origine du genre, structures liées à tel ou tel sujet. On n'étudie pas l'histoire du développement des sujets avec toutes les circonstances concrètes possibles, mais on confronte seulement deux niveaux: celui du fabliau et celui de la nouvelle à ses débuts." - Balachov

Language: French


Dean R. Baldwin
"Genre and Meaning in the Old English Phoenix" (The Bulletin of the West Virginia Association of College English Teachers, Spring; 6:1-2, 1981, 2-12) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0887-4409


Anthony Bale
"Fictions of Judaism in England before 1290" (in The Jews in Medieval Britain: Historical, Literary and Archaeological Perspectives, 2003, 129-144) [Book article]

Discusses the fictionalisation of medieval Anglo-Jewry by examining blood libel allegations and their use in hagiography (such as Thomas of Monmouth's life of Wiliam of Norwich) and historiography (such as Matthew Paris's Cronica Majora) as well as the portrayal of Jews in bestiaries.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85115-931-1


Carol Falkenstine Bales
The Outer Limits: Border Characters In Medieval Manuscript Illuminations And Middle English Mystery Plays (Cincinnati: University Of Cincinnati, 1989) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of Cincinnati.

"Marginal figures of medieval manuscript pages and border characters in Middle English mystery plays are similar in that they provide a frame for their respective centers, which usually profess or emphasize Christianity. Border characters of manuscripts, drawn in minute detail in the margins, are usually found in overtly devotional texts such as Psalters and Books of Hours; the marginal figures border the text and/or central miniature visually and metaphorically. Border characters in mystery plays, that is to say, characters who are peripheral in terms of the central action of the biblical story, or who do not appear in Scripture or Apocrypha but are created by the dramatist, also frame in some way the central action. These border characters, then, do have a purpose beyond that of mere comic relief or mindless doodling: they enhance devotion and meditation on that which is central. Marginal figures in manuscripts fit into three main categories, according to art historian Lilian Randall: sacred themes, bestiary themes, and drolleries. Border figures of sacred themes point the reader back to the message of the central text or miniature by reflecting and/or reinforcing it. Bestiary themes figures are revelatory of God in that they are His creations or subcreations; they are also used symbolically to reinforce the message of the text. Marginal characters designated as drolleries either extend the message of the central text, contrast with it, or provide delectatio through mental and spiritual recreation. Border characters in mystery plays function similarly. Most, such as Lightbourne, Pikeharnes, Mrs. Noah, the detractors, the midwives, and the Jews, provide recreation through comedy while at the same time presenting a negative example. Thus they provide an effective contrast for the holy characters in the play, and emphasize right action through their wrong action. Christian devotion, then, is at the center of devotional manuscripts and mystery plays. The center is always God; His creatures border Him, but they must choose whether to direct their attention toward Him and serve Him, or turn away and serve themselves. The example which the border characters provide helps the viewer to make his/her own choice." - abstract

292 p.

Language: English
PQDD: AAT9019873


A. A. Barb
"Birds and Medical Magic" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 13, 1950, 316-322)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of two beast-related items used in medieval medicine: the eagle-stone, said to be kept by eagles in their nests, and used to treat problems of pregnancy; and the 'Epistula Vulturis", containing medical recipes using parts of the vulture. The origin and history of both items is traced from Antiquity. Part 1. The Eagle-Stone; part 2. The Vulture Epistle

Language: English


Peter M. Barber, Michelle P. Brown
"The Aslake World Map" (Imago Mundi, 44, 1992, 24-44) [Journal article]

Language: English


Richard H. Barber, ed.
Bestiary: Being an English Version of the Bodleian Library, Oxford MS Bodley 764 (London: Folio Society, 1992) [Book]

An English translation of Bodleian Library, Oxford MS Bodley 764 with all of the illustrations.

"From the outset, it was intended that this edition should use the layout of the original manuscript; the miniatures are reproduced to their original size and in their original positions on the page, so that what appears in the following pages was designed by a thirteenth-century scribe and his illuminator, the only change being that the text is in a modern typeface rather than a highly abbreviated formal Gothic book-hand. As a result, and because the English equivalent comes out longer than the Latin text, discreet cutting of the text has been necessary... In identifying the beasts, which is often very difficult, I have in general followed the modern equivalents set out by Wilma George and Brunsdon Yapp in ... The Naming of the Beasts: Natural History in the Medieval Bestiary (London, 1991) The Naming of the Beasts. ... I have settled for a [style] which is straightforward, with perhaps an echo of the language of the Authorised Version, rather than a colloquial rendering, because this seems closer to the spirit of the work." - introduction

Also published: Woodbridge [England] : Boydell Press, 1993.

205 p., color illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85115-329-1; LCCN: 93002466; LC: PA8275.B4 E5 1993; DDC: 878/.03080836 20


Richard H. Barber, Anne Riches
A Dictionary of Fabulous Beasts (London: Boydell Press, 1996) [Book]

A glossary of beast names drawn from nature, literature and the mythology of many cultures. There are over 600 entries, most a paragraph or two, though some are much longer. Line drawings by Rosalind Dease.

Reprint of the 1971 Macmillan London, Ltd. edition.

167 pp., bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85115-685-1


Xavier Barbier de Montault
"Fragments d'un Phisiologus du XII siécle, à Monza" (Le manuscrit, II, 1895, 181-184) [Journal article]

Language: French


Nicholas Barker, ed.
Two East Anglian Picture Books: A Facsimile of the Helmingham Herbal and Bestiary and Bodleian MS Ashmole 1504 (London: Roxburghe Club, 1988) [Book]

The two manuscripts discussed are twin works of East Anglian origin. The Helmingham herbal and bestiary, formerly housed at Helmingham Hall, Suffolk, is in Paul Mellon's collection now at the Yale Center for British Art. The other is Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 1504.

Printed for presentation to the members of the Roxburghe Club.

100 p., 132 p. of colour plates, genealogical table, map, bibliography, index.

Language: English
OCLC: 22225329


Jean-François Barnaud
Le Bestiaire vieil-anglais : étude et traduction de textes animaliers dans la poésie vieil-anglaise (Paris: Association des médiévistes anglicistes de l'enseignement supérieur, 2001; Series: Publications de l'Association des médiévistes anglicistes de l'enseignement supérieur; Hors série 7) [Book]

Critical material in French; includes Old English texts with translation and notes in French.

2 v. (405 p.)

Language: French
ISBN: 2-901198-30-9; LC: PR203; DDC: 809; OCLC: 56200103


Peter Barnet, Pete Dandridge
Lions, Dragons, and Other Beasts: Aquamanilia of the Middle Ages, Vessels for Church and Table (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006) [Book]

"This fascinating book explores the history, techniques, and cultural significance of medieval aquamanilia, cast metal objects used to pour water for hand washing in religious and secular contexts. Usually created in appealing animal or human forms, aquamanilia feature two openings, one for filling and the other for pouring. They represent the first emergence of hollow-cast vessels in Western Europe and a significant development in the history of technology. The book presents and catalogues the entire aquamanilia collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art for the first time, as well as selected examples from other collections and other related medieval objects." - publisher

Language: English
ISBN: 0-300-11684-5


Stephen A Barney, trans., W.J. Lewis, J.A. Beach, Oliver Berghof, trans.
The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) [Book]

A translation into English of the Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, based on the text edited by W. M. Lindsay (1911). Also includes an introduction to Isidore and his work.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-521-83749-9


Xavier Barral Altet
"Les mosaïques de Ganagobie et de Saint André-de-Rozans et l’art clunisien" (Alpes de lumière, 115, 1995, 47-60) [Journal article]

Descriptions of mosaics in the Cluniac priorie of Ganagobie and St. André de Rozans, portraying fabulous creatures, inspired by the Physiologus and the Bestiaries; and interwoven designs, believed to have been executed by a monk from Ganagobie.

Language: French


Xavier Barral i Altet
"Gli animali nel mondo figurativo: riflessioni di un medievalista" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 9-22)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Gli animali hanno goduto di grande fortuna nelle arti figurative di ogni civiltà, e a questa fortuna non si è sottratto il Medioevo, la cui iconografia, soprattutto cristiana, ne ha fatto un uso costante, fin dalle sue prime manifestazioni. In questo saggio si ripercorrono alcune delle principali tappe attraverso le quali il Medioevo ha articolato il suo rapporto con liconografia degli animali, esaminando le valenze che di volta in volta si sono date a questo rapporto. Si analizzano poi i primi testi di età moderna nei quali liconografia si è venuta configurando come disciplina, da quelli rinascimentali a quelli ottocenteschi, nei quali gli animali furono ancora una volta interpretati in forma simbolica. Si chiude infine con una piccola provocazione, richiamando il caso dellartista contemporaneo Damien Hirst, i cui animali fatti a pezzi e messi in formaldeide hanno sconvolto negli ultimi anni i visitatori dei principali musei internazionali." - absract

Language: Italian
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.24


Charles Barret
The Bunyip And Other Mythical Monsters And Legends (Melbourne: Reed & Harris, 1946) [Book]

With material on the Myndie Snake, the Seal Theory, and ancient & modern dragons.

120 pp. Illustrated with black & white photographic plates.

Language: English


Bartholomæus Anglicus, Michael Seymour, ed.
On the properties of things : John Trevisa's translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus De proprietatibus rerum : a critical text (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975-1988) [Book]

A critical edition of John Trevisa's English translation of the De proprietatibus rerum of Bartholomaeus Anglicus. Volume 1 contains an introduction and notes on the text and its author and translator, plus Books 1 to 13 of the encyclopedia; Volume 2 contains Books 14 to 19 of the encyclopedia; Volume 3 contains an introduction, descriptions of the manuscripts used in the edition, textual commentary, a glossary, an index of authorities, and an index of persons.

687 p. (v. 1); 1397 p. (v. 2); 332 p. (v. 3).

Language: English
LC:  AE2 B293 1975


Rozmeri Basic
"Between Paganism and Christianity: Transformation and Symbolism of a Winged Griffin" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 85-92)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This paper examines the reoccurring role of a winged griffin, a hybrid animal known from the third millennium B.C.E. Its earliest pictorial representations may be traced back to Mesopotamia, although there is steady appearance in other Mediterranean countries. Throughout different chronological periods, several selected scenes with griffins have been transmitted from the pagan iconography of non-Western cultures in accordance with diverse tastes of contemporary patrons and policy makers. With the advance of Christianity, among numerous examples, two favorite symbolic roles of griffins became popular, based on the following sources: a romance of Alexander the Greats Celestial Journey and a "master of animals" motif.

Language: English
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.32


Jean Batany
"Animalite et Typologie Sociale: Quelques Paralleles Medievaux" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 39-54) [Book article]

"Totem, totémisme: voilà les mots qui viennent à l'esprit quand on pense à un classement des hommes mis en rapport avec le classement des espèces animals. Mais ces termes désignent, dans le modèle assez artificiel dressé par l'anthropologie traditionnelle, un sysème de division des hommes en «clans», dèfinis par leur parenté réelle ou mythique, en non par leur fonction sociale, les différences de vie entre ces groupes ètant plutôt d'ordre rituel que socio-professionel. ... A priori, on pourrait espèr trouver, dans ces images animales symboliques, des ensembles structurés correspondant aux riches typologies de l'ordre ecclésiologique et socio-professionel qu'a élaborées le Moyen Ages." Batany

Language: French


Michael Bath
"The Serpent-Eating Stag in the Renaissance" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 55-69) [Book article]

"My purpose in this paper is to show something of what happens to a particular piece of medieval animal symbolism when it is taken up by the writers and emblematists of the Renaissance. The belief that stags eat snakes was sanctioned by classical writers on natural history such as Pliny, Aelian and Oppian. ... Physiologus was among the earliest writers to give this process an allegorical explanation, in which he was followed by the early fathers and by Psalm commentaries throughout the Middle Ages... Thus allegorized it found its way into monumental art ... and we find it regularly in encyclopaedias and Bestiaries. ... In the Renaissance it was perpetuated in three different types of source: firstly by writers of natural history, who are the continuators of the medieval Bestiaries and encyclopaedias; secondly in emblem books; and thirdly in association with a number of literary tropoi featuring the stag which at first sight look quite unconnected." - Bath

10 illustrations.

Language: English


Otto Baur
Bestiarium Humanum: Mensch-Tier-Vergleich in Kunst u. Karikatur (Munich: Heinz Moos Verlag, 1974) [Book]

A revision of the author's thesis, Cologne, 1973, which was presented under the title: Der Mensch-Tier-Vergleich und die Mensch-Tier-Karikatur.

164 p., numerous illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
LCCN: 75555972; LC: N7745.A5 B38 1974


Priscilla Bawcutt
"The Lark in Chaucer and Some Later Poets" (Yearbook of English Studies, 2, 1972, 5-12) [Journal article]

Language: English


Ron Baxter
Bestiaries and their Users in the Middle Ages (Phoenix Mill, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1998) [Book]

"Previous studies on Bestiaries have centred on these luxury books, with their colourful illustrations and diverting stories of animal behavious, and Bestiaries have been represented either as keys to the iconography of medieval animal sculpture in stone and wood, or as early and inept attempts at zoology. Ron Baxter's exhaustive research has shown these conclusions to be at best simplistic and at worst quite wrong. This book enables to closer than ever before to the true purpose, use and meaning of the Bestiary. Dr. Baxter, employing a completely fresh and comprehensive approach, has undertaken extensive new research into a large corpus of Bestiaries, applying modern narrative theory to their texts and images to reveal the messages encoded in them... By applying the results of this analysis to medieval library records he has been able to identify important centres of Bestiary use, and to present a radically different picture of what Bestiaries were to their medieval users." - cover copy

Includes tables of chapter orders and surviving Latin bestiaries, as well as a revision to the established system of Bestiary Families, building on the work of The Bestiary: Being A Reproduction in Full of Ms. Ii 4. 26 in the University Library, Cambridge, with supplementary plates from other manuscripts of English origin, and a preliminary study of the Latin bestiary as current in England (Oxford, 1928) M. R. James and Medieval Latin and French Bestiaries (Chapel Hill, 1962) Florence McCulloch. A very valuable book.

242 pp., color and black & white plates, glossary, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7509-1853-5; LCCN: 98211645; LC: PA8275.B4 Z54 1998; DDC: 809/.93362 21; OCLC: 39718250


"Learning from Nature: Lessons in Virtue and Vice in the Physiologus and Bestiaries" (in Colum Hourihane, ed., Virtue & vice: the personifications in the Index of Christian art, Prionceton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000, 29-41) [Book article]

A discussion of the virtues and vices in the Physiologus, with a list of the animals associated with them. "The Physiologus is not an allegorical treatise on virture and vice; nowhere do virtues and vices actually appear appear as personifications either in the text or in the miniatures of any illustrated Physiologus or bestiary. ...the Physiologus uses examples from the natural world to convey lessons in Christian behaviour. The point, of course, is not that birds, beasts, and stones are more virtuous than humans, but that God has provided them as lessons and as warnings for the attentive human to read. ... Of the thirty-six chapters of the Physiologus B-text, most deal, some broadly, some more specifically, with virtue and vice." - Baxter

Language: English
ISBN: 0-691-05036-8


"A baronial bestiary. Heraldic evidence for the patronage of MS. Bodley 764" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 50, 1987, 196-200)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Heraldic images in the bestiary. Roger de Monhaut, the Clares and the Berkeleys in relation to Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 764.

"...Bodley 764 appears to be the only surviving English bestiary to show genuine, recognizable shields of arms. If these coats can be read as evidence of patronage, then Bodley 764 is among the earliest extant English manuscripts in which heraldry is used as a mark of ownership. ... Evidence of wide-spread baronial book patronage has not been found before the end of the [13th] century... the books concerned are chiefly psalters. No other English Latin bestiary can be unequivocally ascribed to lay patronage, and no indication at all of original ownership has been found on any English bestiary as costly as this one. Other luxury bestiaries of the thirteenth century - the Ashmole Bestiary, the Aberdeen Bestiary... and British Library MS Royal 12.C.XIX - remain tantalisingly empty of any indication of patronage, but the evidence of Roger de Monhaut's Bestiary at least admits the possibility that such books were made for aristocratic lay patrons." - Baxter

Language: English


Iain Beavan, M. Arnott, C. A. McLaren
"The Nature of the Beast; or, The Digitisation of the Aberdeen Bestiary" (Library Hi Tech, 15 no. 3-4, 1997, 50-55) [Journal article]

This paper considers the choice of the medieval Aberdeen Bestiary as the first project in Aberdeen University Library's digitisation programme, and discusses some of the unusual features of the manuscript itself. Discusses the transfer of the Aberdeen Bestiary (a 13th century manuscript) into digital format for access on the World Wide Web. Briefly covers the background to the project before outlining the reasons for choosing photoCD as the method of digitization. Considers some of the problems encountered during the project including design and delivery issues and future developments.

Language: English
ISSN: 0737-8831


"The Online Bestiary Project in Electronic Library and Visual Information Research (ELVIRA) 3 Conference, De Montfort University, [Proceedings], ed. by M. Collier and K. Arnold" (Aslib, 1996) [Journal article]

Language: Dutch


"Secretary Thomas Reid and the early listing of his manuscripts" (Northern Scotland, 16, 1996, p. 175-85) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Text and illustration: the Digitisation of a Mediaeval Manuscript" (Computers and the Humanities, 31, 1997, 61-67) [Journal article]

"This paper considers the choice of the medieval Aberdeen Bestiary as the first project in Aberdeen University Librarys digitisation programme, and discusses some of the unusual features of the manuscript itself. Attention is given to the content and depth of the accompanying commentaries, and particular notice is paid to the nature and extent of the textual apparatus (translation and transcription). The factors influencing the choice of (a) PhotoCD as the image capture method, and (b) JPEG as the image format for transmission of the page images across the World Wide Web are examined. The importance of the Web design to the effectiveness of the overall resource is emphasised." - publisher

Language: English


Iain Beavan, M.Arnott
"Beasts on the Screen: the Digitisation of the Aberdeen Bestiary - a Case Study in Preservation and Digitisation: Principles, Practice, Problems" (British Library/NPO, Proceedings of the National Preservation Office Conference, 1998) [Journal article]

Language: English


Aura Beckhöfer-Fialho
Medieval Bestiaries and the Birth of Zoology (The Antlion Pit, 1996)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"Although bestiaries and zoological treatises shared a common interest and subject matter, they did not appear to have any real effect on one another beyond what general influences are common to all who share a same environment and mentality. The similarities they shared in dealing with animals is due to a common outlook on nature. Furthermore, while zoology showed an interest in acquiring scientific knowledge, the bestiary showed no such inclination since it was more concerned with moral education than natural history... Fundamentally, zoological treatises and bestiaries were different. Whereas the bestiary fed upon man's dependence on religon, zoology depended on his break with it..." - Aura Beckhöfer-Fialho


Language: English


Jeanette Beer
Beasts of Love: Richard de Fournival's Bestiaire d'amour and the Response (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003) [Book]

"The first gendered prose debate in a European vernacular, Le Bestiaire d'amour and subsequent Response constitute a clash of opposites: a medieval chancellor's erotic bestiary to a woman is countered by the woman's passionate protest against the cleric's misogynistic presuppositions. Jeanette Beer presents a close, linear reading of the two literary texts, examining the context that led to the love-bestiary's production in the thirteenth century, especially an influential version of the Physiologus by Pierre de Beauvais, the suggestiveness of the animal symbolism, and the aftermath of the debate. In her exploration of Le Bestiaire d'amour and the Response, Beer analyzes the disparity of their sexual, philosophical, and theological orientations, and considers, animal by animal, this gendered duelling of the two bestiaries, the symbolism of the one calqued upon the symbolism of the other." - publisher

240 p., 8 halftones, bibliography, index, index of animals

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8020-3612-0; LC: PQ1461.F64B43 2003; DDC: 844'.1


"Le Bestiaire d'amour en vers" (in Medieval Translators and Their Craft, Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, Medieval Institute Publications, 1989, 285-296) [Book article]

"Translation of verse into prose was not unusual in the Middle Ages. ... The reverse process, prose to verse, was more unusual. ... A conversion of Richard de Fournival's Le Bestiaire d'amour to rhyming octosyllabic couplets has survived on folios 89-92 of the B.N. Ms. 25.545 ... the fragment, now entitled Le Bestiaire d'amour en vers, states in both title and text that it is Richard's own translation... Le Bestiaire en vers courts those of Richard's contemporaries who prefer the entertainment of love literature to Aristotelian exposés. In imagery that is curiously modern Richard compares his bestiary to a consumer product whose presentation is variable. His main concern is, of course the content, which cannot fail to please when its deifferent packaging caters to all tastes. Thus the determining factor in all formal aspects of the work is the translator's public." - Beer

Language: English


"Duel of bestiaries. On Le Bestiaire d'amour by Richard de Fournival, and the anonymous Response appended to it in several manuscripts" (in Willene B. Clark & Meradith T. McMunn, ed., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and its Legacy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 96-105) [Book article]

"...explores the transformation of the bestiary into a work with secular symbolism in the Bestiaire d'amour and Réponse de la Dame of Richard de Fournival, using the cock to illustrate her arguments." - introduction

"The traditions of the bestiary underwent unexpected transformation in Richard de Fournival's Le Bestiaire d'amour. A genre that had been devoted to Christian moralizing now became affiliated with the profane literature of love. The process involved more than a mere transposition of metaphors. The juxtaposition of the two known traditions was a provocation to both, for Le Bestiaire d'amour transcended all conventions by its ambivalence." - Beer

With one illustration from Bodleian Library MS. Douce 308.

Language: English


"A Fourteenth Century Bestiaire d'Amour" (Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society, 4, 1991, 19-26) [Journal article]

New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.459, written and illuminated in northern Italy, probably Lombardy.

Language: English


"A Gendered Debate from the Thirteenth Century" (New Zealand Journal of French Studies, 23: 2 (November), 2002, 34-39) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0110-7380


"Gendered discourse in two thirteenth-century bestiary texts" (Journal of the Institute of Romance Studies, 3 for 1994-1995, 1995, 119-128) [Journal article]

Discusses the exchange between Richard de Fournival (in Le Bestiaire d'amour) and his lady (in La Response de la dame au bestiaire de Ricard de Fournival).

Language: English


Medieval Translators and Their Craft (Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University, 1989; Series: Studies in Medieval Culture 25) [Book]

A series of essays on translation in the Middle Ages, including Le Bestiaire d'amour en vers (Kalamazoo, 1989) 'Le Bestiaire d'Amour en Vers' (Beer) and The Old English Phoenix (Kalamazoo, 1989) 'The Old English Phoenix' (Shaw).

Language: English
ISBN: 0-918720-95-8; LCCN: 89-2535; LC: CB351.S83 v.25; DDC: 940.1'7s-dc19


"The Response to Richard de Fournival's Bestiaire d'amour" (Teaching Language through Literature, 25 (1), 1985, 3-11) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0362-2746


"Woman, authority and the book in the Middle Ages" (in Women, the Book and the Worldly: Selected Proceedings of the St Hilda's Conference, 1993, Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1995, 61-69) [Book article]

Discusses the Response produced by a woman to counter Richard de Fournival's Bestiaire d'amour.

Edited by Lesley Smith and Jane H.M. Taylor.

193 pp.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85991-479-8


Rüdiger Robert Beer, Charles M. Stern, trans.
Unicorn: Myth and Reality (New York: Mason/Charter, 1977) [Book]

"The author traces the unicorn's first appearances in Europe, centuries before the birth of Christ... Its image is brought to life in references to the literature of East and West, through the use of ancient illustrated manuscripts, tapestries, sculptures, woodcuts, engravings, church decorations and architectural bas-reliefs." - cover copy

Originally published in German as Einhorn: Fabelwelt und Wirklichkeit, 1972 (Callwey, München).

215pp. 161 black & white illustrations with commentary, dating from the second century BC to the 18th century AD. Bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-88405-583-3


Xavier Bellés
Els bestiaris medievals : llibres d'animals i símbols (Barcelona: Rafael Dalmau, 2004; Series: Episodis de la història 340-341) [Book]

70 p., illustrations, bibiliography

Language: Catalan
ISBN: 84-232-0662-9; LC: PA8275.B4; OCLC: 55060634


Giovanna Belli
Il Physiologus : L'ermetismo attraverso i simboli degli animali (Milano: Edizione Kemi, 1991) [Book]

Language: Italian


Roger Bellon
"La Parodie Epique dans les Premieres Branches du Roman de Renart" (in Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 71-94) [Book article]

"S'il est un point sur lequel les critiques sont unanimes, c'est pour reconnaîatre que les différents auteurs du Roman de Renart se livrent fréquement à la parodie des genres littéraires en vogue à leur époque, la Chanson de Geste et le Roman Courtois. Vouloir déterminer la place que tient la parodie épique dans l'ensemble du Roman de Renart, ce serait ouvrir une longue et minutieuse enquête; c'est pourquoi la présente étude s'inscrit nécessairement dans un cadre plus limité: nous ne nous intéressons qu'au «premier poème en français de Renart et d'Isengrin» selon l'expression de Foulet, c'est-à-dire les branches II et Va telles que les éditées Martin." - Bellon

Language: French


"Trickery as an Element of the Character of Renart" (Forum for Modern Language Studies, January; 22:1, 1986, 34-52) [Journal article]

"If trickery is defined as a 'means of obtaining from others that which cannot be obtained by force, work or right', it clearly emerges from the full text of the Roman de Renart that trickery is vitally important to Renart, both as animal and man... It should be noted that the Old French term enging has two senses: it is both a trick, wile or dodge, and in a more abstract sense an attitude of mind, a rule of conduct, and an approach to life. A detailed moral and intellectual portrait of Renart can therefore be drawn; in P. Jonin's study Renart is described as cruel, knavish and perverse from a moral viewpoint, but his intellectual qualities can be summed up in one word: Renart is a trickster. The distinction between moral and intellectual characteristics surely fades into insignificance when set against one essential truth: like other heroes of medieval literature, Renart pocesses a teche (l'enging), and all Renart's other characteristics are subordinated to his inate and unfailing trickery." - Bellon

Language: English
ISSN: 0015-8518


O. V. Belova
Slavianskii bestiarii: slovar’ nazvanii i simvoliki (Moscow: Izd-vo "Indrik", 2000) [Book]

Russian with a summary in English. At head of title: Rossiiskaia akademiia nauk. Institut slavianovedeniia. Slavic bestiary--dictionary of appelations and symbolism.

318 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Russian
ISBN: 5-85759-100-7; LCCN: 2001425448; LC: GR825.B45 2000; OCLC: 44618162


D. Thomas Benediktson
"Cambridge University Library L1 1 14, F. 46r-v: A Late Medieval Natural Scientist at Work" (Neophilologus, 86:2 (April), 2002, 171-177) [Journal article]

"Many catalogues of animals and sounds exist in medieval glossaries, poems, or other types of text. Most descend from a list associated with Polemius Silvius, one associated with Phocas, one associated with Aldhelm, or one associated with the poem De Philomela. Some are mixtures, editions even, of lists from multiple sources. One such text in Cambridge University Library shows a 'scientist' using scientific methods to classify and organize linguistic material." - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 0028-2677


Philip E. Bennett
"Some Doctrinal Implications of the Comput and Bestiaire of Philippe de Thaun" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 95-105) [Book article]

"While investigating Robert Biket's use of the hexasyllable, I was inevitably led to analyse Philippe de Thaun's handling of the same medium. I soon became struck by certain features of the Norman's allegorical expositions, particularly in those excurses which he makes beyond the traditional allegorical explanations into the formulation of doctrine concerning the person of Christ, his birth and death, baptism and the importance of the Church as a corporate body. I wish to return here to consider in more detail the nature of Philippe's formulations and their possible import. we will see, some of the most extended expositions in Philippe's work have no counterpart, either in the most immediately adduceable Latin sources, or in later vernacular authors. It will therefore be appropriate to consider Philippe's relationship to his sources, and to try to determine the extent of his personal contribution, in terms of style and rhetoric as well as content, before considering the implications of that content." - Bennett

Language: English


J. Benoit
"Survivances païennes à Hildesheim autour de l'an Mil" (Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 110:1427, 1987, 191-202) [Journal article]

Etude mettant en évidence la persistance de thèmes iconographiques appartenant à la mythologie germanique dans les oeuvres exécutées entre 993 et 1022 sous l'épiscopat de Bernward à la cathédrale d'Hildesheim, en particulier dans le bestiaire développé, tant dans la sculpture, que dans les pièces d'orfèvrerie : persistance directement liée aux efforts de l'évêque pour christianiser la Saxe.

Language: French


Robert G. Benson, Susan J. Ridyard
Man and nature in the Middle Ages (Sewanee, Tenn.: University of the South Press, 1995; Series: Sewanee mediaeval studies no. 6) [Book]

Contents: Natura ridens ; Natura lachrymosa / John V. Fleming -- Nature as light in Eriugena and Grosseteste ; Nature and finality in Aquinas / James McEvoy -- The Bifurcation of creation : Augustine's attitudes toward nature / Frederick H. Russell -- Some effects of the Judeo-Christian concept of Deity on medieval treatments of classical problems / Richard C. Dales -- Necessity, fate and a science of experience in Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Roger Bacon / Jeremiah Hackett -- Nature's moral eye : Peter of Limoges' Tractatus moralis de Oculo / Richard Newhauser. The materialization of nature and of quaternary man in the early twelfth century / Paul Edward Dutton -- Celestial reason : the development of Latin planetary astronomy to the twelfth century / Bruce S. Eastwood -- The subjugation of nature in the development of the medieval hunt and tourney / Everett U. Crosby -- Chaucer's "Kynde nature" / William Provost -- Gawain in the wilderness / Edward Vasta -- Zoology in the medieval Latin bestiary / Willene B. Clark.

245 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-918769-37-X; LCCN: 82-50575; LC: CB351 / BD581; OCLC: 35778979


Janetta Rebold Benton
"Gargoyles: Animal Imagery and Artistic Individuality in Medieval Art" (in Nona C. Flores, ed., Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996, 147-165) [Book article]

"Animals, like so many other subjects in the art of the Middle Ages, were often used as didactic devices in the teaching of Christianity. ... The need for readily intelligible imagery fostered, understandably, conformity and convention rather than individuality and invention -- open expression of personal artistic style cannot be considered a characteristic of medieval art. ... But eqo, and the need for its visual assertion, seem to be innate components of the human animal. Certain types of animal imagery offered medieval artists rare opportunities for individual expression -- opportunities that seem to have been seized and relished. This eassay is not concerned with readily recognized animals that play well-understood and conspicuous roles in Christian art, such as the lion, lamb, or fish. Rather, the focus is on the unusual or imaginary animals that play questionable roles, often in inconspicuous locations, specifically, as gargoyles." - Benton

Language: English


Medieval Menagerie: Animals in the Art of the Middle Ages (New York: Abbeville Press, 1992) [Book]

An examination of how images of animals were used in the Middle Ages. The book is in three sections: Ancestors - Fantastic Fauna and the Medieval Attitude Toward the Past; Science - Information and Imagery in the Medieval Bestiary; and Symbolism - The Meaning of Animals in Medieval Art. Illustrated with hundreds of examples of animal imagery from manuscripts, carvings and sculpture, paintings, and tapestries. The illustrations are of very high quality.

191 pp., color and black & white illustrations, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-55859-133-8


Denyse Bérend
"La part du lion" (in Pierre Dehaye, ed., Le bestiaire: des monnaies des sceaux et des médailles, Paris, 1974, 25-34) [Book article]

Language: French


Jacques Berlioz & Rémy Cordonnier
"Le convers et les oiseaux. Monde animal, morale et milieu monastique: le De avibus d'Hugues de Fouilloy (XIIe siècle)" (in L'homme-animal, histoire d'un face à face, Strasbourg: Adam Biro / Musées de Strasbourg, 2004) [Book article]

Catalogue de l'exposition des musées de Strasbourg (Galerie Heitz, Musée Archéologique - Palais Rohan -, Musée de l'œuvre Notre-Dame, Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain, 8 avril - 4 juillet 2004),

Language: French


Jacques Berlioz, ed., Marie Anne Polo de Beaulieu, ed.
L'animal exemplaire au Moyen Âge (Ve - XVe siècles) (Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 1999) [Book]

Language: French


Massimo Bernabò, Glenn Peers & Rita Tarasconi
Il fisiologo di Smirne: le miniature del perduto codice B. 8 della Biblioteca della Scuola evangelica di Smirne (Tavarnuzze-Firenze: SISMEL edizioni del Galluzzo, 1998; Series: Millennio medievale 7 (Società internazionale per lo studio del Medioevo latino)) [Book]

Physiologus -- Criticism and interpretation.

128 pp., 54 pp. of plates, illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-87027-24-2; LC: PA4273.P9; OCLC: 40624656


Carlos L Bernárdez, Xosé Ramón Mariño Ferro
Bestiario en pedra : animais fabulosos na arte medieval galega (Vigo: Nigra Trea, 2004) [Book]

Relief sculpture of bestiary subjects in the Galicia region of Spain.

249 p., illustrations (some color), bibliography.

Language: Spanish (Galician)
ISBN: 84-95364-27-1; LCCN: 2005-420824; LC: N7745.A5; OCLC: 60543179


Richard Bernheimer
Wild Men in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, Mass.: 1952) [Book]

Language: English


W. Berschin
"Sancti Geronis columna. Zu Ysengrimus II 179 ff. un IV 25f." (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 105-112) [Book article]

"Der besondere Reiz der Satire besteht in der Genauigkeit und Schärfe, mit der der Satiriker das Detail erfaßt, in der Keckheit, mit der er Realitäten aufgreift, die sonst weithin nicht literaturfähig sind. Auf ein solches Detail möchte ich mit einigen Bemerkungen zu zwei Stellen im Ysengrimus eingehen, in denen der Verfasser des Ysengrimus - eine Handschrift nennt ihn Nivardus magister - die »Säule des heiligen Gereon« zu Köln beschwört:

(Der Fuchs überredet den Wolf dazu, mit dem Schwanz in einem vereisenden Gewässer zu fischen. Da der Wolf festgefroren ist, lockt er durch einen Hahnraub einen Pfarrer und seine Gemeinde von der Messe weg zu der Stelle, wo Ysengrimus festsitzt. Der Wolf muß von den Verfolgern des Fuchses Schlimmes erdulden, bis Aldrada, die alte Magd des Pfarrers, die den Wolf am ärgsten schindet, mit einem ungeschickten Axthieb dem Wolf den Schwanz abtrennt und ihn so befreit. Ysengrimus schwört dem Fuchs ewige Rache:)

II 179ff.

Terribilem sancti Gereonis iuro columpnam

Cui nec Roma parem nec Ierosolma tenet,

Post quam nullus agens reprobus vestigia profert

Momentum nulla conditione sequar.

(Die Rehgeiß verläßt ihre Heimat, um zu den Heiligen zu wallfahren, deren Besuch sie schon lange gelobt hatte:)

IV 25f.

Precipue sancti Gereonis in ede columpnam,

Dispariter stantem sontibus atque piis." - Berschin

Language: German


Amand Berteloot, ed., Detlev Hellfaier, ed.
Jacob van Maerlant's 'Der naturen bloeme' und das Umfeld: Vorläufer, Redaktionen, Rezeption (Münster; New York: Waxmann, 2001; Series: Niederlande-Studien 23) [Book]

Papers presented at an international colloquium held by the Lippische Landesbibliothek, Oct. 29-30, 1999. Articles in German and Dutch.

311 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-8309-1034-7; LCCN: 2001-422252; LC: PT5570.D48J33 2001; OCLC: 48847572


Iván Bertényi
"A környezo táj állatvilágának megjelenése a középkori magyar címerekben" (in Táj és történelem. Tanulmányok a történeti ökológia világából, Budapest: Osiris, 2000, 187-193) [Book article]

[The appearance of animals from the local environment in medieval Hungarian coats of arms] Analyses several Hungarian family coats of arms from the point of view of the illustrated animals on them.

Language: Magyar
ISBN: 963-389-055-1


Widmer Berthe
"Eine Geschichte des Physiologus auf einem Madonnenbild der Brera" (Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte, 15:4, 1963, 313-330) [Journal article]

Language: German
ISSN: 0044-3441


Marianne Besseyre
"Les animaux de l'arche de Noé: Un bestiaire exemplaire?" (Reinardus, 18:1, 2005, 3-27)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Language: French
DOI: 10.1075/rein.18.02bes


Thomas W. Best
Reynard the Fox (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1983; Series: Twayne's World Authors Series 673) [Book]

"I have written the present book as an introduction to the major Reynard poems, which form a definite progression. The Latin Ysengrimus influenced many parts of the French Roman de Renart [Romance of Reynard], out of which the Dutch Van den Vos Reynaerde [Of Reynard the Fox] developed. With further help from the Roman de Renart, Van den Vos Reynaerde was expanded into the Dutch Reinaerts Historie [Reynard's History], which was reworked in Low German as Reynke de Vos [Reynard the Fox]. My book presumes no prior knowledge of medieval beast epics, being descriptive as well as analytical, but it also offers new interpretations. Rather than a summary of previous research, it is a statement of my own opinions, as grounded in previous research." - preface

178 pp., bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8057-6520-4; LCCN: 82-13095; LC: PN690.R5B4 1983; DDC: 809'.9336


Maurizio Bettini
Giving Birth: Stories of Weasels and Women, Mothers and Heroes (Web, 1998)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"In 1998, Maurizio Bettini published his much-awaited book about weasels in ancient Greece and Rome: Nascere. Storie di donnole, donne, madre ed eroi. This webpage has been created to share the basic contents of the book with English-speaking readers."

Includes a large bibliography of weasel lore.

Language: English


Nascere. Storie di donnole, donne, madre ed eroi (Torino Italy: Einaudi Press, 1998) [Book]

Weasel lore in Greece and Rome.

See also Giving Birth: Stories of Weasels and Women, Mothers and Heroes (1998) Giving Birth: Stories of Weasels and Women, Mothers and Heroes for a partial English edition.

Language: Italian


Gabriel Bianciotto
Bestiaires du Moyen Age (Paris: Stock, 1980; Series: Série "Moyen âge"; 35) [Book]

Includes a short introduction to the bestiary genre and a brief biography of each author, with bibliographies. "mis en Français moderne et presente par Gabriel Bianciotto".

Contents: Bestiaire - Pierre de Beauvais; Bestiaire divin (extracts) - Guillaume le Clerc de Normandie; Bestiaire d'un poète - Thibaut de Champagne; Bestiaire d'amour - Richard de Fournival; Livre du Trésor - Brunetto Latini; Livre des propriétés des choses (livre XVIII) - Jean Corbechon.

262 p., bibliography

Language: French
ISBN: 2-234-01217-1; LC: PQ1327.B4; DDC: 398.245; OCLC: 27747241


"Sur le Bestiaire d'amour de Richart de Fournival" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 107-119) [Book article]

"Il ne me semble pas paradoxal d'affirmer que le Bestiaire d'Amour de Richart de Fournival est une oevre mal connue, et sur laquelle on n'a porté généralement que des appréciations d'autant plus péremptoires qu'elles étaient superficielles et mal fondées. La préface de Cesare Segre à son édition du Bestiaire d'Amour constitue toujours la seuale approche informée de l'oevre, et malgré as richesse, on ne peut considérer qu'elle ait épuisé touts les perspectives critiques. Les commentaires situent en général assez clairement le Bestiaire par rapport à son amont et à son aval dans le fil de l'histoire littéraire, mais sans caractériser autrement son rôle de charnière, et la transmutation qu'il a fait subir aux thèmes et aux images de la lyrique courtoise, aux métaphores du bestiaire traditionnel, avant de les transmettre à ses épigones du Dit de la Panthère d'Amour ou du Fiore di Virtù: il ne suffit sans doute pas de poser que le Bestiaire d'Amour a systématisé l'usage emblématique des animaux dans l'illustration d'une rhétorique amoureuse pour définir l'originalité du mode d'écriture de Richart de Fournival, et l'apport de l'auteur à la littéraire de son temps." - Bianciotto

Language: French


"Des trois oiseaux symboliques dans des textes anciens; aux sources du bestiaire roman" (Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society, 8, 1995, 3-23) [Journal article]

Discusses religious symbolism in the Vie de Saint Alexis, Sainte Foy d'Agen, and the Physiologus Latinus.

Language: French


Gabriel Bianciotto, ed., Michel Salvat, ed.
Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984; Series: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne) [Book]

Actes du IVe Colloque de la Society International Renardienne, Evreux, 7-11 Sept. 1981. A series of essays relating to animal fables of the Middle Ages, including several on Reynard the Fox; others discuss the Bestiaire d'amour of Richard de Fournival, the French fabliaux genre, bestiaries, etc. Articles in English, French and German.

724 p.

Language: French/German/English
ISBN: 2-13-038255-X; LC: CB351.C2


Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Bestiaire de Moyen Âge (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 2004)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The online catalog of an exhibition on the medieval bestiary, with samples from several bestiary manuscripts at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. A Bestiaire médiéval : Enluminures (Paris, 2005) printed catalogue is also available.

Language: French


Bestiaire médiéval : Enluminures (Paris: Nationale de France, 2005) [Book]

"Catalogue de l'exposition présentée à la bibliothèque nationale de France du 11 octobre 2005 au 8 janvier 2006".

An Bestiaire de Moyen Âge (Paris, 2004) online catalog is also available.


Language: French
ISBN: 2-7177-2337-4; DDS: 091; OCLC: 62130576


F. Bibolet
"Portraits d`oiseaux illustrant le De avibus d`Hugues de Fouilly, manuscrit de Clairvaux Troyes 177" (in B. Chauvin, ed., Mélanges à la mémoire du Père Anselme Dimier, Abbayes: Beernem / Histoire Cistercienne, 4, 1984, 409-447) [Book article]

Language: French


Jean Bichon
L'animal dans la littérature française aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles (Lille: 1976) [Book]

Language: French


Josseline Bidard
"Reynard the Fox as Anti-Hero" (in Leo Carruthers, ed., Heroes and Heroines in Medieval English Literature, Cambridge: Brewer, 1994, 119-123) [Book article]

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85991-415-1


Frederick M. Biggs
"The Eschatological Conclusion of the Old English Physiologus" (Medium Aevum, 58:2, 1989, 286-297) [Journal article]

"Much of the criticism of the Old English Physiologus has quite properly focused on the final fragmentary sections - conveniently called 'The Partridge' - since the differing interpretations of these lines provide strikingly different views of the shape of the entire work. The textual problem at this point in the Exeter Book is straightforward: after the opening phrases that identify the subject as a bird, the poem breaks off in mid-sentence at the bottom of folio 97b; the following folio begins mid-sentence, but does not explicitly mention a bird. now seems likely that a single leaf, and not an entire gathering, has been lost at this point ... the two passages either may be or may not be part of the same poem. In this essay, I should like to strengthen the claim that they are part of a single poem about the partridge, by arguing that the final fragment differs from the moral gloss of the Latin source because the Anglo-Saxon poet has included eschatological motifs, and thus makes the conclusion of the work similar to other Old English poems that end with references to the Last Judgement." - Biggs

Language: English
ISSN: 0025-8385


Bettina Bildhauer, ed., Robert Mills, ed.
The Monstrous Middle Ages (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004) [Book]

"The figure of the monster in medieval culture functions as a vehicle for a range of intellectual and spiritual inquiries, from questions of language and representation to issues of moral, theological, and cultural value. Monstrosity is bound up with questions of body image and deformity, nature and knowledge, hybridity and horror. To explore a culture's attitudes to the monstrous is to comprehend one of its most important symbolic tools.

The Monstrous Middle Ages looks at both the representation of literal monsters and the consumption and exploitation of monstrous metaphors in a wide variety of high and late-medieval cultural productions, from travel writings and mystical texts to sermons, manuscript illuminations and maps. Individual essays explore the ways in which monstrosity shaped the construction of gender and sexual identity, religious symbolism, and social prejudice in the Middle Ages.

Reading the Middle Ages through its monsters provides an opportunity to view medieval culture from fresh perspectives. The Monstrous Middle Ages will be essential reading for anyone interested in the concept of monstrosity and its significance for both medieval cultural production and contemporary critical practice." - publisher

1. Introduction: Conceptualizing the Monstrous - Bettina Bildhauer and Robert Mills

2. Jesus as monster (Cardiff, 2003) Jesus as Monster - Robert Mills

3. Monstrous Masculinities in Julian of Norwich's A Revelation of Love and The Book of Margery Kempe - Liz Herbert Mcavoy

4. Blood, Jews and Monsters in Medieval Culture - Bettina Bildhauer

5. The Other Close at Hand: Gerald of Wales and the 'Marvels of the West' - Asa Simon Mittman

6. Idols and Simulacra: Paganity, Hybridity and Representation in Mandeville 's Travels - Sarah Salih

7. Demonizing the Night in Medieval Europe: A Temporal Monstrosity? - Deborah Youngs and Simon Harris

8. Apocalyptic Monsters: Animal Inspirations for the Iconography of Medieval North European Devourers - Aleks Pluskowski

9. Hell on Earth: Encountering Devils in the Medieval Landscape - Jeremy Harte

10. Encountering the Monstrous: Saints and Dragons in Medieval Thought - Samantha J.E. Riches

210 p., illustrations, index.

Language: English


Sandra Billington
"The Cheval fol of Lyon and other asses" (in Clifford Davidson, ed., Fools and Folly, Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1996, 9-33) [Book article]

Discusses the relevance of appearance of horses and asses in literature, with particular reference to mystery plays.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-879288-70-2


Peter Binkley, ed.
Pre-Modern Encyclopaedic Texts (Leiden: Brill, 1997; Series: Proceedings of the Second COMERS Congress, Groningen, 1-4 July 1996) [Book]

"Pre-Modern Encyclopaedic Texts presents the proceedings of the second COMERS congress, the successor to Centres of Learning (Brill, 1995). Like its predecessor it contains in ancient, medieval and renaissance Europe and the Near East. Although the genre of encyclopaedia was defined and named only in modern times, texts that aspire to the encyclopaedic ideals of utility and comprehensiveness are found throughout recorded history. They respond to and shape ideas about the natural world, human history, and the nature and limits of human knowledge. The present volume comprises five extended essays on the problems and opportunities facing researchers into encyclopaedic texts, and 21 research papers on specific topics. It will be of interest to a general university audience as an interdisciplinary project, as well as to specialists in the various disciplines covered." - publisher

Table of Contents

Encyclopaedia: Definitions and Theoretical Questions

Robert L. Fowler - Encyclopaedias: Definitions and Theoretical Problems

E.C. Ronquist - Patient and Impatient Encyclopaedism

Bernard Ribémont - About the Definition of an Encyclopedic Genre in the Middle Ages

Peter Binkley - Preachers' Responses to Thirteenth-century Encyclopaedism

Brian W. Ogilvie - Encyclopaedism in Renaissance Botany: From Historia to Pinax

Organisation of Knowledge

Catherine Rubincam - The Organisation of Material in Graeco-Roman World Histories

Hilary Kilpatrick - Cosmic Correspondences: Songs as a Starting Point for an Encyclopaedic Portrayal of Culture

Kimberly Rivers - Memory, Division, and the Organisation of Knowledge in the Middle Ages

Maaike van Berkel - The Attitude towards Knowledge in Mamluk Egypt: Organisation and Structure of the subh? al-asha by al-Qalqashandi- (1355-1418)

Jan R. Veenstra - Cataloguing Superstition: A Paradigmatic Shift in the Art of Knowing the Future

Epistemology of Encyclopaedic Knowledge

John North - Encyclopaedias and the Art of Knowing Everything

Wout Jac. van Bekkem - Sailing on the Sea of Talmud: the Encyclopaedic Code of Early Jewish Exegesis

Bert Roest - Compilation as Theme and Praxis in Franciscan Universal Chronicles

Guy Guldentops - Henry Bate's Encyclopaedism

Cultural and Political Uses

Geert Jan van Gelder - Compleat Men, Women and Books: On Mediaeval Arabic Encyclopaedism

Frank Trombley - The Taktika of Nikephoros Ouranos and Military Encyclopaedism

G.J. Reinink - Communal Identity and the Systematization of Knowledge in the Syriac 'Cause of All Causes'

E.L. Saak - The Limits of Knowledge: Hélinand de Froidmont's Chronicon

William N. West - Public Knowledge at Private Parties: Vives, Jonson, and the Circulation of the Circle of Knowledge

Vincent C. Renstrom - Censoring Encyclopaedic Knowledge: The Case of Sahagún and Sixteenth-century Spanish America

Reception and Transmission of Texts

Michael W. Twomey - Towards a Reception History of Western Medieval Encyclopaedias in England Before 1500

William Schipper - The Earliest Manuscripts of Rabanus Maurus' De rerum naturis

John B. Friedman - Albert the Great's Topoi of Direct Observation and his Debt to Thomas of Cantimpré

Juris Lidaka - Bartholomæus Anglicus in the Thirteenth Century

Ulrich Marzolph - Medieval Knowledge in Modern Reading: A Fifteenth-Century Arabic Encyclopaedia of omni re scibili

Language: English
ISBN: 90-04-10830-0


Gabriel Bise
Medieval Hunting Scenes (Miller Graphics, 1978) [Book]

Illustrations from "The Hunting Book" by Gaston Phoebus.

108 p.

Language: English


Klaus Bitterling
"Physiologus und Bestiarien im englischen Mittelalter" (Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch: Internationale Zeitschrift für Mediävistik / International Journal of Medieval Studies, 40:2, 2005, 153-170) [Journal article]

Discusses manuscripts:

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 764

London, British Library, Royal 12.F.XIII

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 16

London, British Library, Royal 2.B.VII

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ashmole 1511

Language: German
ISSN: 0076-9762


"Zur Quelle des Middle English Bestiary, 649-667" (Anglia: Zeitschrift für englische Philologie, 94:1-2, 1976, 166-169) [Journal article]

Language: German


Thetis Blacker, Jane Geddes
Animals of the imagination and the bestiary (Aldeburgh: Britten-Pears Library, 1994; Series: The Prince of Hesse and the Rhine memorial lecture, 1994) [Book]

"Given at the Jubilee Hall Aldeburgh, on Tuesday 14 June 1994, during the 46th Aldeburgh Festival of Music and the Arts."

12p., bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-9511939-4-5


N. F. Blake
The Phoenix (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1964) [Book]

The Phoenix is an allegorical poem which has been preserved in the Exeter Book, an anthology compiled towards the end of the tenth century and given to Exeter Cathedral by Leofric, the first Bishop of Exeter. A picture of a terrestrial heavenly paradise, allegorical interpretations are linked with the story of the phoenix. Blake discusses the manuscript, the language of the poem and its sources, authorship and date. Illustrated with b/w frontispiece of Phoenix from Bestiaries.

Language: English


"A Possible Seventh Copy of Caxton's Reynard the Fox (1481)?" (Notes and Queries, 10, 1963, 287-288) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0029-3970


"Reflections on William Caxton's 'Reynard the Fox'" (Canadian Journal of Netherlandic Studies/Revue, May; 4 (1), 1983, 69-76) [Journal article]

Notes on William Caxton's English language translation of "Reynard the Fox" from Die Hystorie van Reynaert de Vos. Netherlandic literature.

Language: English
ISSN: 0225-0500


"Reynard the Fox in England" (in E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen & G. Verbeke, ed., Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 53-66) [Book article]

"The Roman de Renart is such an important text in medieval French literature and exerted such an influence on several other medieval vernacular literatures that it has usually been assumed it was also known in medieval England and influenced Middle English writers. Two attempts have been made to document this influence: one by F. Mossé and the other by J. Flinn. Since both scholars were intent on tracing the influence of the Roman de Renart, their surveys excluded some Middle English works containing stories of foxes in which the fox is not called Reynard. The omission of these works distorts the general picture of fox literature in England for it suggests that only those stories which have some connexion with the Roman de Renart were found. It is therefore worthwhile reopening the question of whether the Roman de Renart was known in England, partly to investigate the occurrences of the fox in a wider context, and partly to consider to what ends the English poets used their material since this may provide us with a clue as to the possible sources they used. My investigation will be concerned principally with works written in Middle English, though it should not be forgotten that the fox is frequently portrayed in he art of the later Middle English period and that stories about the fox were composed also in Latin and French in England." - Blake

Language: English


Karen Keiner Blanco
Of 'Briddes and Beestes': Chaucer's Use of Animal Imagery as a Means of Audience Influence in Four Major Poetic Works (Los Angeles: University Of Southern California, 1994) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of Southern California.

"This dissertation is an analysis of Geoffrey Chaucer's use of animal imagery in The House of Fame, The Parlement of Foules, 'The Nun's Priest's Tale' in The Canterbury Tales, and Troilus and Criseyde. Chaucer used animal imagery extensively in these works, either portraying animals acting like humans or humans exhibiting bestial behavior. The paper explores how Chaucer deliberately employed these animal portrayals to influence and to manipulate his audience. Chaucer's medieval audience was familiar with animal lore through numerous sources: daily agricultural interaction with animals, bestiary lore, religious sermons containing animal lore, folklore, and biblical allusions. For each work, I analyze the various references to animals in terms of historical usage and importance to the work. Also, I examine recent Chaucerian scholarship which discusses Chaucer's relationship with his audience. I argue that Chaucer's use of animal imagery is deliberate and calculated in its goal of imparting social and religious values to his audience. He enlightened and entertained his audience through the animal imagery, always with the specific intent of manipulating them to accept his own themes and commentaries. In The House of Fame, Chaucer uses the eagle animal figure to discuss medieval theories of science and rhetoric and to analyze the art of poetry itself. In The Parlement of Foules, extensive bird imagery enhances Chaucer's lament about the decline of chivalry and changes occurring in his social milieu. In 'The Nun's Priest's Tale,' the animal imagery enables Chaucer to indulge in humorous social class depictions, a means of audience manipulation and social control. And his greatest work involving animal imagery, Troilus and Criseyde, is Chaucer's most blatant and brilliant use of Christian oriented animal imagery. In this paper, I show that Chaucer's creative and successful use of animal imagery enables him to interact more cogently on philosophical, spiritual, intellectual, and humorous levels with both his medieval and modern audiences." - abstract

Copies available exclusively from Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, USC, Los Angeles, CA.

Language: English


Elaine C. Block
Corpus of Medieval Misericords in France (Turnhout, Belgium: Brepolis, 2003) [Book]

"The Corpus of Medieval Misericords (XIII-XXVI) consists of five volumes; the first four focus on the misericords and related choir stall carvings in specific regions of Europe. The fifth includes an extensive iconographic index of themes common to various countries as well as themes that are unique to a single country.

Volume I of this series, Medieval Misericords in France, covers approximately 300 churches that still contain gothic misericords with carved figures and narratives inspired by oral traditions suh as proverbs and folk tales, as well as by manuscript marginalia, romanesque capitals, illustrated bibles, engravings, playing cards... A vast portrayal of medieval life - rural activities, urban occupations, conjugal relationships, monastic life -- is displayed in these carvings under the seats of choir stalls along with costumes of the times, town and collegiate architecture, mechanical devices. Puns and rebuses are often intertwined with these themes to produce comic and, to twenty-first century eyes, mysterious puzzles. The global view of misericord carvings, generally ignored in studies of medieval art, is here presented as a multidisciplinary basis for further research by sociologists, historians, archeologists and other medieval scholars.

Following volumes include misericords in Iberia, Flemish and borthen Europe, Great Britain." - publisher

Volume 1: 452 pp., 921 black & white illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 2-503-51239-9


Bock, Sebastian
The " Egg" of the Pala Montefeltro by Piero della Francesca and its symbolic meaning (Heidelberg: Universität Heidelberg / Zentrale und Sonstige Einrichtungen, 2003)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"The hanging ovoid object in Piero della Francesca's Montefeltro Altarpiece has long been the subject of controversies with regard to its identification and symbolic meaning. The present article argues that it can only be an ostrich egg (or imitation thereof), intended as an admonitory example. This is supported by further representations as well as by the interpretation of the "Rationale Divinorum Officorum" and a late version of the Greek "Physiologus". It is also born out by the widespread practice of suspending ostrich eggs among Coptic, Armenian, Greek-Orthodox, Latin and Nestorian Christians as well as in Islam. The eggs, often in the context of hanging lamps or lamp crowns, always served as warning or admonitory examples. Their varying emblematic significance is almost always related to the ostrich's behavior towards its eggs, attested in post-classical natural-history tales with allegorical interpretations, which is interpreted as a symbol of man's relationship to God or to religious ideas."

Language: English


Bodlean Library
Vollständige Faksimile-Ausgabe im Originalformat der Handschrift Ms. Ashmole 1511--Bestiarium: aus dem Besitz der Bodleian Library, Oxford (Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1982; Series: Codices selecti phototypice impressi v. 76) [Book]

Text in Latin. Incipit (p. [21]): Incipit liber de naturis bestiarum. The preceding pages contain the story of creation from Genesis (Genesis I, 1-28; I, 31-II, 2) and a section (beginning: Omnib[us] animantib[us] Adam p[ri]mus uocabula indidit) from Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae (XII, 1-8)./ M.R. James places MS. Asmole 1511 with the 12th cent. family of bestiaries which are much-expanded classified rearrangements of the 4th cent. Latin Physiologus. Cf. The Bestiary: Being A Reproduction in Full of Ms. Ii 4. 26 in the University Library, Cambridge, with supplementary plates from other manuscripts of English origin, and a preliminary study of the Latin bestiary as current in England (Oxford, 1928) The Bestiary / edited by M.R. James. 1928. p. 13ff.

Issued in a slipcase with title: Bestiarium : Oxford Ashmole 1511 : Faksimile. Book has spine title reading the same, without "Faksimile."/ "Die Verkaufasauflage der Akademischen Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt ist auf neunhundertachtzig numerierte Exemplare limitiert. Davon sind hundert Exemplare (numeriert I-C) für die Ausgabe mit handaufgelegtem Foliengold reserviert. Die Ausgabe mit konventioneller Goldreproduktion ist von 1-880 numeriert." In additon there are 3000 numbered copies for publication by Club du livre, Paris, and 500 numbered copies for Ediciones de Arte y Bibliofilia, Madrid. Finally, 40 unnumbered copies, not for sale, were produced for each of the three co-publishers.

105 pp., color illustrations.

Language: Latin
ISBN: 3-201-01218-1; LCCN: 84199934; LC: PA8275.B4 1982; DDC: 398.2/45 19


Patricia J. Boehne
"Animals as Symbolic Devices in Llull and Turmeda" (in Antonio Torres-Alcala & Victorio Aguera, ed., Josep Maria Sola-Sole: Homage, homenaje, homenatge: Miscelanea de estudios de amigos y discipulos, Barcelona: Puvill Libros, 1984, 205-216) [Book article]

Language: English


Helmut Boese
"Zur Textüberlieferung von Thomas von Cantimpratensis Liber de natura rerum" (Archivium Fratrum Praedicatorum, 39, 1969, 53-68) [Journal article]

Language: German


Michelle Bolduc
"Silence's Beasts" (in Debra Hassig, ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 185-209) [Book article]

Examines the influence of bestiaries on Le Roman de Silence.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


Corrado Bologna
"La tradizione manoscritta del Liber monstrorum de diversis generibus (appunti per l'edizione critica)" (in 34:3-4Cultura neolatina: Bollettino dell'Istituto di filologia romanza, 1974, 337-346) [Book article]

Details of five Liber monstrorum manuscripts at Leiden, London (B.L.), St. Gallen, Wolfenbüttel and the private library of the Marquis of Rosanbo.

Manuscripts discussed: Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, 4452 Weissenburg; Leiden, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, Voss.Lat.8°.60; London, British Library, Royal 15 B.xix; St. Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 237; Rosanbo, private library of the Marquis, no shelfmark.

Language: Italian


Francis Bond
Wood Carvings in English Churches: Misericords (London: Oxford University Press, 1910; Series: Church Art in England) [Book]

An extensive survey of misericords in English churches. Part 1 covers animal images (eastern mythology, classical mythology, the Physiologus and bestiary subjects); Part 2 covers traveller's tales, romances, Aesop, scenes of everyday life, agriculture and trades, sports, seasons, Bible subjects, miracle plays, symbolism and satire; Part 3 covers the use, design and chronology of misericords.

237 p., 241 black & white photographic plates, illustrations, bibliography, index, lists.

Language: English
LC: NA5050.W6 v.1


Jacques Bonnod
L'art bestiaire de la cathédrale Saint-Jean de Lyon (Lyons: Impr. Bosc, 1959) [Dissertation]

Language: French
LC: NA5551.L9B6


Jorge Luis Borges, Margarita Guerrero, Norman Thomas Di Giovanni, trans.
The Book Of Imaginary Beings (London: E. P. Dutton & Company, 1969) [Book]

Borges draws on sources ranging from Chinese legends to the works of Kafka and C. S. Lewis. The 1970 edition of the book describes about 120 "beings", some of which are from the bestiary.

Originally published as Libro de los seres imaginarios. Revised, enlarged and translated by Norman Thomas di Giovanni in collaboration with the author.

Republished: Cape, 1970; Avon, 1970; Penguin, 1984.

256 pp., index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-14-003709-8; LC: GR825; DDC: 398/.469; LCCN: 78-87180; OCLC: 12511080


Luciana Borghi Cedrini
Appunti per la lettura di un bestiario medievale: il Bestiario valdese (Torino: G. Giappichelli, 1976; Series: Corsi universitari) [Book]

Includes text in the dialect of the Valley of Aosta (Vaudois) and Italian.

2 v., 144 p., bibliography.

Language: Italian
LCCN: 76478931; LC: PQ4265.B3473 B6; OCLC: 2598766


Jean Henri Bormans
Thomas de Cantimpré : indiqué comme une des sources où Albert-le-Grand et surtout Maerlant ont puisé les matériaux de leurs écrits sur l'histoire naturelle (Brussels: Académie Royale de Belgique, 1800s) [Book]

Thomas de Cantimpré as a source for the natural histories of Albertus Magnus and Jacob van Maerlant.

"Académie Royale de Belgique. Extr. du t. XIX, no. 1, des Bulletins." 30 p.

Language: French
OCLC: 43153611


C. A. Bos, B. Baljet
"Cynocephali and Blemmyae. Congenital anomalies and medieval exotic races" (Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, December, 1999, 143-151) [Journal article]

"In the mediaeval Dutch manuscript Der naturen bloeme ('On the flowers of nature') by Jacob van Maerlant (circa 1230-circa 1296), an encyclopaedia of descriptions of people, animals, plants and minerals dating from about 1270, many illustrations refer to the text. An intriguing part of the book is called 'Vreemde volkeren' ('Exotic people'). In another manuscript of Van Maerlant, Dit is die istory van Troyen ('The history of Troyes') in the chapter 'De wonderen van het Verre Oosten' ('The miracles of the Far East') the exotic people are also described. These exotic people have many features similar to congenital malformations. 'Hippopodes' are probably based on the lobster claw syndrome, 'Cynocephali' on anencephaly, 'Arimaspi' on cyclopia, 'Blemmyae' on acardiacus, the double-faced on diprosopus, 'Sciopods' on polydactyly and 'Antipodes' on the sirenomelia sequence."

Language: Dutch


Robert Bossuat
Le Roman de Renart (Paris: 1967) [Book]

Language: French


Alixe Bovey
Monsters and Grotesques in Medieval Manuscripts (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002) [Book]

"...describes the rich and varied symbolism of mosters, as depicted in an extensive range of medieval manuscripts from the British Library's collections, and lends a special insight into the medieval imagination. ... Alixe Bovey is a curator in the Department of Manuscripts at the Biritish Library." - cover copy

64 pp.; extensively illustrated in color; manuscript list, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8020-8512-1


Linda Julian Bowie
"'All's Fowl in Love and War': Birds in Medieval Literature" (Furman Studies, 30, 1984, 1-17) [Journal article]

Language: English


Evelyn Mae Boyd
The Lure of Creatures True and Legendary (Canada: Davis & Henderson Limited, 1978) [Book]

A series of stories, based partly on Chinese folklore. Two stories involve the fox-trickster character of Yakan, messenger of Inari, goddess of the rice harvest.

Also includes an essay, "The Mythic Panther", comparing the Panther of the Physiologus with the panther in the writings of Aristotle, Pliny the Elder, and Aelian, with reference to other classical and medieval writers.

Boyd was Professor of Medieval and Renaissance Literature at Grinnell College, Iowa, and Waterloo University, Ontario.

Language: English


Hans Brandhorst
"Castoreum en bevergeil" (Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 2003)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

A short article on the castration theme represented by the beaver.

Language: Dutch


"De Ouderliefde van de pelikaan" (Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 2003)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

A short article on the bestiary pelican theme, with illustrations.

Language: Dutch


Ernest Brehaut
An Encyclopedist of the Dark Arges: Isidore of Seville (New York: Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, 1912; Series: 48)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

A biography of Isidore of Seville, followed by an English translation of selections of the Etymologies. The introduction includes: Isidore's life and writings; Isidore's relation to previous culture.

Reprinted in 1972 by Burt Franklin Reprints, New York.

274 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English


Laurence A. Breiner
"The Career of the Cockatrice" (Isis, 70:1 (March), 1979, 30-47)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

The author traces the changes in the name cockatrice, relating it to the crocodile, regulus and basilisk through references to various classical and medieval writers. The use of the cockatrice in alchemy is also examined.

Language: English


Jean Francois Brichant
Bestiare taurin: Symbole et mythe (Liege: University de Liege, 1985) [Dissertation]

"Bull Bestiary: Symbol and Myth." Degree dissertation at the University de Liege.

Language: French
PQDD: 3163C


Lester Burbank Bridaham
Gargoyles, Chimeres, and the Grotesque in French Gothic Sculpture (New York: Da Capo Press, 1969; Series: Architecture and Decorative Art 21) [Book]

A survey of French stone and wood sculpture in the 12th and 13th centuries. There are some animal images in the plates.

230 p. (10 p. text introduction, 220 p. black & white photographic plates), bibliography.

Language: English
LCCN: 68-27724; LC: NB543.B7 1969


Mark Brisbane
"Love Letters to Bare Bones: A Comparison of Two Types of Evidence for the Use of Animals in Medieval Novgorod" (in Mark Maltby, Medieval Animals, Cambridge: Archaeological Review from Cambridge 18, 2002, 100-118) [Book article]

Language: English


R. van den Broek
The Myth of the Phoenix According to Classical and Early Christian Tradition (Leiden: Brill, 1972) [Book]

Language: English


Carmen Brown
"Bestiary lessons on pride and lust" (in Debra Hassig, ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 53-70) [Book article]

Investigates the animals associated with the most deadly sin of pride, as part of bestiary instruction.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


Michele P. Brown
"Marvels of the West: Giraldus Cambrensis and the Role of the Author in the Development of Marginal Illustration" (English Manuscript Studies (British Library), 10, 2002, 34-59) [Journal article]

The manuscripts of the Topographia Hibernica and other works by Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales) are examined, with particular focus on the marginal illustrations. The author proposes that Giraldus was involved in the program of marginal illustrations for the manuscripts of his works. The author also makes comparisons to the illustrations and text of the bestiary manuscripts.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7123-4732-1; LC: Z115 E5E55


Michelle P. Brown
The Luttrell Psalter: A Facsimile (London: British Library, 2006) [Book]

The Luttrell Psalter is one of the British Library's supreme treasures. It has more than 600 pages and the delicate task of recreating this masterpiece of English medieval art so accurately into a complete full size facsimile edition has taken well over a year to achieve. Every stage of the production process has been subjected to the greatest attention to detail, from reproducing the subtle effect of fine worked gold and silver that decorate the pages of the manuscript, to finding a modern paper which matches the weight and feel of the original animal skin vellum pages. This is a huge book in every sense: it measures over 7 cm in depth (and 36 cm long by 24.5 cm wide), and weighs just over 5 kilos. Very few people before have had the chance to turn and admire these wonderful pages; now it is open to everyone to do so in the comfort and leisure of their own home. This is a rare opportunity to own a superlative facsimile of one of the greatest medieval manuscripts anywhere in the world, and we anticipate demand to be high. The volume also contains a 64-page scholarly commentary by leading medieval manuscripts expert Michelle P. Brown, which details the history of the manuscript and includes a folio-by-folio description.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7123-4934-0


Robert Brown, Jr.
The Unicorn (London: Longmans Green & Co., 1881)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

"This short book covers some of the same ground as the more popularly oriented The Lore of the Unicorn (New York and Boston, 1930) Lore of the Unicorn, by Odell Shepard, before it ventures into comparative mythology. The present volume was written in the late 19th century at a time when all mythological and folklore narratives were believed to be astronomical metaphors. Brown sees the Unicorn as a lunar symbol, and draws on mythology from a wide range of sources to make his case, from Northern European to Vedic and Zoroastrian. He uses some idiosyncratic jargon; e.g. 'Kamic' means Ancient Egyptian."

Language: English


Thomas Brown, James Eason, ed.
Pseudodoxia Epidemica: Or, Enquiries into very many Received Tenents and commonly presumed Truths (1646, 1672)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

Also known as "Vulgar Errors", this seventeenth-century text is an attempt to correct the many "errors" in earlier texts. Book 3, "Of divers popular and received Tenents concerning Animals, which examined, prove either false or dubious" describes and debunks many of the fabulous stories told about animals in the Middle Ages.

Language: English


Emma Brunner-Traut
"Agyptische Mythen im Physiologus (zu Kapitel 26, 25 und 11)" (in Wolfgang Helck, ed., Festschrift für Siegfried Schott zu Seinem 70. Geburtstag am 20. August 1967, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1968, 13-44) [Book article]

A discussion of Egyptian myths found in the Physiologus, with references (including hieroglyphics) from many manuscripts and other sources.

Language: German
LC: PJ1026.S3


Christian Bruun
De Illuminerede Haandskrifter fra Middelalderen i Det Store Kongelige Bibliothek (Copenhagen: Kongelige Bibliothek, 1890)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

A catalog of manuscripts held by the Kongelige Bibliotek (Copenhagen), including two bestiaries:

Bestiary of Ann Walsh (Gl. kgl. S. 1633 4º) - Page 117-118.

Bestiare (Gl. kgl. S. 3466 8º) - Page 93.

Language: Danish


Alfredo Bryce Echenique
Sirenas, monstruos y leyendas: bestiario marítimo (Segovia: Sociedad Estatal Lisboa, 1998; Series: Colección Los narradores y el mar 6) [Book]

Introducción de Rafael de Cózar.

120 p.

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 84-95152-02-9; LCCN: 00296420


Walter Buckl
Megenberg aus zweiter Hand : überlieferungsgeschichtliche Studien zur Redaktion B des Buchs von den natürlichen Dingen (Hildesheim ; New York: Olms, 1993; Series: Germanistische Texte und Studien, Bd. 42) [Book]

Redaction B of Das Buch der Natur by Konrad von Megenberg.

Revision of the author's thesis (doctoral) - Katholische Universität Eichstätt, 1990.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-487-09733-8; LCCN: 93-194631; LC: QH41.K753; DDC: 508; OCLC: 28801502


John Bugge
"The Virgin Phoenix" (Mediaeval Studies, 38, 1976, 332-350) [Journal article]

Language: English


Kirill Bulychev
Fantasticheskii bestiarii (Sankt-Peterburg: Izd-vo KN, 1995; Series: Antologiia tain, chudes i zagadok) [Book]

258 p., illustrations.

Language: Russian
ISBN: 5-88756-013-4; LCCN: 96174761; LC: GR825.B85 1995


Martin Villaxide Burgos
Bestiario de Don Juan de Austria (Siloé, Spain: Siloé Arte y Bibliofilia, 1998) [Book]

Two volumes. Volume 1: facsimile reproduction of the original edition, 484 pags, 370 illustrations, text in (old) Spanish. Volume 2: (modern) Spanish transcription of the text and studies.

Limited edition of 696 numbered books.

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 84-923812-0-5


E. Jane Burns
"Courtly Love: Who Needs It? Recent Feminist Work in the Medieval French Tradition" (Signs, 27:1, 2001, 23-57)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Includes some notes on the Bestiaire d'amour of Richard de Fournival with relation to courtly love.

Language: English


Maurice Burton
"The Hedgehog and the Apples" (Illustrated London News, August 16, 1952, 264) [Journal article]

The author investigates the feasibility of the hedgehog gathering fruit on its spines.

Language: English


Lawrence Butler
"The Labours of the Months and 'The Haunted Tanglewood': aspects of late twelfth-century sculpture in Yorkshire" (in R. L. Thomson, ed., A Medieval Miscellany in Honour of Professor John Le Patourel, Leeds: Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Proceedings vol. 18, 1982, 79-95) [Book article]

"This article discusses the subject matter of doorway and capital carvings in Yorkshire churches. The scenes are mainly drawn from the Labours of the Month, the Signs of the Zodiac and the Bestiary, using mid twelfth-century manuscript sources. It is argued that the inspiration was not monastic scriptoria but the cathedral school at York as the majority of the churches were in the patronage of the archbishop Roger de Pont L'Eveque and the senior clergy of the cathedral chapter, most of whom had studied in Capetian France." - Butler

Language: English


C   A  B  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z      Top
Auguste Cabanes
La Fauna Monstruosa de las Catedrales Medievales. Estudio preliminar de Tibor Chaminaud y Juan Carlos Licastro (Buenos Aires: Enrique Rueda Editor, 1982; Series: Colección La Biblioteca de las Maravillas) [Book]

118 p., illustrations.

Language: Spanish


Charles Cahier, Arthur Martin
Mélanges d'archéologie, d'histoire et de littérature, rédigés ou recueillis (Paris: Mme Ve Poussielgue-Rusand, 1847-1856) [Book]

"Collection de mémoires sur l'orfévrerie et les émaux des trésors d'Aix-la-Chapelle, de Cologne, etc.; sur les miniatures et les anciens ivoires sculptés de Bamberg, Ratisbonne, Munich, Paris, Londres, etc.; sur des étoffes byzantines, siciliennes, etc.; sur des peintures et bas-reliefs mystérieux de l'époque carlovingienne, romane, etc."

"Bestiaires, textes": v. 2, p. 106-232. Medieval art; Church decoration and ornament.

4 volumes, illustrations, plates.

Language: French
LCCN: 16-13417; LC: N5971.C2; OCLC: 23433906


Jean Calvet, Marcel Cruppi
Le Bestiaire de l'antiquité classique (Paris: F. Lanore, 1955) [Book]

212 p.

Language: French
LCCN: 57002337; LC: GR825.C3


Le Bestiaire de la littérature francaise (Paris: F. Lanore, 1954) [Book]

247 pp., illustrations.

Language: French
LC: PQ145.3


Michael Camille
"Bestiary or biology? Aristotle's animals in Oxford, Merton College, MS 271" (in Carlos Steel, Guy Guldentops & Pieter Beullens, ed., Aristotle's Animals in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, Series 1: Studia 2), Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1999, 355-396) [Book article]

Language: English
ISBN: 90-6186-973-0


Gothic Art, Glorious Visions (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1996) [Book]

A survey of Gothic art in Europe in the 12th to 14th century. Chapter 4, New Visions of Nature, looks at how nature was represented in sculpture, painting and manuscripts.

192 p., color and black & white illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8109-2701-2; LCCN: 96-3899; LC: N6310.C36 1996; DDC: 709.02'2-dc20


Thomas P. Campbell
"Thematic Unity in the Old English Physiologus" (Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, 215:130:1, 1978, 73-79) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0003-8970


Sheila R. Canby
"Dragons" (in John Cherry, ed., Mythical Beasts, London: British Museum Press/Pomegranite Artbooks, 1995, 14-43) [Book article]

A discussion of dragons from antiquity through the Middle Ages, with examples from Japan, China, India and Egypt, with additional references to dragons of Islamic and Christian tradition. Color and black & white illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-87654-606-8


Gian Paolo Caprettini
"Imaginaire, savoir et nature: notes sur l'allegorie animale au Moyen Age" (Annals of the Archive of "Ferran Valls i Taberner's Library", 9-10, 1991, 235-247) [Journal article]

Language: French


Erminio Caprotti
"Uomo e animale nell'emblematica rinascimentale" (Esopo, 49 (March), 1991, 17-29) [Journal article]

On animal symbolism in Renaissance book illustration, including bestiaries, hermetic treatises, hieroglyphica, and emblem books, 16th-17th centuries.

Language: Italian
ISSN: 0392-9752


James P. Carley
"Books seen by Samuel Ward 'in bibliotheca regia', circa 1614" (The British Library Journal, 16, 1990, p. 89-98) [Journal article]

Language: English


"John Leland and the foundations of the Royal Library: the Westminster Inventory of 1542" (Bulletin of the Society for Renaissance Studies, VII, no.1, 18, October, 1989) [Journal article]

Language: English


Francis J. Carmody
"Brunetto Latini's Tresor: Latin Sources on Natural Science" (in 12:3 (July)Speculum, 1937, 359-366)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book article]

"Mediaeval science is well known to scholars through Latin works, but vulgarizations have commanded far less prestige. Dreyer, for example, mentioned Latini's Trésor (1268 A.D.) very superficially, and was obviously ill informed on the Image du Monde of Gossouin (1245 A.D.). Langlois pointed out that vernacular works are of interest mainly to philologists, who find it difficult to delve into the technical intricacies of the various sciences. Vulgarizations, however, present a valuable picture of the subjects they treat. The Trésor is a compendium of material current in Paris in the active days of the 1260's, when astronomy was at its height, both in technical achievement and in speculative interpretation. Latini was a competent translator and compiler, and was guilty neither of the unorganized agglomeration of details found in the Livre de Sydrac and the translations of Adelard of Bath, nor the mistaken moralizing and theological zeal of Gossouin. One must turn to Vincent of Beauvais to find anything like the freedom from doctrine and the careful method and selection of the Trésor. Latini's manner was so objective that it annoyed many of the first copyists, who added doctrinal and moral references, present in most families of manuscripts. As a vulgarization, the Trésor makes no pretension to scholastic reasoning and deduction, nor to metaphysical subtlety, transmutations of elements, atomic theory, nor to mathematical discussion, elements which characterize so many thirteenth-century works. The material is of a simple nature, akin to Seneca, Bede, and Honorius, though there is no apparent affinity to other popular works like those of Chalcidius, Macrobius, and Pliny, nor to the classics, Aristotle, Plato, Plutarch, Lucretius, or Cicero." - Carmody

Language: English


"De Bestiis et Aliis Rebus and the Latin Physiologus" (Speculum, 13:2, 1938, 153-159)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A detailed analysis of the De Bestiis et Aliis Rebus, attributed to Hugh of St Victor, and its relationship to the Latin version of the Physiologus. Includes a list of the known (as of 1938) Physiologus manuscripts.

Language: English


"Le Diable des Bestiaires" (Cahiers de l'Association Internationale de Études françaises, Nos. 3-5, Juillet, 1953, 79-85) [Journal article]

Language: French


"Latin Sources of Brunetto Latini's World History" (Speculum, 11:3 (July), 1936, 359-370)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Originality or artistry in an encyclopaedia are likely to defeat the purpose of science, which seeks accuracy, simplicity, and convenience. These last virtues are those of Vincent's Speculum Naturale and of Brunetto Latini's Trésor (1268 A.D.), at least in accordance with thirteenth-century standards. ... Li Tresors did not seek out controversial points, it desired merely to vulgarize as much and as varied knowledge as possible. Nevertheless, Li Tresors was carefully composed and based on standard source materials. Latini was a capable scholar, and his epitome is concise, clear, and not too detailed for the ordinary reader. He was not bound to reproduce his sources literally, so he added personal ideas and recollections from other reading, though never distorting the facts. Sermonizing and moralizing, whose bad effects are evident in the Image du Monde, do not find any place whatsoever in Latini's encyclopaedia. Latini's method of compilation is evident from a study of his sources. He had before him, at one time or another, a number of standard works; from these he made notes on special topics, such as the history of a certain country, limiting himself naturally to a single sufficient source for a given chapter. Thus it is that several sections have been derived in full from a single source, which may have been completely put aside in later pages. Other chapters, however, seemed insufficient as prepared from a single source, so Latini added further details from other works." - Carmody

Language: English


"Physiologus Latinus Versio Y" (University of California Press, University of California Publications in Classical Philology 12:7, 1941, 95-134) [Journal article]

An edition of the Physiologus 'Y' version. Introduction in English, text in Latin. Includes bibliography.

Available in microfilm from University Libraries, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, 1995 (1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm).

Language: English
LCCN: 41002431; LC: PA25.C3; DDC: 880.8; OCLC: 3889664


Physiologus Latinus: Éditions préliminaires versio B (Paris: Librairie E. Droz, 1939) [Book]

An edition of the Physiologus 'B' version.

61 pp.

Language: Latin
LCCN: 40000253; LC: PA4273.P8 L3 1939


Physiologus, the very ancient book of beasts, plants and stones, translated from Greek and othe languages (San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1953; Series: Publication no. 85) [Book]

Translated from Greek and other languages, by Francis J. Carmody.

"The illustrations, hand colored, have been engraved on and printed from linoleum blocks./ 325 copies ... made by Vivien & Mallette Dean" - Colophon.

75 p., color illustrations.

Language: English
LCCN: 54027844; LC: GR820.P48; DDC: 398.3


"Quotations in the Latin Physiologus from Latin Bibles earlier than the Vulgate" (University of California Press, University of California Publications in Classical Philology 13:1, 1944, 1-8) [Journal article]

Language: English
LCCN: 44000030; LC: PA25.C3; DDC: 878.9; OCLC: 9523977


Francesco Carpaccioni
"La nature des animaus nel Tresor di Brunetti latini. Indagine sulle fonti" (in Baudouin Van den Abeele, ed., Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d’études médiévales, 2005, 31-47) [Book article]

Language: French


Eleanor M. Carr
Some Early Sources of the Medieval Bestiary (New York: New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 1964) [Dissertation]

M.A. Thesis.

Language: English


Annamaria Carrega, Paola Navone
Le Proprietà degli animali (Genova: Costa & Nolan, 1983; Series: Testi della cultura italiana 5) [Book]

The Bestiario moralizzato by Bosone da Gubbio, died ca. 1349 (Annamaria Carrega, editor) and the Libellus de natura animalium (Paola Navone, editor). Texts in Italian and Latin, with introductory material in Italian.

521 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-7648-011-0; LC: PQ4554.R15


Richard Carrington
Mermaids and Mastodons: A Book of Natural & Unnatural History (London: Chatto and Windus, 1957) [Book]

"The first part of this book is devoted mainly to fabulous animals, whoes origin I have tried to trace in the real birds and beasts of the living world." - Carrington, preface

Relevant chapters include: The Natural History of Mermaids; The Great Sea Serpent; The Kraken and other Sea Monsters; Dragons of East and West; Fabulous Ornithology.

251 pp., black & white illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English


Rosa Casapullo, ed.
"Lo diretano bando: Conforto et rimedio delli veraci e leali amadori" ()

Italian language translation of Richard de Fournival, Le Bestiaire d' amour (The Bestiary of Love).

192 pp.

Language: Italian


Cathedral of Gerona
The Tapestry of Creation (Cathedral of Gerona)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The Tapestry of Creation is a eleventh- or twelfth-century work held by the treasury of the Cathedral of Gerona, Spain. Two sections of the tapestry are of interest: the creation of the animals, and Adam naming the animals. Both show various real and fabulous beasts in brilliant colors.

The Cathedral web site is difficult to navigate and has very little information on the tapestry, but it does have some good pictures.

Language: English


Guglielmo Cavallo
De rerum naturis : Cod. Casin. 132, Archivio dell'Abbazia di Montecassino (Turino: Priuli & Verlucca, 1994) [Book]

Full-color facsimile of 11th-century manuscript (Archivio dell'Abbazia di Montecassino, Cod. Casin. 132) of De rerum naturis or De universo of Hrabanus Mauris, the oldest illustrated version extant, produced at Montecassino for Abbot Theobald. Commentary volume edited by Guglielmo Cavallo. Text in Latin, commentary in Italian; accompanied by summary in English (47 p.). Limited edition of 500 Arabic numbered copies..

Volume 1: 530 p., color illustrations (facsimile); Volume 2: commentary, 215 p., bibliography; Volume 3: 47p., English commentary.

Language: Italian / Latin
LC: ND3399.H79; OCLC: 54256169


L'Universo medievale : il manoscritto cassinese del De rerum naturis di Rabano Mauro (Ivrea: Priuli & Verlucca, 1996) [Book]

The manuscript of De rerum naturis or De universo of Hrababus Mauris at Montecassino.

63 p., color illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-8068-048-X; LCCN: 97-125526; LC: AE2.H72; OCLC: 36047082


William Caxton
Myrrour of the World (Westminster: William Caxton, 1481) [Book]

This encyclopaedia was the first illustrated book to be printed in England, originally published by William Caxton in 1481. The work is a translation of a prose version of the French L'image du monde (from British Library, Royal MS 19 A. ix); probably written by Walter or Gossuin of Metz, it was based chiefly on the twelfth century encyclopaedia Imago mundi, compiled by Honorius Augustodunensis. Caxton's version is in three parts: part 1 deals with the power of God and the creation of the world, as well as the seven liberal arts (grammar, logic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music); part 2 is on geography, with descriptions of India, Europe and Africa and their beasts and birds, the elements, the weather, etc.; part 3 is on day and night, the eclipses of the sun, the sizes of the sun, moon and earth, and the number of the stars. Some images from the 1489 printing can be seen on the Glasgow University Library website.

Language: English


The booke of Raynarde the Foxe (New York: Da Capo Press, 1969) [Book]

A facsimile of a 1550 edition of Hystorie van Reynaert die Vos, translated from the Dutch by William Caxton. Original title page reads: Here beginneth the booke of Raynarde the Foxe, conteining diuers goodlye historyes and parables, with other dyuers pointes necessarye tur al men to be marked ... Imprinted in London in Saint Martens by Thomas Gaultier, 1550.

Language: English
LC: PQ1508 E5R4


William Caxton, N. F. Blake, ed.
The History of Reynard the Fox (London: The Early English Text Society / Oxford University Press, 1970; Series: Number 263) [Book]

"Because of its humorous animal portraits and satyrical probing of medieavl society, Reynard the Fox has remained William Caxton's most poplar translation. Although modernizations have been numerous, this is the first fully annotated edition of Caxton's original text. ... Reynard the Fox is unique among Caxton's translations in being made from a Dutch printed book and is therefore of the greatest importance in assessing the influence of Dutch on fifteenth-century English and in illuminating the literary relations between England and Burgundy in the late Middle Ages. These and similar problems are discussed by Mr. Blake in the introduction." - cover copy

235 pp., glossary, index, list of Dutch loan words.

Language: English


William Caxton, O.H. Prior, ed.
Caxton's Mirrour of the World (London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co, 1913; Series: Early English Text Society, Extra Series 110) [Book]

An edition of William Caxton's Myrrour of the World (Westminster, 1481) Myrrour of the World (1481).

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85991-710-X


William Caxton, Donald B. Sands, ed.
The History of Reynard the Fox; Translated and Printed by William Caxton in 1481 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960) [Book]

An edition of The History of Reynard the Fox which was translated and printed by William Caxton in 1481.

Black and white frontispiece, 224pp. including glossary and index, with nine additional black and white reproductions throughout text.

Language: English


Mariaserena Cella
"Le fonti letterarie della simbologia medievale: i bestiari" (in Piero Sanpaolesi, ed., Il Romanico. Atti del Seminario di studi. Villa Monastero di Varenna 8-16 September 1973, Milano: Istituto per la Storia dell'Arte Lombarda, 1976, 181-190) [Book article]

Language: Italian


Giorgio Celli
Le proprietà degli animali; Bestiario moralizzato di Gubbio; Libellus de natura animalium (Italy: Costa & Nolan, 1983; Series: Testi Della Cultura Italiana 5) [Book]

Texts in Italian and Latin, with introductory material in Italian. Contents: Bestiario moralizzato di Bosone da Gubbio (d. ca. 1349), a cura di Annamaria Carrega; Libellus de natura animalium, a cura di Paola Navone.

521 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-7648-011-0; LCCN: 85147951; LC: PA 8275.B4I8 1983


Marta Cendon Fernandez
"El pecado en la capilla de San Andrés de la catedral de Tui" (Quintana, 1, 2002, 197-209) [Journal article]

A study of the representation of sin in the chapel of St Andrés in the cathedral of Tui. The sculptures constitute a rich bestiary mostly in the form of serpents and dragons, symbols of of redemption the struggle against sin.

Language: Spanish
ISSN: 1579-7414


Massimo Centini
Animali, uomini, leggende: il bestiario del mito (Milan: Xenia, 1990) [Book]

240 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Italian
LCCN: 91-117874; LC: GR820.C46 1990; OCLC: 31754862


M. G. Challis
Life in Medieval England as Portrayed on Church Misericords and Bench Ends (Oxfordshire: Teamband Ltd., 1998) [Book]

"Written to interest those who would like to place the carvings in their contemporary context rather than to provide an exhaustive catalogue". Largely focusing on examples in East Anglia and the West Country, Challis explores the various genres of misericord subjects represented, including depictions of events from the Bible, early disciples, beasts and monsters, scenes from everyday life and merry-making. Not a comprehensive study but one which reflects the time spent by the author visiting and recording these carvings.

67 p., many black & white illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-898187-01-0


Heather Changeri
WhiteRose's Garden (WhiteRose (Heather Changeri), 1997-)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A web site on "comparative mythology", with sections on water creatures, dragons, unicorns, and other mythical beasts.

Language: English


Louis Charbonneau-Lassay
Le Bestiaire du Christ (France: Desclée, De Brower & Cie., 1940) [Book]

"Just before the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe, a little-known Roman Catholic scholar published a compendium of animal symbolism that ranks with the greatest of the classical and medieval bestiaries. Louis Charbonneau-Lassay's Le Bestiaire du Christ (The Bestiary of Christ) was a tour de force that brought together the findings of a lifetime of scholarship in religious symbols gleaned from sources as diverse as ancient Egypt, classical Greece and Rome, early and medieval Christianity, the Kabbalah, Gnosticism, and various spiritual schools of the Near and Far East. ... By bringing together various schools of esoteric wisdom with Catholic thought and the folk legends of the French countryside around Loudun, where he lived and died, Charbonneau-Lassay created a stirring and lively account of the rich - and often contradictory - metaphorical meanings of real and imaginary animals." - publisher, The Bestiary of Christ (New York, 1991) English edition, 1991

Originally published in France in 1940, in an edition of 500 copies, almost all of which were destroyed during the war. An edition of 2000 copies was published in Milan, based on the few surviving copies of the original. An The Bestiary of Christ (New York, 1991) English edition was translated and abriged by D. M. Dooling in 1991.

Language: French


The Bestiary of Christ (New York: Parabola Books, 1991) [Book]

"Just before the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe, a little-known Roman Catholic scholar published a compendium of animal symbolism that ranks with the greatest of the classical and medieval bestiaries. Louis Charbonneau-Lassay's Le Bestiaire du Christ (The Bestiary of Christ) was a tour de force that brought together the findings of a lifetime of scholarship in religious symbols gleaned from sources as diverse as ancient Egypt, classical Greece and Rome, early and medieval Christianity, the Kabbalah, Gnosticism, and various spiritual schools of the Near and Far East. ... By bringing together various schools of esoteric wisdom with Catholic thought and the folk legends of the French countryside around Loudun, where he lived and died, Charbonneau-Lassay created a stirring and lively account of the rich - and often contradictory - metaphorical meanings of real and imaginary animals." - publisher

Originally published in France (as Le Bestiaire du Christ (France, 1940) Le Bestiaire du Christ) in 1940, in an edition of 500 copies, almost all of which were destroyed during the war. An edition of 2000 copies was published in Milan, based on the few surviving copies of the original. This English edition was translated and abriged by D. M. Dooling.

467 p., many black & white (woodcut) illustrations, bibliography

Language: English
ISBN: 0-930407-18-0; LCCN: 91040422; LC: BV168.A5 C4813 1992; DDC: 246 20


"Christ the Hunter & the Hunted. A dual symbol from The Bestiary of Christ" (Parabola, 16:2 (May), 1991, 23-25) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0362-1596; OCLC: 2210234


Elisabeth Charbonnier
"Un Episode Original: La Mort du Loup dans le Livre VII de l'Ysengrimus" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 133-139) [Book article]

"Dans le Roman de Renart, le groupil frôle la mort à plusiers reprises, mais à las dernière minute, miraculeusement, il est toujours épargné. C'est ainsi que la branche I nous le montre condamné à mort par le roi et la cour. Pourtant, un dernier subterfuge le sauve: il déclare vouloir expier ses crimes par un pélerinage, si bien que Noble lui pardonne et qu'il peut s'enfuir. La branche XVII, elle aussi, prétend apporter au Roman une conclusion définitive: Renart meurt et l'on procède à ses funérailles. Mais au moment où l'on met le groupil en terre, il bondit hors de la fosse et s'enfuit en emportant Chanteclerc qui tenait l'encesoir. Le même thème sera repris dans une branche tardive, la branche XXIII, où une fois de plus Renart échappe à la sentence prononcée contre lui. Bref, Renart est immortel. Le héros de l'épopée animale, symbole autant que personnage, ne peut mourir." - Charbonnier

Language: French


Jarl Charpentier
"Poison-Detecting Birds" (Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 5:2, 1929, 233-242)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Notes on poison-detecting birds, primarily from Eastern (Arabic, Indian) texts, but with some reference to Western bestiary texts.

Language: English


John Cherry, ed.
Mythical Beasts (London: British Museum Press/Pomegranite Artbooks, 1995) [Book]

This text for the general reader explores the history and significance of 150 mythical beasts from around the world. This book takes four of the most significant - the dragon, the unicorn, the griffin and the sphinx - and shows how, through changing cultures from antiquity to the present, they have provided inspiration for writers and artists. Half-human creatures are also explored. The book draws on a wide variety of sources to illuminate the roles that mythical beasts have played in many different cultures, showing how they have retained their appeal through the ages.

191 pp., color and black & white illustrations throughout, glossary of beast names, bibliography, index. Introduction by John Cherry.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-87654-606-8


"Unicorns" (in John Cherry, ed., Mythical Beasts, London: British Museum Press/Pomegranite Artbooks, 1995, 44-71) [Book article]

A discussion of the unicorn with refrerence to classical literature, Christianity, heraldry, medieval secular literature, chastity and medicine, from antiquity to modern times. Illustrated in color and black & white.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-87654-606-8


John Chrysostom
De naturis bestiarum by Johannes Chrysostomus: an XI Century MS. in the Monastery of Gottweih (19--?) [Book]

Facsimile reproduction of the manuscript leaves without commentary. The manuscript is now in the Pierpont Morgan Library under the shelfmark M.832.

20 p. of facsimiles.

Language: Latin


Tatiana Chumakova
"Animal Symbolism in Ancient Russian Culture" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 331-338)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Animal Symbolism played an important role in the Ancient Russian culture. Animal Symbols can be divided into three groups. At the first, animal symbols in the Ancient Russian literature (Hexameron, Physiolog and others). For the most part, these were the symbols of Christian virtues and vices. At the second, animal symbols in the churches. For the most part they were symbols of Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit and the apostles, as well as characters Last Judgment (for example fresco of Church of our Saviour on Nereditsa) and symbols. Thirdly, they were symbolic images of animals on jewellery ornaments and embroiderys. Like many symbols used by Christians, animal symbols were adopted and adapted out of a pre-Christian usage." - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.56


Inju Chung
"The The Physiologus and 'The Whale'" (Medieval English Studies (Korea), 6, 1998, 21-57) [Journal article]

Includes a critical edition of the text of 'The Whale', one of the three narratives in the Old English Physiologus in the Exeter Book. Summaries in English and Korean.

Language: English


Maria Pia Ciccarese
Animali simbolici: alle origini del bestiario cristiano (Bologna: EDB, 2002; Series: Biblioteca patristica 39) [Book]

Christian symbology of animals; animals in the Bible. Includes Greek and Latin texts with facing Italian translation.

508 p., bibliography, indexes.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-10-42048-9; LCCN: 2003422759; OCLC: 51106036


Marcello Ciccuto
"Le meraviglie d'Oriente nelle enciclopedie illustrate del Medioevo" (in Michelangelo Picone, ed., L'enciclopedismo medievale: Atti del convegno "L'enciclopedismo medievale", San Gimignano, 1992, Ravenna: Longo, 1994, 79-116) [Book article]

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-8063-003-2


Colin Clair
Unnatural History: An Illustrated Bestiary (New York: Abelard-Schumann, 1967)

Aside from legendary beasts also has legends & lore of actual animals.

"In Unnatural History, and illustrated modern bestiary, Colin Clair has unearthed the incredible stories of a whole galaxy of extraordinary beasts. ...nearly every fabulous beast of myth and legend has been included here for the benefit of the contemporary reader, who, in his prudent circumspection, may well wonder in just what jungles the imaginations of his ancestors may have wandered." - publisher

The illustrations are mostly 16th and 17th century woodcuts (Gesner, Topsell, etc.) and line drawings.

256 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English
LCCN: 66025012; LC: GR825 .C48 1967; DDC: 398.4/69; OCLC: 1266069


Anne Clark
Beasts and Bawdy (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1975) [Book]

"...the author describes the real and fabulous beasts thus depicted, comments on their beastly behavior, and explores the curious sex lives our ancestors attributed to them." - publisher

A general introduction to (mostly) medieval animal lore. The lack of references makes it difficult to use for serious study, or to follow up on sometimes dubious statements. Small bibliography, index. 16 pages of black & white illustrations.

Contents: Sources of Animal Lore; Physiologus and the Bestiaries; Fabulous Beasts; Men as Beasts and Beasts as Men; Sex and Bawdy; Beastly Behaviour; Animal Medicines, Charms and Aphrodisiacs.

159 pages, 24 black & white photographic illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8008-0691-3; LCCN: 75000807; LC: QL791 .C565 1975; DDC: 398/.369


John Clark, ed.
The Medieval Horse and its Equipment c. 1150-c. 1450. Vol. 5, Medieval Finds from Excavations in London (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2004) [Book]

A description of archaeological research into artifacts related to the use of horses in the middle ages, based on digs in London.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-84383-097-3


Kenneth Clark
Animals and Men (London: Thames & Hudson, 1977) [Book]

Mostly plates with captions. Includes some information on the Physiologus and bestiaries, as well as symbolic and sacred animals.

240 p. index.

Language: English
LC: N7660.C6


Willene B. Clark
"The Aviary-Bestiary at the Houghton Library, Harvard" (in Willene B. Clark & Meradith T. McMunn, ed., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and its Legacy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 26-52) [Book article]

MS. Typ 101 containing an Aviary (De columbia deargentata, Libellus ad Rainerum conversum...) by Hugh of Fouilloy, prior of Saint-Laurent-d'Heilly, and Bestiary (Dicta Chrysostomi version)

Language: English


"Four latin bestiaries and De bestiis et aliis rebus" (in Baudouin Van den Abeele, ed., Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d’études médiévales, 2005, 49-69) [Book article]

Language: English


"The Illustrated Medieval Aviary and the Lay Brotherhood" (Gesta, 21:1, 1982, 63-74)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Hugh of Fouilloy's De avibus, written sometime after 1152, is a teaching text for monastic lay-brothers, using birds as the subjects of moral allegory. Copies were usually illustrated,and a standard program of miniatures can be followed, all or in part, through some forty-six of the seventy-eight extant manuscripts, produced mainly in the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In England, the text was often incorporated directly into the Bestiary, with or without the typical Aviary illustrations. The Aviary's formal parallels to the Bestiary, and its similar patronage and currency, suggest that the Bestiary, too, may have been used as a teaching text for lay-brothers." - Clark, abstract

Includes black & white manuscript images.

Language: English


A Medieval Book of Beasts: The Second-Family Bestiary. Commentary, Art, Text and Translation (USA: Boydell Press, 2006) [Book]

"The Second-family bestiary is the most important and frequently produced version (some 49 known manuscripts exist). Of English origin and predominantly English production, it boasts a spiritual text `modernized' to meet the needs of its time, and features exceptional illustrations. This study addresses the work's purpose and audience, challenging previous assumptions with direct evidence in the manuscripts themselves, linking their use to teachers at the elementary-school level, and exploring the art, the text, and the cultural context for the bestiary. It includes a critical edition and new English translation, and a catalogue raisonné of the manuscripts."

Contents: Bestiary history; cultural setting; The Text, an overview; The Text, details; The Illustrations, an overview; The Illustrations in significant manuscripts; The Manuscripts: origins, owners, codicology, general audience; Past Assumptions; New evidence and specific audience; Decline of the Latin bestiaries.

15 colour illustrations, 61 b/w illustrations, 294 pages.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85115-682-7


Medieval Book of Birds: Hugh of Fouilloy's Aviarium (Binghampton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1992; Series: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies) [Book]

"Medieval scribes gave a variety of titles to the Book of Birds... Here I will refer to it as the Aviary, for in many respects it parallels prose versions of a familiar genre, the bestiary. ... In recent times the Aviary has been the subject of a number of studies, all dealing summarily or only in part with the text, the illustrations, and the manuscripts. ... While these studies have made valuable contributions to an understanding of the Aviary, no one has analyzed the complete text in detail, nor has anyone compared the text and illustrations of the many copies in order to group the manuscripts textually and pictorially, nor placed their illustrations in their proper stylistic context. ... Therefore, in addition to an art historical study of the manuscript tradition, I have provided a modern edition and an English translation of the Aviary... In the introduction I analyze the manuscript groups and discuss style in individual manuscripts in relation to their respective groups. I also provide a catalog of all the extant Aviary manuscripts known to me. ... My purpose in publishing this edition and translation is to provide easy access to Hugh's appealing treatise on birds. I have not sought to establish an authorial text, but to present a text which seems to reflect the original at a reasonably close range. ... The edition is based upon the Heiligenkreuz Aviary (Heiligenkreuz Abbey MS. 226), an early copy, complete in text and illustrations." - Clark, preface

341 pp. of text, 49 pp. of black & white illustrations, catalogue of illuminated Aviary manuscripts, bibliography, general index, index of manuscripts cited.

[See also Trente et Un Nouveaux Manuscrits de l'Aviarium: Regards sur la Diffusion de l'Œuvre d'Hugues de Fouilloy (2003) van den Abeele, 2003]

Language: English
ISBN: 0-86698-091-1; LCCN: 90048430; LC: PA8275.B4 H813 1992; DDC: 878/.307 20


"Text and picture in the medieval aviary" (Manuscripta, 24:1, 1980, 5) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Zoology in the medieval Latin bestiary" (in Man and nature in the Middle Ages, Sewanee, Tenn.: University of the South Press, 1995) [Book article]

Language: English
ISBN: 0-918769-37-X; LCCN: 82-50575; LC: CB351 / BD581; OCLC: 35778979


Willene B. Clark, Meradith T. McMunn
Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages: The Bestiary and its Legacy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989) [Book]

"The essays in Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages, all by internationally known scholars, demonstate the scope and variety of bestiary studies and the ways in which the bestiary can be addressed. The contributers write about the tradition of one of the bestiary's birds, Parisian production of the manuscripts, bestiary animals in a liturgical book, theological as well as secular interpretations of beasts, bestiary creatures in literature, and new perspectives on the bestiary in other genres." - Introduction

In an appendix, the authors provide a list of western Latin and French bestiary manuscripts, extending the bestiary family classification system begun by The Bestiary: Being A Reproduction in Full of Ms. Ii 4. 26 in the University Library, Cambridge, with supplementary plates from other manuscripts of English origin, and a preliminary study of the Latin bestiary as current in England (Oxford, 1928) James (1928) and Medieval Latin and French Bestiaries (Chapel Hill, 1962) McCulloch (1962).

Includes articles by: The Art of Memory and the Bestiary (Philadelphia, 1989) Beryl Rowland, The Aviary-Bestiary at the Houghton Library, Harvard (Philadelphia, 1989) Willene B. Clark, Workshop methods in English late twelfth-century illumination and the production of luxury bestiaries (Philadelphia, 1989) Xenia Muratova, Guy R. Mermier, Spring, love, birdsong: the nightingale in two cultures (Philadelphia, 1989) Wendy Pfeffer, Duel of bestiaries. On Le Bestiaire d'amour by Richard de Fournival, and the anonymous Response appended to it in several manuscripts (Philadelphia, 1989) Jeanette Beer, An elephant in the litany: further thoughts on an English Book of Hours in the Walters Art Gallery (W.102). (Philadelphia, 1989) Lilian M. C. Randall, Bestiary influences in two thirteenth-century romances (Philadelphia, 1989) Meradith T. McMunn, Animal symbolism in the prophecies of Merlin (Philadelphia, 1989) Michael J. Curley, Notes on beasts in the Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César of Rogier, châtelain de Lille (Philadelphia, 1989) Mary Coker Joslin, Peacocks and preachers: analytic technique in Marcus of Orvieto's Liber de moralitatibus, Vatican lat. MS 5935 (Philadelphia, 1989) John B. Friedman.

224 p., black & white illustrations, extensive bibliography (since 1962), index, list of bestiary manuscripts, contributer biographies.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8122-3091-4; LCCN: 894915; LC: PA8275.B4Z55 1989; DDC: 809.9336 20


Laura Cleaver
"Taming the Beast: Images of Trained Bears in Twelfth-Century English Manuscripts" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 243-252)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Amongst the surviving representations of bears from the twelfth century are two images from southern England in which the creature is being taught to speak. These depictions resonate with the contemporary use of animal fables to teach children both Latin and correct behaviour. The bears serve as parallels for human beings and appear to achieve impossible skills. In the Middle Ages bears were famed for being both fierce and stupid. However, captive bears, which were frequently represented in twelfth-century images, could also provide entertainment. This study considers images of bears being taught to speak in the context of written and visual accounts of education. It argues that these images of bears echoed current debates about the nature of children. According to some writers, young pupils were like wild animals who needed to be reformed through the process of learning Latin in the schoolroom. Whilst such images of bears seemingly achieving the impossible were entertaining, they could thus also be didactic." - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.46


Jean-Paul Clébert
Bestiaire Fabuleux (Paris: Éditions Albin Michel, 1971) [Book]

459 pp., illustrations.

Language: French
LCCN:  70-886449; LC: GR825.C483; DDC: 398.24/5; OCLC: 547543


Charles De Clercq
"Hugues de Fouilloy, imagier de ses propres oeuvres?" (Revue du Nord, 177 (January-March), 1963, p. 31-42) [Journal article]

Language: French


"La Nature et le sens du De Avibus d`Hugues de Fouilloy, d`après le ms d`Heiligenkreuz n 226 comparable au ms. Troyes 177" (Miscellanea mediaevalia, 7, 1970, 279-302) [Journal article]

Language: French


Singne Almestad Coe
The Sculpture Of Saint-Sauveur De Nevers (Berkeley, CA: University Of California, Berkeley, 1987) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of California, Berkeley.

"The city of Nevers saw a considerable flourishing of church building in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Relatively few of these structures survive, however, and what does stand today displays very little of what was a substantial output of sculptural decoration in that period. The former Cluniac priory of Saint-Sauveur, destroyed in 1838, was a modest twelfth-century building which belonged to one of the smaller monastic establishments of the city, but from it survives the fullest document of sculpture from Romanesque Nevers. A study of the style of the sculpture of Saint-Sauveur, now housed in the Musee de la Porte du Croux in Nevers, reveals a homogeneous body of sculpture of high quality dating to the middle of the twelfth century. These capitals, corbels, and a tympanum and lintel were carved by an atelier composed of a master who had carved capitals of the tribune story of the narthex and perhaps the Romanesque west facade of the abbey church of Vezelay on the northern border of the Nivernais, as well as, perhaps, a stonecarver who had worked earlier in Nevers itself. The stamp of this atelier may also be seen in Nevers in corbel sculpture of the chapel of Saint-Michel of the Benedictine convent of Notre-Dame de Nevers. Analysis of the iconography of the Saint-Sauveur sculpture, which included a remarkable sculpted 'bestiary' on the nave capitals and a particularly pointed emphasis on the powers of the apostle Peter in sculpture from the crossing and transept portal, gives more specific indication of the background and intentions of the Cluniac patrons of the sculpted decorations of Saint-Sauveur. As well, it may pinpoint the historical moment of the conception of the sculpture to the years around 1152. The collection of fragments from Saint-Sauveur emerges as the creation of an atelier working in an old and rich Romanesque idiom but touched also by a newer aesthetic and by intellectual concerns which scholars commonly associate with early Gothic works. Indeed, the Saint-Sauveur sculpture was soon to be followed in Nevers itself by works closely related to the dramatic contemporary innovations in the sculpture of the Ile-de-France." - abstract

578 p.

Language: English
PQDD: AAT8813835


Luisa Cogliati Arano
"Bestiari ed erbari dal manoscritto alla stampa" (in Henri Zerner, ed., Le stampe e la diffusione delle immagini e degli stili, Bologna: CLUEB, 1983, 17-22) [Book article]

Uses as models the illustrations of some herbals and bestiaries from the 13th century to the 16th century (Theriaca, MS arabe 2964, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; herbal, Cod. Pal. 586, Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence; MS it. 1108, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; Herbarium of Apuleius, incun. 794, Biblioteca Marciana, Venice; and herbal, Passau 1486, incun. 915, Biblioteca Marciana, Venice) to test the hypothesis that images played an important role in linking various cultures through the centuries.

Comité international d'histoire de l'art. Atti del XXIV Congresso internazionale di storia dell'arte, 8.

Language: Italian


"Dal Fisiologo al Bestiario di Leonardo" (in 1-2Rivista di storia della miniatura 1996-1997, 1997, 239-248) [Book article]

Surveys European Medieval illuminated manuscripts (11th-15th cs.; various collections) of the Physiologus and other bestiaries (e.g., those of Sextus Placitus, Guillaume le Clerc, Richart de Fornival, etc.), and the representation of animals in Arab illuminations (13th c.) as precedents for the studies of animals by Pisanello and Leonardo da Vinci.

Language: Italian


"Fonti figurative del ''Bestiario'' di Leonardo" (Arte Lombarda Milano, 62, 1982, 151-160) [Journal article]

The author discusses the possible sources (illustrated bestiaries of the 13-14th centuries) in studies of animals by Leonardo da Vinci. In addition to specific works that the artist could have consulted in the ducal library of Pavie, the tradition of the international Gothic style, with its Arab components, is described as the source of inspiration of Leonardo da Vinci.

Language: Italian


Daniel Cohen
A Modern Look at Monsters (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1970) [Book]

Language: English


Esther Cohen
"Law, Folklore and Animal Lore" (Past and Present, 110 (February), 1986, 6-37)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Given the existent knowledge of past legal and institutional developments and of the evolving relationship between élite and popular cultural expressions, it is possible to attempt a long-term interpretation. One such practice, the criminal prosecution and execution of animals, may illustrate the interaction of various legal levels and cultural influences. These trials, documented in European legal history from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century, occupy an intermediate position between popular and élite legal culture. On the one hand, they were definitely not judicial folklore: the sentences were passed and executed in properly constituted courts of law by fully qualified magistrates, according to generally accepted laws. On the other hand, there is no question that they were an integral part of customary law and owed their continued existence partially to popular traditions and influences. ... Following the phenomenon through the warp and woof of legal history, from court-house to university and from customals to the gallows across centuries of changing perceptions of nature, law and justice, one might attempt an interpretation of continental European law as practised within its specific cultural context." - Cohen

Language: English


Simona Cohen
Animals as Disguised Symbols in Renaissance Art (United Kingdom: Brill, 2008; Series: Studies in Intellectual History, 169) [Book]

"The relationship between medieval animal symbolism and the iconography of animals in the Renaissance has scarcely been studied. Filling a gap in this significant field of Renaissance culture, in general, and its art, in particular, this book demonstrates the continuity and tenacity of medieval animal interpretations and symbolism, disguised under the veil of genre, religious or mythological narrative and scientific naturalism. An extensive introduction, dealing with relevant medieval and early Renaissance sources, is followed by a series of case studies that illustrate ways in which Renaissance artists revived conventional animal imagery in unprecedented contexts, investing them with new meanings, on a social, political, ethical, religious or psychological level, often by applying exegetical methodology in creating multiple semantic and iconographic levels." - publisher

Language: English


Carl Cohn
Geschichte des Einhorns (Berlin: 1896) [Book]

Language: German


Roger L. Cole
"Beast Allegory in the Late Medieval Sermon in Strasbourg: The Example of John Geiler's Von den vier Lewengeschrei (1507)" (Bestia: Yearbook of the Beast Fable Society, May; 3, 1991, 115-124) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 1041-2212


E. Colledge
Renard the Fox and Other Mediaeval Netherlands Secular Literature (Leyden: Heinemann, 1967) [Book]

Language: English


Arthur H. Collins
"Some Twelfth-Century Animal Carvings and their Sources in the Bestiaries" (The Connoisseur, Vol. 106. No. 472, 1940, 238-243)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A brief article comparing animal images carved on British churches with similar images found in bestiary manuscripts.

Churches include: Alne, Yorkshire; Newton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, Dalmeny, Scotland; St Margaret's, York; Alton, Hampshire; Herefordshire; Faversham, Kent.

Manuscripts include: St John's College, Oxford, MS. 61; Westminster Chapter Library, MS. 22; British Library, Sloane MS. 3544; British Library, Harley MS. 4751; British Library, Harley MS. 3244.

17 black & white photographs.

Language: English


Symbolism of Animals and Birds Represented in English Church Architecture (New York: McBride, Nast & Company, 1913)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"No student of our ancient churches can fail to have noticed how frequently animals and other representations of natural history are to be found carved therein. The question will naturally occur: are these scultures, or paintinge, mere grotesque creations of the artist's fancy, or have they rather some meaning which patient investigation will discover for us? ... This link has now been found in the natural history books of the Middle Ages, which were in more common circulation than any other book, save, of course, the Bible. ... Such books are usually called Bestiaries. They are to be found in every great library... Few books have entered more than the Bestiaries into the common life of European nations. Hence we may understand that the sculptors who beautified our churches were not slow to make use of such familiar material." - Collins, chapter 1.

Includes 120 black & white photgraphs of sculpture and carvings (primarily stone) in churches througout England. All photographs are fully annotated as to location, date and subject.

Language: English


H. Connor
"Medieval uroscopy and its representation on misericords" (Clinical Medicine, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians, 2:1, 2002, 75-77)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"By the fifteenth century the practice of uroscopy was falling into disrepute and the uroscopy flask (matula) became a symbol of ridicule. On the carved misericords in choir stalls, the physician holding the matula was commonly represented as an ape, with the allegorical implications of foolishness, vanity and even lechery. The ape uroscopist was frequently shown with his friend the fox, an animal that was often used to satirise the less-than-perfect cleric, and this association may reflect the close ties between the medical and clerical professions in the medieval period."

Language: English
ISSN: 1470-2118


Anna Contadini
"A Bestiary Tale: Text and Image of the Unicorn in the Kitab na`l al-hayawan (British Library Or. 2784)" (Muqarnas, 20, 2003, 17-34) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0732-2992; OCLC: 8339076


"Musical beasts: the swan-phoenix in the Ibn Bakhti-shu-' bestiaries" (in The Iconography of Islamic Art: Studies in Honour of Robert Hillenbrand, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005, 93-101) [Book article]

Discusses the depiction and description of the si-ra-nas or swan-phoenix in manuscripts of the Kita-b t.aba-'I' al-h.ayawa-n by Ibn Bakhti-shu-', which concern the characteristics of animals, including the musical sound made by this creature.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7486-2090-7


Albert S. Cook
"The Old English 'Whale'" (Modern Language Notes, 9:3 (March), 1894, 65-68)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of the Whale poem of the Old English Physiologus found in the Exeter Book. Cook focuses on the word Fastitocalon as a name for the whale, and compares it to the name Aspidocalon. Much of the article consists of quotations in German, Greek and Latin.

Language: English


Old English Elene, Phoenix and Physiologus (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1919) [Book]

239 p.

Language: English
LCCN: 19014191; LC: PR1505.C64; OCLC: 2084028


Translations from the Old English (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1970) [Book]

Includes the Old English Physiologus, text and prose translation by A. S. Cook, verse translation by J. H. Pitman. Reprint of contributions originally published 1899-1921 as Yale studies in English, v. 7, 21-22, 48, and 63. Includes a reproduction of the original title page of each contribution.

274 pp.

Language: English
LCCN: 75016347; LC: PR1508.T7 1970; DDC: 829


Albert S. Cook, James Hall Pitman
The Old English Physiologus (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921; Series: Yale studies in English 63)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Text and prose translation by Albert Stanburrough Cook. Verse translation by James Hall Pitman. Neither translation is literal; the verse translation in particular takes liberties with the OE text.

Editor's preface dated: March 27, 1921./ "Text is extracted from my edition, The Old English Elene, Phoenix, and Physiologus (Yale university press, 1919) where a critical apparatus may be found."--Pref./ Three short poems of the Exeter book: the Panther, the Whale, and the Partridge; often ascribed to Cynewulf. The last is a mere fragment.

Reprinted by: Folcroft Library Editions, Folcroft, PA, 1973.

25 pp.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8414-1843-8; LCCN: 73004487; LC: PR1752.C6 1973; DDC: 829/.1


Sharon Coolidge
Medieval Literature Annotated Bibliography (Wheaton College)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A bibliography for English students at Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois. Topics covered include: Animals; Biblical Typology; Birds; Mythology; Plants; Stones; Symbolic Themes. Sharon Coolidge is Chair / Professor of the English department. The entire bibliography is available as a web page or a PDF file.

Language: English


J. C. Cooper
Dictionary of Symbolic and Mythological Animals (London: Harper Collins, 1995) [Book]

Consists of an alphabetic list of animals, with dictionary-style entries; includes many references to the bestiary.

284 p., bibliography, list of authorities.

Language: English
LC: GR820.C66


Brian P. Copenhaver
"A Tale of Two Fishes: Magical Objects in Natural History from Antiquity Through the Scientific Revolution" (Journal of the History of Ideas, 52:3, 1991, 373-398)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A study of two fish as magical objects: the echineis, said to have the power to hold back ships; and the torpedo, able to stun at a distance. The author cites ancient authorities (Pliny, Aristotle, Galen, and others) to explore the origins of the legends, and looks at the effects of the scientific revolution on the belief in them.

Language: English


Sandra Coram-Mekkey
"Mys/mus, qui est tu?" (in Elisabeth Mornet & Franco Morenzoni, ed., Milieux naturels, espaces sociaux: Etudes offertes à Robert Delort, Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, 1997, 161-175) [Book article]

Discusses the etymology of mus as well as occurrences of this word in scientific literature of Antiquity and the Middle Ages/

Language: French
ISBN: 2-85944-330-4


Francesco Cordasco
"The Old English 'Physiologus': Its Problems" (Modern Language Quarterly, 10 (September), 1949, 351-355) [Journal article]

"Scholarship has been faced with two problems in the Old English Physiologus: (1) Does it constitue a small cycle complete in itself, or is it only a remnant of a longer series? (2) What is the bird of the fragment? There has been no unanimous decision. ... The answer to the complex question of the cycle seems to lie in the identification of the bird in the third poem. If the writer selected the bird that succeeds the Whale, the longer-cycle theory is left with argument; if he mechanically followed his source and took the next member, the longer-cycle theory is given substantial credence. The matter of choice is crucial." - Cordasco

Language: English


Rémy Cordonnier
"Haec pertica est regula. Texte, image et mise en page dans l’Aviarium d’Hugues de Fouilloy" (in Baudouin Van den Abeele, ed., Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d’études médiévales, 2005, 71-110) [Book article]

Language: French


Hugues de Fouilloy, De avibus, Traité des oiseaux (extraits), fac-similé du manuscrit 177 de la Médiathèque de l’Agglomération troyenne (Paris: Phénix Éditions, 2004) [Book]

Language: French


L'illustration du "De avibus" de Hugues de Fouilloy : symbolisme animal et méthodes d'enseignement au Moyen Âge (Lille: Université Charles de Gaulle (Lille), 2007) [Dissertation]

Doctoral thesis, Christian Heck, director.

"The Aviarium is a treaty on the exegetical significance of birds. It was written in the middle of the XIIth century by Hugues of Fouilloy, then prior of a community of Augustinian regular canons. In his dedication and his prologue, Hugues states that he conceived the iconographic program of his treaty so as to make it accessible to the illiterates (illiterati), which places it in the tradition of the "picture as literature of the illiterates" concept. The iconographic program of the Aviarium is nothing less than the equivalent to a text for the religious illiterates who must practise the lectio divina in spite of their difficulty to read scriptures. Its illustrations follow the tradition of visual exegesis, which goes back to the Carolingian period but appears to have been systematized in the XIIth century - especially by the school of Saint-Victor - in this period of emergence of new scholastic exegesis methods. The choice of animal symbolism, and of birds in particular, is first motivated by the fact that Hugues adresses a religious audience, traditionnaly represented by birds in Christian thought, and, secondly, because of the long tradition of the use of bestiaries as teaching manuals in medieval scolae, which also sheds light on the didactic approach of such books. The Aviarium's conception in the middle of the XIIth century and in the context of regular canon orders, made of its iconographic program an unvaluable example of the place and function devoted to pictures within a school of thought that expresses/transcribes both the canonical world and the monastic one, alongside the emergence of the universities and of a new way of thinking." - abstract

5 vol. (540, 230, 159, 9 f.) : ill., fac-sim. ; 30 cm

Language: French
National thesis number: 2007LIL30015


"Des oiseaux pour les moines blancs: réflexions sur la réception de l'Aviaire d'Hugues de Fouilloy chez les cisterciens" (La Vie en Champagne, 38, 2004, 3-12)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Auteur dun livre consacré à la symbolique des oiseaux, Hugues de Fouilloy était proche de la spiritualité de saint Bernard. Ses relations avec les moines expliquent le succès de son œuvre auprès des Cisterciens. ... Les exemplaires cisterciens constituent à ce jour environ un tiers du corpus (7) des manuscrits conservés du De avibus. Cest le plus important de tous les groupes dattributions de lAviaire. Par ailleurs, les recherches de mes prédécesseurs sur le sujet ont établi que, parmi tous les exemplaires connus, ce sont vraisemblablement les manuscrits cisterciens qui se rapprochent constatations nous ont donc naturellement amené à nous demander pourquoi les cisterciens ont apparemment attaché autant d'importance à la copie du De avibus..." - Cordonnier

Language: French


Rémy Cordonnier
"'Over Vogels' en het Moraliserend Bestiarium" ()
 Web site/resource link

Notes on the De avibus of Hugo de Folieto, including the textural tradition and the pace of the text in bestiaries.

Language: Dutch


Kathleen Corrigan
"The Smyrna Physiologos and eleventh-century monasticism" (in Work and Worship at the Theotokos Evergetis 1050-1200, Belfast: Belfast Byzantine Enterprises (Belfast Byzantine texts and translations, 6, 2), 1997, 201-212) [Book article]

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85389-712-3


P.-P. Corsetti
"Note sur les excerpta médiévaux de Columelle" (Revue d'histoire des textes, 7, 1977, 109-132) [Journal article]

Language: French


Peter Costello
The Magic Zoo: The Natural History of Fabulous Animals (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979) [Book]

"I should like to make clear, at the very beginning of this book, just exactly what I mean by 'magic' in the title. ... By magic I mean the other realm of meaning which lies between man and nature, that world of mystery and enchantment that we first recognize as children in fairy tales. ... Such creatures as the unicorn are not purposeless fantasies. They all have some special meaning. They are all cultural artefacts, as much so as the flint knife of the early shaman, or the space-probe of the modern scientist. They are 'man-made' in a very special sense. ... The natural history of these magical creatures -- and I emphasise that this book is about their natural history only -- is bound up with man's experience of animals, wild and domestic, through the centuries. In the...first part of this book, I shall try and outline man's changing relationship with the animals around him. ... In the second part of the book I have collected together some of the fabulous animals of Western man over a long period of time. ... Though most of this book deals with the natural history of fabulous beasts, the last part takes a brief look at the magical dimensions of man's experience and knowledge of these animals." - Costello

222 pp., 4 leaves of plates, illustrations, bliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-312-50421-7; LC: GR825.C53


André Côté
"Un manuscrit oublié du Physiologus (New York, P. Morgan M. 397)" (Scriptorium: International Review of Manuscript Studies, 28:2, 1974, 276-277) [Journal article]

A short discription of a "lost" manuscript containing the Physiologus: New York, Pierpont Morgan Library MS. M. 397. The description includes a list of the 48 beasts found in the manuscript.

Language: French


Shannon Hogan Cottin-Bizonne
Une Nouvelle edition du 'Bestiaire' de Philippe de Thaon (École nationale des chartes, 2005)
 Web site/resource link [Dissertation]

"The goal of the dissertation is to propose a new critical edition of the Bestiaire of Philippe de Thaon, last edited by Le Bestiaire de Philippe de Thaün (Paris and Lund, 1900) Emmanuel Walberg in 1900. The edition is accompanied by four introductory chapters which present in order: a brief overview of the bestiary tradition and the works of Philippe de Thaon, an analysis of the three manuscripts containing the Bestiaire, an explanation of the criteria for edition and an examination of the cycle of miniatures conceived to accompany this work. Appendices include: notes indicating Philippe's sources, an index of proper names, a thematic index of beasts, birds and stones mentioned in the bestiary and a glossary." - abstract

PhD dissertation, 2005. 308 p.

Language: French


Paul-Louise Couchoud, ed.
Asiatic Mythology (London: George G. Harrap & Co., 1932) [Book]

Language: English


Cornelia C. Coulter
"The 'Great Fish' in Ancient and Medieval Story" (Transactions of the American Philological Association, 57, 1926, 32-50)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"In every age of the world, travellers to far off lands have brought back stories of strange peoples and strange customs, of plants and birds and beasts unknown to those who stayed at home. Perhaps no sight has made a stronger appeal to the imagination than an enormous fish, whose vast bulk lay stretched out on the surface of the sea, or who opened his huge jaws to devour smaller creatures. According as the lines of travel moved to the east or to the west and north, he is pictured, now off the coast of India or among the islands of the Southern Pacific, now on the shores of the Baltic; his dimensions and habits are variously described; but always he is an object of terror, and always he lends himself to stories of adventure and romance." - author

Language: English


J.L. Couper
"The Healing Bird" (South African Medical Journal, Oct 20; 78:8, 1990, 485-489)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The legend of the caladrius, a bird with prognostic and healing powers, first appeared in early Indian writings as the haridruva--a yellow bird that cured jaundice. In classical Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Southern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry." - abstract

Language: English
PMID: 2218789


John Charles Cox
Bench-Ends in English Churches (London: Oxford University Press, 1916; Series: Church Art in England) [Book]

An extensive survey of bench-end wood carvingin English churches. The are some animal references.

208 p., 164 black & white plates and illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
LC: NA5075.C7


Patricia Cox
"The Physiologus: a Poiesis of Nature" (Church History, 52:4, 1953, 433-443)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"If we were to adopt the standard scholarly perspective on the Physiologus ... we would have to say that, while it is unusually transformative, it is not very good poetry. For, in the traditional view, the imagination of the Physiologus has its base precisely not in reality but in embarrassing flights of zoological fancy. A.-J. Festugière, for example, characterized the Phusika literature, literature which meditated on nature, as a 'museum of the weird' and contrasted its 'disconcerting credulity' with Aristotle's program of establishing fixed natural laws. In a similar vein, B. E. Perry remarked that the Physiologus was written by 'a simple man for simple people.' Naive and unartistic, fantastical, romantic, and magical, the Physiologus was responsible virtually singlehandedly for blotting out the bright light of Aristotelian science for nearly a thousand years.These scholars obviously have a clear and distinct idea about what constitutes the 'reality' to which the Physiologus was so woefully unresponsive. It is the reality of Aristotelian scientific observation, which catalogues, classifies, orders, and arranges the natural world, placing its bewildering superabundance of forms into a manageable system. From this biological perspective, a document like the Physiologus has no art. ...the reality in which the author of the Physiologus was indeed a specialist may not have been the biological reality of Aristotle but another passion altogether. It is this other reality that I would like to explore in this essay." - Cox

Language: English


Trenchard Cox
"The Twelfth-Century Design Sources of the Worcester Cathedral Misericords" (Society of Antiquaries, Archaeologia, 1959) [Journal article]

14 pp., 9 pages of plates.

Language: English


Roberto Crespo
Una versione pisana inedita del Bestiaire d'amours (Leiden: Universitaire Pers Leiden, 1972; Series: Collana romanistica leidense, v. 18) [Book]

Richard de Fournival, fl. 1246-1260. Bestiaire d'amour.

119 pp., illustrations, bibliography

Language: Italian
ISBN: 90-6021-156-1; LCCN: 73-343178; LC: PQ1461.F64 B433; DDC: 841.1


Paul P. Cret
"Animals in Christian Art" (in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I, New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907)
 Web site/resource link [Book article]

A brief article on the depiction of animals in Christian art, primarily in the Middle Ages.

Language: English


Grover Cronin, Jr.
"The Bestiary and the Mediaeval Mind - Some Complexities" (Modern Language Quarterly, 2, 1941, 191-198)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"It is the purpose of this paper to indicate some complexities in the study of the Bestiary which seem to be frequently and surprisingly overlooked. Though much valuable work has been done on various individual questions connected with the Bestiary, one cannot escape the suspicion that the more general aspects of interpretation have been unwarrantably simplified. ... The naturally close relations between symbolism and scriptural interpretation are even closer with regard to the Bestiary, for much of this strange lore derives from Biblical accounts of creation. All students of the Bestiary admit this, and it is therefore all the more surprising to find in many of them the assumption that facts did not matter to the early authors of Biblical commentaries, especially of the Hexaëmeron type. It is quite true, and scarcely a matter for wonder, that the perception of meaning, the perception of the connection of the isolated fact with more cosmic problems, held a higher place in the hierarchy of values than did the observance of single facts. But it is not true that this kind of subordination implied any contempt for the facts, as such." - Cronin

Language: English


Bestiary material in the literature of religious instruction of Mediaeval England (Madison: University Of Wisconsin - Madison, 1941) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of Wisconsin - Madison. Available in microform from University of Wisconsin Memorial Library, Madison, 1980 (1 reel; 35 mm).

232 p, bibliography.

Language: English
OCLC: 6473843


"John Mirk on Bonfires, Elephants and Dragons" (Modern Language Notes, 57:2 (February), 1942, 113-116)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"In his homily for the feast of St. John the Baptist John Mirk describes the manner of celebrating the vigil, a description of obvious value to the historian of folk-custom and yet, apparently, little noted. ... But whereas Beleth is content to explain that a fire made of bones was especially popular as a remedy against the pestilential dragon in the time of St. John and that the people annually light similar fires to commemorate the historical fact, Mirk interweaves into his explanation of the custom the old story of Alexander's stratagem against elephants. But what has all this to do with the story of the elephants? Is Mirk merely implying that the same wise clerks who knew the natural history of the elephant were also up on their dragon lore? Clarity is conspicuously absent from the explanation given by Mirk, but an examination of Bestiary beliefs reveals that there is good reason for connecting the stories of the elephant and of the dragon.

One of the details of the Greek Physiologus involves the hostility existing between the dragon and the elephant." - author

Language: English


Kevin Crossley-Holland, Bruce Mitchell
The Battle of Maldon, and other Old English poems (London; New York: Macmillan; St. Martin's Press, 1965) [Book]

Includes an modern English translation of the Old English Physiologus (panther and whale), plus a brief commentary.

Language: English
LC: PR1508 C7


James B. Cummins
"The Paul Mellon collection of sporting books" (Yale University Library Gazette, 75:3-4, 2001, 167-187) [Journal article]

Describes Paul Mellon's collection of sporting books which was bequeathed in 1999 to the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven. The collection is particularly strong in items concerning horses, such as riding, hunting, breeding, and racing. Among the most important works is the English Helmingham Herbal and Bestiary of ca.1500 which contains over 100 images of plants and animals, and the Livre du Roi Modus et de la Reine Racio of ca.1400 which features depictions of the chase.

Language: English
ISSN: 0044-0175


John Cummins
The Hound and the Hawk: The Art of Medieval Hunting (New York: Sterling Publishing, 2001) [Book]

Edition of a text on methods for hunting deer, boar, wolves, foxes, bear, otter, birds, hare, and even unicorns.

Reprint of the 1988 St Martin's Press edition.

306 p., illustrations (some color).

Language: English
ISBN: 1-84212-097-2


Michael J. Curley
"Animal symbolism in the prophecies of Merlin" (in Willene B. Clark & Meradith T. McMunn, ed., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and its Legacy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 151-163) [Book article]

"...[studies] the extension of bestiary influence to secular medieval genres. ... Curley surveys the use of animal symbolism, including some from the bestiary, in the development of the most enduring of medieval legends, that of King Arthur." - introduction

Language: English


"A Note on Bertilak's Beard" (Modern Philology, 73:1 (August), 1975, 69-73)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Commentary on Bertilak's "beaver-hued" beard in fit 2 of Gawain and the Green Night in relation to the allegory of the beaver in the bestiaries, the Physiologus, Solinus, Pliny, and others.

Language: English


Physiologus (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979) [Book]

"Curley has based his translation on the Latin versions of Physiologus as established by Francis Carmody. Curley's intrduction places Physiologus within its intellectual and historical framework. He also provides a selected bibliography and notes. This volume is illustrated with reproductions of woodcuts from the 1587 Rome edition." - cover copy

"The present translation is based on the two editions of the Latin Physiologus prepared by Francis Carmody, the y- and b- version [Physiologus Latinus Versio Y (Los Angeles, 1941) Carmody Y, Physiologus Latinus: Éditions préliminaires versio B (Paris, 1939) Carmody B]. I have relied primarily on the y-version since it is generally agreed to be the closer of the two to the Greek original. Whenever important additions or variations are supplied by the b-version, however, I have translated them..." - Introduction

Includes 51 beasts.

135 pp., notes, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-292-76456-1; LCCN: 79014096; LC: PA4273.P8 E5 1979; DDC: 883/.01


"Physiologus, Fisiologia and the Rise of Christian Nature Symbolism" (Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 11, 1980, 1-10) [Journal article]

"The anonymous author of Physiologus infused these venerable pagan tales with the spirit of Christian moral and mystical teaching, and thereafter they occupied a place of special importance in the symbolism of the Cristian world. ... In the following remarks I shall attempt to outline the development of a Christian concept of öõóéïëïãßá, and then go on to show how the author of Physiologus set about to compile his anthology of legends in conformity to the early Christian notion of öõóéïëïãßá." - Curley

Language: English
ISSN: 0083-5897


Elisa Curti
"Un esempio di bestiario dantesco: La cicogna o dell'amor materno" (Studi Danteschi, 67, 2002, 129-160) [Journal article]

Language: Italian
ISSN: 0391-7835


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Maria Amalia D'Aronco
"Considerazioni sul Physiologus antico inglese: Pantera vv. 8b-l3a; Balena vv. 1-7" (AION: Filologia germanica, 27, 1984, 303-309) [Journal article]

Language: Italian


Verner Dahlerup
Physiologus i to islandske bearbejdelser (Copenhagen: Thiele, 1889)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

Includes facsimile of illuminated manuscript Særtryk af Aarb. for Nord. Oldk. og Hist. 1889.

92 pp., facsimiles, bibliography.

Language: Danish
LC: PT7318.P6; OCLC: 4560498


Michael Dallapiazza
Der Wortschatz des althochdeutschen 'Physiologus' (Venice: Cafoscarina, 1988; Series: Quaderni della sezione di filologia germanica 1) [Book]

The Old High German Physiologus.

93 pp., bibliography.

Language: German
LC: PA4273.P9 D35 1988; OCLC: 24086176


Gigetta Dalli Regoli
"Sirene animalia sunt mortifera: animali e mostri in un architrave Lucchese del XII secolo" (Arte Cristiana, 87: 795, 1999, 405-412) [Journal article]

"Les caractéristiques formelles et iconographiques des monstres sculptés en bas-relief sur l'architrave du portail central de l'église de S. Michele in Foro à Lucques, réalisés au 12e s. Elle sont confrontées aux lettrines de certains manuscrits enluminés contemporains et étudiées dans leur symbolique telle qu'elle est décrite dans les bestiaires et le Physiologus."

Language: Italian
ISSN: 0004-3400


Abbas Daneshvari
Animal Symbolism in Warqa Wa Gulshah (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; Series: Oxford Studies in Islamic Art) [Book]

92 pp.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-19-728003-X


Maurizi Dardano
"Note sul bestiario toscano" (Italia Dialettale: Rivista di Dialettologia Italiana, 30, 1967, 29-117) [Journal article]

Language: Italian
ISSN: 0085-2295


Masuyo Tokita Darling
"A sculptural fragment from Cluny III and the three-headed bird iconography" (in L. A. J. R. Houwen, ed., Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature (Mediaevalia Groningana, 20), Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1997, 209-223) [Book article]

Identified here as the upper part of a slingshot once belonging to a sculpted capital depicting a warrior fighting a monstrous three-headed bird (resembling capitals preserved in other Burgundian churches), an iconography explained here as a metaphor of the spiritual struggles faced by monks between human frailty of the flesh and the ascetic life.

Language: English
ISBN: 90-6980-097-7


F. Hadland Davis
Myths and Legends of Japan (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1932) [Book]

Language: English


John Irving Davis
Libellus de Natura Animalium (London: Dawson's of Pall Mall, 1958) [Book]

A 16th century printed text that was ascribed to Albertus Magnus. Reproduced in facsimile with an introduction by J. I. Davis.

"The chief aim in publishing this facsimile ... is to reproduce a woodcut book which is not only very rare, but artistically unique. ... Although its authorship is attributed by Sander to Albertus Magnus... it is clear that he had nothing to do with its composition. ... The 'Libellus' was printed between 1508 and 1512 by Vincenzo Berruerio in the smal Piedmontese town of Mondovi, where the earliest book published in Piedmont was printed in 1472. ... To say that only so many copies of a rare book are known is always dangerous, but after the fullest research it appears that apart form this one which I was fortunate enough to acquire some years ago, there are but three other copies surviving: those in the National Library, Turin; the Bodleian Library, Oxford; and the one in the possession of Mr. Philip Hofer, New York..." - Davis

3 p. introduction, 64 p. facsimile. Illustrated with woodcut pictures.

Language: English
LCCN: 59023629; LC: PA8275.L5 1958; DDC: 398.4; OCLC: 2785822


Norman Davis
"Notes on the Middle English Bestiary" (Medium Aevum, 19, 1950, 56-59) [Journal article]

Commentary on problems in the language and interpretation of lines 77-80, 274-277 and 419-420 of the Middle English Bestiary, based on the Selections from Early Middle English (Oxford, 1920) Hall edition of 1920 (British Library, Arundel MS. 292).

Language: English


Angelo De Gubernatis
Zoological Mythology; or The Legends of Animals (Detroit: Singing Tree Press, 1968) [Book]

Animals in mythology and legend, from India, the Middle East, Greece and Rome, and Western Europe from antiquity to the middle ages. Discusses animals of the land, sea and air. Some of the myths are related to bestiary episodes, making this text useful as background reading.

This is a reprint of the 1872 (London: Trubner) edition.

2 volumes: 432 + 442 p., index.

Language: English
LCCN: 68058904; LC: BL325 A6G8


Christopher de Hamel
"Beastly Books" (The Centre for the History of the Book, CHB News 2004, 2004, 3)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"...a Bestiary was not merely an ill-informed book of natural history. It was in no way a practical guide to identifying animals. It was a religious book. It can best be approached by comparing the medieval monastic technique of studying the Bible. century. We can apply exactly the same technique of study to the Bestiary. ... Just as a medieval biblical writer would be reluctant to discard any verse of the Bible, however questionable its textual authority, for fear of accidentally rejecting authentic text, so too the compilers of Bestiaries did not dare exclude any animal from the canon, however improbable, in case they discarded part of the divine revelation. It is an interesting way of looking at a medieval text, and it tells us much about concepts of textual authority in the Middle Ages." - de Hamel

Language: English


Book of Beasts: A Facsimile of MS. Bodley 764 (Oxford: Bodleian Library, 2008) [Book]

This is a full photographic facsimile of the manuscript, approximately actual size. The gold backgrounds in the illustrations has been reproduced with a metalic ink, the colors are bright, and the text is sharp. There is a 20 page introduction by Christopher de Hamel, as well as a list of illustrations with commentary preceeding the facsimile.

About 300 pages, full color.

Language: English/Latin
ISBN: 1-85124-317-8


Christopher de Hamel, Lucy Freeman Sandler
The Peterborough Bestiary (Luzern: Faksimile Verlag Luzern, 2001)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

"All 44 pages of the Peterborough Bestiary are reproduced in the original format of 348 × 236 mm in a limited edition of 1,480 copies world-wide. The volume comes in a carefully hand produced and blind-tooled brown leather binding, a faithful replica of a typical Cambridge binding. All sheets are trimmed in accordance with the original and stitched to the contents by hand. The cover is tooled using roulettes, showing motives of the griffon, the lion and the dragon. An academic commentary volume, including a complete transcription and translation of all texts, by Christopher de Hamel, Director of the Corpus Christi Library in Cambridge, and Lucy Freeman Sandler, the great New York University expert in English book illumination, facilitates the understanding of the manuscript." - Publisher

Language: English


Siegfried Walter De Rachewiltz
De Sirenibus: An Inquiry Into Sirens From Homer To Shakespeare (Harvard: Harvard University, 1983) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at Harvard University.

"The motif of the Sirens is examined from several different perspectives and in a number of cultural and historical contexts. Chapter I is devoted to a close analysis of the Siren episode in the Odyssey; it is argued that the Sirens not only represent a problematization of the Nature/Culture opposition, but also embody a mode of song which threatens the very narrative structures and conventions of the Odyssey itself. Chapter II explores the various literary and iconographic metamorphoses which the Sirens undergo in post-Homeric classical tradition. Chapter III, devoted to the Christian interpretations of Sirens, deals with patristic writings, with allegorical bestiaries, and with the iconographic traditions of medieval ecclesiastical art: it traces the gradual transformation of the Siren from birdmaid into mermaid and her emergence as a symbol of heresy. Chapter IV builds on this context of Christian interpretation in order to analyze the Siren in Canto 19 of Dante's Purgatorio: it is contended that she represents a particular fusion of the classical Siren with the medieval notion of worldly blandishments. Chapter V examines Platonic and neo-Platonic versions of the Sirens as heavenly muses in reference to the poetry of Petrarch, Bembo, and Aretino. Chapter VI in turn discusses Boccaccio's treatment of the Siren myth in his Genealogia and its influence on Renaissance mythography. Chapter VII follows the various avatars of the Siren as enchantress in the romances and epics of Pulci, Boiardo, Ariosto, Tasso, Spenser, and Camoens. Chapter VIII discusses the Siren as emblem and the emblem as Siren in the Renaissance and touches on the Siren as common printer's mark of the period. Chapter IX treats Shakespeare's image of the Siren/mermaid. Also included are the following appendices: a brief survey of Siren scholarship in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, an excursion into the motif of Sirens in folklore, and a representative sampling of Siren iconography from Greek antiquity through the Renaissance." - abstract

391 p.

Language: English
PQDD: AAT8322330


Élisabeth de Solms
Bestiaire roman: textes médiévaux (La Pierre-qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1977; Series: Les Points cardinaux 25) [Book]

Bestiaries, Romanesque Sculpture, Animals in art. Translation by É. de Solms; introduction by Claude Jean-Nesmy.

195 pp., illustrations (some color), bibliography.

Language: French
LCCN: 77558562; LC: NB175; DDC: 734/.24


Annemarie de Waal Malefijt
"Homo Monstrosus" (Scientific American, 219:4 (October), 1968, 113-118) [Journal article]

"The belief in the existence of monstrous races had endured in the Western world for at least 2,000 years. During that time a rich assortment of semihuman creatures were described by explorers and travelers, whose accounts were probably based largely on malformed individuals and the desire to enhance their own fame at home. No part of the human body was neglected; each was conceived as having elaborate variations. There were, for example, people with tiny heads, with gigantic headws, with pointed heads, with no heads, with detachable heads, with dog heads, with horse heads, with pig snouts and with bird beaks. In the absence of knowledge of farawy places (and about the limits of human variation) men populated them with creatures of their imagination." - author

Illustrations from early printed sources.

Language: English


Victor Henry Debidour
Le Bestiaire Sculpté du Moyen Age en France (Paris?: Arthaud, 1961; Series: Grandes Études d'Art et d'Archéologie 3) [Book]

An extensive discussion of bestiary and other animal subjects found in sculpture and other stone works in medieval French architechure. Thoroughly illustrated with high-quality photographs of sculptural details from buildings all over France. Contents: The General Evolution of the Medieval Bestiary; Animal Decoration; The Imaginary Animal; Animal Symbolism.

413 pp. 480 black & white photographs, 36 line drawings, index of subjects, geographical index, cross reference of locations and subjects, table of illustrations, short bibliography.

Language: French


José Hendrik Declerck
"Remarques sur la tradition du Physiologus grec" (Byzantion: Revue internationale des études byzantines, 51:1, 1981, 148-158) [Journal article]

Language: French


Pierre Dehaye, ed.
Le bestiaire: des monnaies des sceaux et des médailles (Paris: 1974) [Book]

Contents: La bestiaire des sceaux de l'ancien Orient, by P Amiet. Les bovins, by M Vollenweider. La part du lion, by D Bérend. Le serpent d'Asclépios-Esculape, by S de Roquefeuil. Le mythe de la Gorgone Méduse, dans la numismatique antique, by M Le Roy. Le dragon autour de quelques pièces royales françaises, by F Dumas. L'"Agnus Dei" thème monétaire, by M Dhenin. Le bestiaire dans la numismatique d'Extrême-Orient, by M Tessier. Les animaux mythologiques fabuleux ou réels aux revers des médailles, by E Meunier.

535 p., index.

Language: French


Carla Del Zotto Tozzoli
Il Physiologus in Islanda (Pisa: Giardini, 1992; Series: Biblioteca scandinava di studi, ricerche e testi 7) [Book]

Arnamagnæanske institut (Denmark), Manuscript AM 673a 4º.

127 pp., 22 leaves of plates (facsimiles), bibliography.

Language: Old Norse/Italian
LCCN: 93-174960; LC: PT7320.P482; OCLC: 29489332


Il Physiologus nella tradizione nordica (Pisa: Giardini Editori e Stampatori in Pisa, 1990; Series: Biblioteca Scandinava di Studi, Ricerche e Testi) [Book]

132 p., illustrations.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-427-1444-5


Ariane Delacampagne, Christian Delacampagne
Animaux étranges et fabuleux, un bestiaire fantastique dans l'art (Paris: Citadelles & Mazenod, 2003) [Book]

Language: French
ISBN: 2-85088-197-X


Here Be Dragons: A Fantastic Bestiary (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003) [Book]

"Sphinxes, hydras, chimeras, dragons, unicorns, griffins, sirens, and centaurs--fantastic animals can be found in works from Greek vases to paintings by Bosch, Goya, and Picasso, from folk art to comic strips, advertising, and Hollywood movies. Here Be Dragons is a lavishly illustrated compendium of the marvelous menagerie of imaginary animals that humans have conjured up over the ages. Ariane and Christian Delacampagne take us on a visually and intellectually riveting journey through five thousand years of art, examining the symbolic meanings of such creatures and what they say about the unconscious life of the human mind. In the first book to explore this subject with such cross-cultural and chronological range, the Delacampagnes identify five basic structures (unicorn, human-headed animal, animal-headed human, winged quadruped, and dragon) whose stories they relate from prehistory to the present day. They also provide fascinating sociological and psychoanalytical insight into the processes through which artists have created these astonishing animals and how they have been transmitted from culture to culture." - publisher

200 p., color illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-691-11689-X; LCCN: 2003051741; LC: N7745.A5 D4313 2003; DDC: 700/.474 21


Léopold Delisle
Notice sur les manuscrits du "Liber floridus" de Lambert, chanoine de Saint-Omer (Paris: Klincksieck, 1906) [Book]

"Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque Nationale et autres bibliotheques." Notes on the manuscripts of the Liber Floridus of Lambert of Saint-Omer.

215 p., illustrations.

Language: French
LC: PA8360.L2; DDC: 879.8; OCLC: 16171393


Christine Deluz
Le Livre des merveilles du monde (Paris: CNRS Editions, 2000) [Book]

A critical edition of the French Mandeville's Travels. The introduction includes biographical information on Mandeville, and details on the manuscripts used in the edition and on the versions of the text.

528 p., map, index of places, index of names.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-271-05744-2; LC: G370.M2M3612


Otto Demus
"Bemerkungen zum Physiologus von Smyrna" (in Irmgard Hutter, ed., Studies in Byzantium, Venice and the West, volume 1, London: Pindar, 1998, 244-264) [Book article]

Presents photographs of illuminations from a manuscript of the Physiologus (destroyed 1921) formerly in the Evangelical School of Smyrna (MS B.8). The manuscript was probably a Palaeologan copy of an 11th c. original. Josef Strzygowski's early research efforts on the manuscript at the turn of the century are also discussed, and his list of all the miniatures is reproduced here. [Reprint of 1976 paper from Jahrbuch der Österreichische Byzantinistik, 25].

Illustrations in plates XXIV.1-XXIV.20.

Language: German


Elizabeth den Hartog
"In the midst of the nations...: the iconography of the choir capitals in the Church of Our Lady in Maastricht" (Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 62: 3, 1999, 320-365)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"A thorough study of the set of 20 capitals in the choir ambulatory of the church of St. Mary in Maastricht. The capitals portray Biblical scenes, animals, monsters, birds, naked and scantily-clad humans, and humans fighting and being attacked by animals. Explores potential sources such as the 200 A.D. Physiologus and derivative bestiaries. Speculates on meanings and questions such as whether the capitals can be read as a coherent series. Compares the cycle with the work by the same atelier in the church of St. Servatius in Maastricht and dates them to c. 1150-1160. Considers the place of the Second Crusade. Concludes that the capitals were created in an environment that embraced the ideas of St. Bernard of Clairvaux."

Language: English
ISSN: 0044-2992


Ferdinand Denis
Le Monde enchanté, cosmographie et histoire naturelle fantastiques du moyen âge (Paris: Burt Franklin, 1965) [Book]

A survey of fantastic natural history from the eighth to the sixteenth century. Includes a long section on the Tresor of Brunetto Latini and the age of Dante, as well as sections on Isidore of Seville, science under Charlemagne, marvels, animals of the Talmud, Marco Polo, and the New World of the sixteenth century. Appendixes provide a French translation of the letter of Prester John, and an account of the El Dorado legend. There is also an extensive annotated bibliography (to 1845), organized by subject.

Reprint of 1845 (Paris) edition.

376 p., illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: French
LCCN: 66020702


Rodney Dennys
The Heraldic Imagination (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1975) [Book]

A general introduction to medieval heraldry, focusing on the use of animals. Includes sections on human monsters, lions and kindred creatures, fabulous beasts, eagles and fabulous birds, dragons and fabulous reptiles. The main sections are: Heralds and Armory (an introduction to the topic); The Literature of Heraldry (medieval texts dealing with heraldry); The Heraldic Imagination in Action (the animals used in heraldry and their symbolic meaning). There are many bestiary references, and a large number of good illustrations. There is also a glossary of heraldic terms and a list of primary medieval heraldic treatises.

224 p., color and black & white illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-214-65386-2; LC: CR1612 D45


Anthony Dent
Donkey : The Story of the Ass from East to West (London: Harrap, 1972) [Book]

Spanning prehistory to the present day, the story of the donkey, ass & mule.

175 p., illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English


Albert Derolez
The Autograph Manuscript of the "Liber Floridus": A Key to the Encyclopedia of Lambert of Saint-Omer (Turnhout: Brepolis, 1998; Series: Corpus christianorum. Autographa Medii Aevi, 4) [Book]

A study of the original copy of the Liber Floridus of Lambert of Saint-Omer, the manuscript Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent MS 92. Includes data on the copies of the Liber Floridus and related manuscripts, and a survey of the sources.

212 p., 42 plates (some color), index of sources, subject index.

Language: English
ISBN: 2-503-50792-1; LC: AE2.L363 D47 1998; DDC: 200; OCLC: 40406249


Lambertus qui librum fecit - een codicologische studie van de Liber Floridus-autograaf (Gent, Universiteitsbibliotheek, handschrift 92) (Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1978; Series: Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België - Klasse der Letteren Jg.40 nr.89) [Book]

A codicological study of manuscript Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent MS 92. With a summary in English: The genesis of the Liber Floridus of Lambert of Saint-Omer.

511 p., illustrations.

Language: Dutch
OCLC: 13613196


Liber Floridus Colloquium: Papers Read at the International Meeting Held in the University Library, Ghent, on 3-5 September 1967 (Gent: E. Story-Scientia, 1973) [Book]

91 p., illustrations, facsimiles.

Language: English


Report on the proceedings of the Liber Floridus Colloquy, Ghent University Library, 5-6 September 1967 (Gent: Centrale Bibliotheek van de Rijksuniversiteit, 1969; Series: Mededeling, nr. 12) [Book]

Liber Floridus Colloquium, University of Ghent, 1967, on the work by Lambert of Saint Omer.

Language: English
LC: Z674; OCLC: 1122649


Freda Derrick
Tales Told in Church Stones: Symbolism and Legend in Medieval Architecture and Handicrafts (London: The Lutterworth Press, 1935) [Book]

A survey of stories told in medieval church sculpture and woodcarving. Many animal references.

128 p., illustrations (line drawings of sculpture, by the author), index.

Language: English


Lucile Desblache
Bestiaire du roman contemporain d'expression française (Clermont-Ferrand: Presses universitaires Blaise Pascal, 2002; Series: Cahiers de recherches du CRLMC) [Book]

178 p., bibliography.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-84516-190-5


J. Deschamps
"Nieuwe fragmenten van Van den Vos Reynaerde" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 199-206) [Book article]

"In juni 1971 zijn er fragmenten van een vijfde handschrift van Van den vos Reynaerde of Reynaert I aan het licht gekomen. Tevoren werden twee volledige handschriften en fragmenten van twee handschriften ontdekt : omstreeks 1805 het Comburgse handschrift of hs. A (Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Ms. poet. et phil. fol. 22); in 1889 de Darmstadtse fragmenten of hs. E (Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 3321); in 1908 het Dyckse handschrift of hs. F (Schloss Dyck bij Neuss) en in 1933 de Rotterdamse fragmenten of hs. G (Rotterdam, Gemeentebibliotheek, 96 B 5). De nieuwe fragmenten zullen we de Brusselse fragmenten of hs. H noemen (Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, IV 774). Volledigheidshalve vermelden we de twee handschriften van Reynaerts historie of Reynaert II, die zoals bekend uit een bewerking van Reynaert I (vs. 1-3468) en een vervolg (vs. 3469-7805) bestaat : het Brusselse handschrift of hs. B (Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 14.601) dat het werk volledig en het fragment-Van Wijn of hs. C ('s-Gravenhage, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 75 B 7) dat slechts vs. 67557791 en dus geen enkele versregel van de bewerking van Reynaert I bevat." - Deschamps

Language: Dutch


Nicole Deschamps, Bruno Roy, Robert Marteau
Le bestiaire perdu (Montreal: Presses de l'Université Montreal, 1974; Series: Etudes Francaises 10:3) [Book]

Contents: L'universe des bestiaires (Deschamps & Roy); Le bestiaire retrouve (Deschamps); Les mues de serpent (Marteau); La belle ecsit la bête (Roy).

"L'universe des bestiaires" includes extracts from various bestiaries, plus a survey of beasts with bibliographies for each. "La belle ecsit la bête" discusses "aspects du bestiaire féminin du moyen âge".

16 plates, black & white, of sculpture animals, paintings.

Language: French
ISSN: 0014-2085; LC: PS8001.E8


Alan Deyermond
"Medieval Spanish Unicorns" (in Francisco Gago-Jover, ed., Two Generations: A Tribute to Lloyd A. Kasten (1905-1999), New York: HSMS, 2002, 55-96) [Book article]

Language: English


Marco Dezzi Bardeschi
Bestiario minimo (Firenze: Alinea, 1990; Series: L'arte per Reggio per l'arte) [Book]

Published on the occasion of the exhibit "Conservazione e metamorfosi," held in Reggio Emilia at the Civici musei L. Spallanzani Jan. 27-Feb. 18, 1990.

95 p., illustrations (some color).

Language: Italian
LCCN: 90178377; LC: N7745.A5 D49 1990


Michel Dhenin
"L'"Agnus Dei" thème monétaire" (in Pierre Dehaye, ed., Le bestiaire: des monnaies des sceaux et des médailles, Paris, 1974, 163-177) [Book article]

Language: French


Giuseppe Di Stefano, Rose M Bidler
Le Le bestiaire, le lapidaire, la flore : actes du Colloque international, Université McGill, Montréal, 7-8-9 octobre 2002 (Montréal: Editions Ceres, 2004; Series: Le moyen français, 55-56) [Book]

Publication of a conference on bestiaries, lapidaries and plants, in Montréal, October 2002.

351 p.. illustrations.

Language: French
ISBN: 0-919089-64-X; LC: PQ157; OCLC: 61398807


"Locutions et éditions" (in J. Claude Faucon, Alain Labbé & Danielle Quéruel, Miscellania Mediaevalia: Mélanges offerts à Philippe Ménard, France: Honoré Champion, 1998, 417-428) [Book article]

Examine les locutions proverbiales en moyen français tirées du Bestiàire et le lapidaire du Rosarius.

Language: French


F. N. M. Diekstra
"The Physiologus, the Bestiaries and Medieval Animal Lore" (Neophilologus: An International Journal of Modern and Mediaeval Language and Literature, 69:1, 1985, 142-155) [Journal article]

Old English period; Physiologus and its relationship to the bestiary; treatment of animal lore; influence on Christian iconography.

Language: English
ISSN: 0028-2677


Ilya Dines
"A French modeled English bestiary- Wormsley Library MS BM 3747" (Mediaevistik, 20, 2007, 49-140) [Journal article]

Language: English


"The Hare and its Alter Ego in the Middle Ages" (Reinardus, 17:1, 2004, 73-84)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Language: English
DOI: 10.1075/rein.17.06din


"Mnemonic Verses in Medieval Bestiaries" (Reinardus, 22, 2010, 50-64) [Journal article]

Language: English


"The Textual and Pictorial Metamorphoses of the Animal called Chyrogrillus" (in Michèle Goyens, Pieter De Leemans and An Smets, ed., Science Translated. Latin and Vernacular Translations of Scientific Treatises in Medieval Europe, Leuven: Leuven University Press (Mediaevalia Lovaniensia, Series I, Studia XL), 2008) [Book article]

Language: English


"A hitherto unknown bestiary - Paris, BN MS Lat. 6838B" (Rivista di Studi testuali, 6-7, 2004-5, 91-103) [Journal article]

"This paper offers a description, iconographical analysis and discussion of the order of chapters in a newly-discovered, fully illustrated bestiary of French origin (1250-1270) [Paris, BNF lat. 6838B]. The manuscript belongs to the so-called Second Family and the article establishes the proper genealogical place of the manuscript among the other representatives of this group. The majority of the bestiaries in this family are of English origin, so the discovery of a French manuscript helps demonstrate that the bestiary tradition was alive on the continent at this period. The article includes an up-to-date list of other new bestiaries discovered by the author." - publisher

Language: English


Ilya Dines, Chet Van Duzer
"The Only Mappamundi in a Bestiary Context (Cambridge MS Fitzwilliam 254)" (Imago Mundi, 58.1, 2006, 7-22) [Journal article]

"La mappemonde du Ms Fitzwilliam 254 (, qui date approximativement des années 1220-1230, est la seule mappemonde connue qui soit insérée dans un bestiaire médiéval en latin. Elle ne correspond pas parfaitement aux classifications des mappemondes établies jusqu'à présent. Cet article rendra compte des caractéristiques atypiques de cette carte ainsi que de sa présence dans un bestiaire de la Troisième Famille. L'importance des îles figurées dans l'Océan extérieur de la carte suggère que le cartographe voulait représenter les contrées les plus éloignées comme un objectif pour les missions chrétiennes destinées à apporter l'Evangile 'jusqu'aux confins de la Terre'. Rendre compte de la présence d'une mappemonde dans le Ms Fitzwilliam 254 suppose également un examen de la composition des bestiaires de la Troisième Famille."

Language: English


Laurinda S. Dixon
"Music, medicine, and morals: the iconography of an early musical instrument" (Studies in Iconography, 7-8, 1981-1982, 147-156) [Journal article]

"Examines the carved decoration of the late 14th c. north Italian mandora or gittern (Metropolitan Museum, New York) with regard to medieval legends and allegories of music. In general, the decorative scheme relates the early lore of bestiaries (particularly the Physiologus) to Christian morality. Specifically, animals such as the dog and stag appear in their capacities both to make and enjoy music and to attract Christian faith. Music as a venereal talisman appears in the scene of falconers and cupid, whereas the diabolical dragon beneath them indicates the pitfalls of adultery. The mandora therefore becomes a miniature sermon against faithlessness in marriage, pleading for pure Christian love as opposed to carnal lust." - Dixon

Language: English


Vittoria Dolcetti Corazza
"Crossing paths in the Middle Ages: the 'Physiologus' in Iceland" (in M. Buzzoni, M. Bampi, eds., The Garden of Crossing Paths: The Manipulation and Rewriting of Medieval Texts, Venezia: Libreria Editrice Cafoscarina, 2007, 225-248)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book article]

"The Physiologus, originally written down in Alexandria, Egypt, between the end of the second and the beginning of the third century A.D., became one of the most popular handbooks of the Middle Ages since its material dealing with real and imaginary animals, plants and stones, could be constantly manipulated to suit audiences and employed in instructing Christian believers. The two Icelandic fragments, conventionally called Physiologus A and Physiologus B, are independent of each other and seem to have been written in about 1200. Scholars agree in thinking that their source is to be found in the Latin version conventionally called Versio B. Although this statement is true in a general sense, it acts as a screen which hides a much more complex reality: textual and iconographic features give evidence of their derivation from models whose origins lie in England. Moreover the analysis of the chapters dealing with onocentaurs highlights that the two Icelandic Physiologi, in which tradition and innovation mingle profoundly with each other, are original manipulations of the ancient matter." - article summary

Language: English


Il fisiologo nella tradizione letteraria germanica (Alessandria: Edizioni dell'orso, 1992; Series: Bibliotheca germanica; Studi e testi 2) [Book]

Physiologus -- Italian, Anglo-Saxon, Latin, Middle High German, Old High German, and Old Icelandic.

281 pp., 19 pp. of plates, illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-7694-087-1; LCCN: 92-225596; LC: PN831.C67 1992; OCLC: 31009660


Mary Donatus
Beasts and Birds in the Lives of the Early Irish Saints (Philadelphia: 1934) [Book]

Language: English


Sébastien Douchet
"La peau de centaure à la frontière de l'humanité et de l'animalité" (Micrologus: Natura, scienze e società medievali. Nature, Sciences and Medieval Societies, 13, 2005, 285-312) [Journal article]

Focuses in particular on this image in the prose romance Chevalier du Papegau, arguing that the skin is where the transition between the two characters of this mythical beast is most clearly revealed; providing also general cultural and historical context on the centaur as man-beast hybrid.

Language: French
ISSN: 1123-2560


Norman Douglas
Birds and Beasts of the Greek Anthology (London: Chapman and Hall, 1928)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Birds and beasts mentioned in the lyrics of the Greek Anthology, under the headings of mammals, birds, reptiles and batrachians, sea-beasts, and creeping things.

" strikes me that these utterances of a considerable section - segment, rather - of the ancient world present, for all their variety, a certain inner coherence. That must be because the writers happened to be poets, who view life from more or less the same angle through all the ages; poets, whose observations of natural phenomena were casual and unsystematic, whose interpretation of such things shifts more slowly than that of the scientists, and shifts, when it does so, along a plane different from theirs. ... Like our own poets, they are quite ready to introduce the animal creation into their pages, and in so doing they often register what seem to be the most irrelevant and wearisome trivialities... But these trivialities, I think, have their significance. That is why the reader of the following pages cannot but notice that I have chronicled them one after the other with pedantic deliberation, to the verge of tediousness and possibly beyond it. My reason is this : it is trivialities, mere trivialities, which betray them in the long run; nothing but the cumulative weight of trifles can turn the scale and demonstrate the particular detail wherein our point of view has come to change from that of their time. For we find no Natural History, properly speaking, in the Greek Anthology; what its authors say about animals constitutes a human rather than a scientific document; it is a minute but clearly demarcated province in the history of feeling..." - introduction

Originally published in Florence (privately printed) in 1927. Also published by J. Cape and H. Smith, New York, 1929.

215 p., bibliography, index.

Language: English
LC: PA3459.D6


Erik Drigsdahl
Bestiarium of Anne Walsh: A CHD Guide to the KB Online Digitized Facsimile (Center for Håndskriftstudier i Danmark, 2000)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A basic description of the manuscript, with a listing of the beasts along with some commentary and a partial transcription.

Language: English


G. R. Driver
"Mythical Monsters in the Old Testament" (in Studi Orientalistici in onore di Giorgio Levi Della Vida, Rome: Instituto per L'Orienta, 1956, 234-249) [Book article]

Language: Italian


Michael D. C. Drout
An investigation of the identity of the "Partridge" in the Old English "Physiologus" (University of Missouri-Columbia, 1993) [Dissertation]

MA dissertation at the University of Missouri-Columbia.

61 p.

Language: English
LC: PN45.X1993; OCLC: 32600503


George C. Druce
"An Account of the Mermecoleon or Ant-lion" (Antiquaries Journal, 3, 1923, 347-364)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This article is a thorough exploration of the ant-lion, tracing the roots of the legend to Greek and Biblical sources, with reference to the bestiaries, the Physiologus, Isidore of Seville's Etymologies, Gregory's Moralia in Job, the Septuagint, the Romance of Alexander, and other sources. Druce also discusses the legends of the ant (including the Indian or Ethiopian gold-digging ant), and comments on the "real" ant-lion, Palpares libelluloides.

18 pp., black & white illustrations, 4 black & white plates.

Language: English


"The Amphisbaena and its Connections in Ecclesiastical Art and Architecture" (Archaeological Journal, 67, 1910, 285-317) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Animals in English wood carvings" (Walpole Society, London (Annual Volume of the Walpole Society), 3, 1913-14, 57-73)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Bestiaries form the source for animal figures shown in wood-carving. Compare with Morgan Library, MS. M.81.

Language: English


Bestiary Notebooks (London: Unpublished, before 1948) [Book]

Society of Antiquaries of London: DRUCE COLLECTION (archives). MS 784, volumes 13-22.

Ten notebooks containing analyses of MS bestiaries. - ref. SAL/MS/784/13-22.

Contents of MSS are listed with descriptions of representations and folio references. As follows:

- SAL/MS/784/13. BL Harl. 4751, 3244; Add. 11283; Royal 12 C.xix; Royal 12 F.xiii;

- SAL/MS/784/14. BL Harl. 273, Sloane 3544 and 278, and Egerton 613; Westminster Chapter Library 22;

- SAL/MS/784/15. Bodl. Lib., Douce 151, 167; Oxford, St John's College 178, 61;

- SAL/MS/784/16. Bodl. Lib., Bodl. 602, 764, Douce 88, 132, Ashmole 1511;

- SAL/MS/784/17. Cambridge, Univ. Lib. Kk-4-25, Ii-4-26, Gg-6-5;

- SAL/MS/784/18. Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 254; S. C. Cockerell MS; Dyson Perrins MS 26;

- SAL/MS/784/19. Canterbury Cathedral Library D. 10; Paris, Arsenal 3516; Copenhagen, Univ. Lib. 673A;

- SAL/MS/784/20. Brussels, Bibl. Roy. 10. 074; BL Royal 2 B.vii; Sion College L 40. 2/L. 28; BL Cotton Vespasian A vii, Stowe 1067;

- SAL/MS/784/21. Paris, Bibl. Nat. MSS fr. 1444, 14969-70, 14964;

- SAL/MS/784/22. 'Bestiary texts transcribed or compared' containing entries arranged alphabetically by animals, with MS references.

Octavo notebooks. SAL/MS/784/13, 14, 17-22, black; SAL/MS/784/15, 16, cloth, green. All in a red box.

Creator: Society of Antiquaries of London 1707-

Compiled by Pamela J. Willetts FSA

Language: English


"The Caladrius and its legend, sculptured upon the twelfth-century doorway of Alne Church, Yorkshire" (Archaeological Journal, 69, 1912, 381-416)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This article is nominally about the sculpture of Alne Church, but in fact is an extensive exploration of the caladrius legend. Druce uses the sculpture as the starting pointing, then traces the history of the caladrius legend back though the Middle Ages and into Antiquity. The sources and history of the legend occupy the bulk of the article, which also includes discussions of the treatment of the caladrius in several medieval manuscripts. The article includes ten black & white images, eight of them illustrations from manuscripts.

Language: English


"Chest at Chippenham Church (Wilts)" (Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 31, 1925, 230-236) [Journal article]

A wooden chest of thirteenth-century date decorated with religious scenes, but also with unicorns, fox with crozier preaching to geese, leopards, stag chased by hound, and owl teased by birds - all are Bestiary subjects and parallels are given.

Language: English


"The Elephant in Medieval Legend and Art" (Journal of the Royal Archaeological Institute, 76, 1919, 1-73)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A wide-ranging look at the elephant in medieval manuscripts, ecclesiatical carvings, and heraldry. Druce also discusses the legends of the dragon and the mandrake as they relate to that of the elephant. English translations are given from the Bestiaires of Philippe de Thaon, Guillaume le Clerc, and Gervaise. Includes over 30 black and white images.

"It is intended in this paper to give an account of the legend and its sources. It offers some attractive features, and an important Sermo or religious interpretation is founded upon it. The legend of the elephant also brings us into direct connexion with the legends of the serpent called Draco and the mandrake. Further, it is our object to show how the elephant was treated in illuminated manuscripts and ecclesiastical and heraldic art in the middle ages." - Druce

Language: English


"Font in Brookland Church (Kent)" (Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 30, 1924, 76-83) [Journal article]

Discussion of the choice of subjects on a twelfth-century circular lead font: selected from the Labours of the Month and the Signs of the Zodiac, with beasts based on Livre de Creatures.

Language: English


"On the Legend of the Serra or Saw-Fish" (Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 2nd series, XXXI, 1919, 20-35)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Among the more important marine creatures described and illustrated in the medieval Bestiaries is a beast called the Serra or Saw-fish. It is the subject of a moralized tale. Its legend is a simple one, but not without its picturesque side, and is noteworthy for the little variation that we find in its principal features. It is, however, quite otherwise in respect to the way in which the Serra is illustrated, for it would be hard to find any creature treated by artists in more diverse fashion, and it is frankly evident that none of them knew what it was like, if indeed it was to be seen in the flesh at all." - Druce

Includes excerpts from the bestiaries of Philip de Thaun, Guillaume le Clerc, and Gervais, as well as many black & white images from manuscripts.

Language: English


"The Medieval Bestiaries and their influence on Ecclesiastical Decorative Art" (British Archaeological Journal, New Series, 25; 26, 1919; 1920, 41-82; 35-79) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Notes on Birds in Mediaeval Church Architecture" (Antiquary, Volume 50, 416 (July); 417 (August); 419 (October), 1914, 248-252; 298-300; 381-384) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Notes on the History of the Heraldic Jall or Yale" (Archaeological Journal, 68, 1911, 173-199) [Journal article]

This article is a wide-ranging discussion of the beast called yale, eale or jall, both in bestiary and heraldic contexts.

After a description of several uses of yale images in heraldic contexts on carvings and seals, Druce gives a history of the yale in bestiary manuscripts. Illustrations from several manuscripts are analysed in detail. Druce compares the heraldic images with those in manuscripts, and discusses the origin of the yale legend in Pliny's Natural History. An attempt is then made to identify the yale with a real beast; Druce concludes that such an identification is not possible. Next Druce looks at a variant of the yale, found in French manuscripts, and called the centicore. Finally, the use of the antelope in manuscripts and heraldry is compared to that of the yale; as part of this comparison Druce provides an extensive history of the antelope legend.

Illustrated with numerous black & white photographs of manuscripts, carvings and seals.

Language: English


"Some abnormal and composite human forms in English Church Architecture" (Archaeological Journal, 72, 1915, 135-186) [Journal article]

Language: English


"The Sow And Pigs; A Study In Metaphor" (Archaeologia Cantiana, 46, 1934, 1-7) [Journal article]

Language: English


"The Stall Carvings in the Church of St. Mary of Charity, Faversham (Kent) " (Archaeologia Cantiana, 50, 1938, 11-32) [Journal article]

Discusses and illustrates the fourteenth-century designs of the misericords and the 'bench-elbows', showing that the choice of subject is taken from the Bestiary and from fabulous stories. Parallels are given to other contemporary English church woodwork.

Language: English


"The Sybill Arms At Little Mote, Eynsford" (Archaeologia Cantiana, 28, 1909, 363-372)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of the bestiary symbolism found in the arms of the Sybill family in a house at Little Mote, Eynsford. The arms include a tiger looking into a mirror; Druce explains the bestiary tale of the tiger and her cubs. Six black and white illustrations of the tale from a carving in the house and from bestiary manuscripts.

Language: English


"The Symbolism of the Crocodile in the Middle Ages" (Archaeological Journal, 66, 1909, 311-338) [Journal article]

An extensive survey of the use of images of the crocodile in medieval architectural decoration and in manuscript illustration, with a discussion of the symbolism involved.

"Among the numerous animals found in ecclesiastical figure sculpture it is remarkable that so picturesque a character as the crocodile is rarely met with in any easily recognizable form. That it was frequently represented in some form or other seems more than likely from the fact that it can be shown by reference to medieval manuscripts to have been the subject of an extensive symbolism. The object of the present paper is to endeavour to show what that symbolism was, and in what circumstances and form we should expect to find the crocodile in church architecture." - Druce

Black & white illustrations of manuscripts and sculpture.

Language: English


"The Symbolism of the Goat on the Norman Font at Thames Ditton" (Surrey Archaeology, 21, 1908, 109-112)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of a carved figure on a Norman stone baptismal font in the village of Thames Ditton, south west of London. Druce concludes that the goat-like animal depicted is probably intended to be the ibex.

Three black & white plates.

Language: English


R. W. Drury, S. S. Drury
In Pursuit of Pelicans: unposted letters to friends (Concord, N.H.: Privately printed, 1931) [Book]

Charming, quirky, pieces on pelican symbolism and its expression in British, European and some American churches.

Language: English


Jacques Duchaussoy
Le Bestiare Divin (Paris: 1958) [Book]

Focuses on the spiritual allegory of each animal.

Language: French


Gaston Duchet-Suchaux, Michel Pastoureau
Le bestiaire médiéval: Dictionnaire historique et bibliographique (Paris: Léopard d'or, 2002) [Book]

167 p., 16 p. of plates.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-86377-176-0; LCCN: 2003485438; DDC: 900; OCLC: 51666355


Lynn Felicia Dufield-Landry
A Stylistic and Contextual Study of the Old English 'Physiologus' (Louisiana: University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1993) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of Southwestern Louisiana.

"From a stylistic and contextual study of the Old English Physiologus the work emerges as an Old English poetic sampler, crafted from a synthesis of genre elements, biblical perspectives of Wisdom and Folly, patristic homiletic themes and style, and Germanic poetic conventions. Chapter One presents the twofold purpose of this study. On one hand, it attempts to distinguish the qualities unique to the Old English Physiologus in the context of its genre as well as to connect aspects of the work to Exeter Book themes and motifs. On the other hand, it seeks also to demonstrate the stylistic beauty of the poem as it reflects Wisdom as Christ and His Spirit. Chapter Two examines 'Panther' as a skillfully-designed fitt in two parts: the panther's tale and its significatio. Infused with images of Wisdom, the fitt celebrates typologically the panther as Christ. Through the central motif of the 'sweet odor,' the poet depicts Wisdom's plan for salvation for all time and hope for eternity. Chapter Three discusses 'Whale' as emblematic of the devil and as a perversion of the panther. Similar to Folly in Old Testament wisdom literature, the whale deceives man to his damnation. As in 'Panther,' a 'sweet odor' draws men, this time to destruction. As stylistically and contextually rich as 'Panther,' 'Whale,' through its two episodes and allegories about the seafarers and the fish, tropologically portrays the dangers of transitory sensory perceptions that result in self-deception. Chapter Four analyzes the fragment about the unspecified bird, the subject of the third fitt of the Physiologus. The chapter focuses on the homiletic ending as a fulfillment of God's covenant hope between his people and Himself, a hope defined as wisdom by Solomon and explained as Christ by St. Paul. The redemptive covenant depends on the salvific hope in 'Panther' to overcome the devil's temptations. Chapter Five highlights the drypoint drawings in the left margin of the opening to Physiologus. Discussed from the perspective of Physiologus themes, the two initial P's and the two hands in liturgical gestures present a graphic and enigmatic complement to the 'Panther' fitt." - abstract

223 p.

Language: English
PQDD: AAT9324602; OCLC: 29247771


Jean Dufournet
"Autres notes sur le bestiaire de Villon" (in Bernard Guidoux, Etudes de langue et de litterature francaises offertes a Andre Lanly, Nancy: University de Nancy, 1980, 95-120) [Book article]

Language: French


"Le Bestiaire de Villon" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 179-196) [Book article]

The bestiary as represented in the Testament of François Villon.

Language: French


"Elements pour un bestiaire du Moyen Age" (Revue des Langues Romanes, 98 (2), 1994) [Journal article]

Language: French
ISSN: 0223-3711


Liliane Dulac
"Sur les fonctions du bestiaire dans quelques oeuvres didactiques de Christine de Pizan" (in Jean-Claude MÜHlethaler & Denis Billotte, ed., «Riens ne m'est seur que la chose incertaine»: Etudes sur l'art d'écrire au Moyen Age offertes à Eric Hicks par ses élèves, collègues, amies et amis, Genève: Editions Slatkine, 2001, 181-194) [Book article]

Examine surtout le Livre de l'Avision Cristine, le Livre de la Mutacion de Fortune, le Livre des trois vertus, et le Livre de la Paix.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-05-101853-7


Louisa DeSaussure Duls
The Middle English Bestiary : a general study of the bestiaries, with emphasis upon the Middle English version, and a modernization of the Middle English text (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1943) [Dissertation]

Thesis (M.A.)--University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1943.


Language: English
OCLC: 37717601


Françoise Dumas
"Le dragon autour de quelques pièces royales françaises" (in Pierre Dehaye, ed., Le bestiaire: des monnaies des sceaux et des médailles, Paris, 1974, 151-162) [Book article]

Language: French


D.N. Dumville
"The Liber Floridus of Lambert of Saint-Omer and the Historia Brittonum" (Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, 26, 1974-76, 103-122) [Journal article]

Language: English


Edwin Duncan
"The Middle English Bestiary: Missing Link in the Evolution of the Alliterative Long Line? " (Studia Neophilologica: A Journal of Germanic and Romance Languages and Literature, 64 (1), 1992, 25-33) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0039-3274


Thomas S. Duncan
"The Weasel in Religion, Myth and Superstition" (Washington University Studies, Humanistic Series, XII, 1924, 33-66) [Journal article]

Language: English


N. H. Dupree
"Interpretation of the Role of the Hoopoe in Afgan Folklore and Magic" (Folklore, 85, 1974, 173-193) [Journal article]

Language: English


Marie-France Dupuis, Sylvain Louis
Le bestiaire (Paris: P. Lebaud, 1988) [Book]

Translation and partial facsimile of a Latin bestiary: Bodleian Library, MS. Ashmole 1511. "Texte intégral traduit en français moderne par Marie-France Dupuis et Sylvain Louis; reproduction en facsimilé des miniatures du manuscrit du Bestiaire Ashmole 1511 de la Bodleian Library d'Oxford; présentation et commentaires de Xénia Muratova et Daniel Poirion." Includes discussion of Morgan Library ms. M.81.

237 pp., illustrations (some color), bibliography.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-86594-040-3; LCCN: 89108095; LC: PA8275.B4F7 1988; DDC: 398.24/5 20


Klaus Duwel
"Zum Stand der Reinhart Fuchs - Forschung" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 197-213) [Book article]

Language: German


E   A  B  C  D  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z      Top
Adolf Ebert
"Der angelsächsische Physiologus" (Anglia, 6, 1883, 241-247) [Journal article]

Language: German


Umberto Eco, Chiara Frugoni
"A Bestiary in Stone" (FMR: the magazine of Franco Maria Ricci, 92:17, 1998, 17-36) [Journal article]

"Dignified by the fine sounding Greek term "Zoophorus", a synthesis of the Animal Kingdom, to which a medieval fondness for story telling added sirens, griffins and unicorns, runs like a necklace around the octagonal walls of Parma Baptistery: it represents Nature--bestial and sinful--at a stop on the threshold of the Sacred, the pagan Forest that believers must cross before being received into the Church and cleansed with redeeming water."

Photography by Daniele Broia and Floriano Finzi.

Language: English
ISSN: 0747-6388; OCLC: 10764669


"From Marco Polo to Leibniz: Stories of Intercultural Misunderstanding" (The Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America, 1996) [Digital article]

A lecture presented by Umberto Eco on December 10, 1996. Includes several references to the Bestiary.

"This evening I shall ... deal with some misunderstandings that took place when people were unable to understand that different cultures have different languages and world-visions. The fact that - by serendipity - also those mistakes provided some new discoveries only means ... that even errors can produce interesting side-effects. ... The whole of the medieval tradition convinced Europeans that there existed unicorns, that is, animals that looked as gentle and slender as white horses, with a horn on their nose. ... When Marco Polo traveled to China, he was obviously looking for unicorns. ... And the truth was that the unicorns he saw were very different from those represented by a millinery tradition. ...They were not white, but black. ... Their horn was not white but black, their tongue was thorny, their head looked as that of a wild boar. As a matter of fact what Marco Polo saw were rhinoceroses." - Eco

Language: English


Joseph Edkins
Ancient Symbolism Among the Chinese (London: Trubner & Co., 1889) [Book]

Language: English


Guilio Einaudi, ed
Bestiari Medievali (Parma, Italy: Patriche editrice, 1987) [Book]

Text entirely in Italian and French. Based primarily on four bestiaries: The Latin Physiologus, the Bestiary of Phillippe de Thaon, the Bestiary of Gervaise, and the Bestiary of Love of Richard de Fournival.

644 pages, Color reproductions of images

Language: Italian


Juan Juliía Elías
Los bestiarios (Tucumán, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, 2000; Series: Ediciones del Rectorado) [Book]

145 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 950-554-229-1; LC: PN56.A64


Thomas J. Elliott
A medieval bestiary (Boston: Godine, 1971, 1975) [Book]

Verse translation into modern English based on the standard Middle English text, The Bestiary: BL Arundel 292, in Selections from early Middle English, 1130-1250, edited by J. Hall, 1920. Translated & introduced by T. J. Elliott. With wood engravings by Gillian Tyler.

59 pp., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: English
LCCN: 77143383; LC: PR1754.E4; DDC: 398.24/52; NLM: WZ 290 M489m 1971


Paul Eluard, Roger Chastel
Le bestiaire (Paris: Maeght éditeur, 1948) [Book]

"Il a été tiré de cet ouvrage 196 exemplaires ... Exemplaire no. 166." Eaux-fortes originales de Roger Chastel.

51 leaves, 45 leaves of plates.

Language: French
DDC: 841.91; OCLC: 8501339


O. J. Emory
"Hall's Edition of the Middle English Bestiary" (Modern Language Notes, 72:4 (April), 1957, 241-242)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Emory points out several errors in J. Hall's transcription of the Middle English Bestiary (British Library Arundel MS 292) published in Selections from Early Middle English (Oxford, 1920), and provides corrections.

Language: English


J. Engels
"Thomas Cantimpratensis redivivus" (Vivarium, 12, 1974, 124-132) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Ad physiologum" (in Jacques-Paul Migne, ed., Patrologia Cursus Completus, Series Graeca, volume 43, Paris, 1864, columns 517-534)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book article]

The Greek Physiologus attributed to Saint Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus (c. 310-403 CE). Greek and Latin in alternating columns. It is highly unlikely that Epiphanius had anything to do with this text. The text is identical to that edited by Sancti Patris nostri Epiphanii, episcopi Constantiae Cypri, Ad Physiologum. Eiusdem in die festo palmarum sermo. D. Consali Ponce de Leon Hispalensis, S.D.N. Sixti V. Cubicularij secreti, interpretis & scholiastae bimestre otium (Antwerp, 1588) Consalus Ponce de Leon in 1588.

Language: Latin


Alain Erlande-Brandenburg
The Lady and the Unicorn - La Dame a la Licorne - a study (Editions de la Reunion des Musees Nationaux, 1973) [Book]

Many illustrations in colour and black and white. A study of the medieval tapestry exibited at the Cluny Museum.

78 pp.

Language: English


Richard Ettinghausen
The Unicorn (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1950; Series: Studies in Muslim Iconography (Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers, 1:3)) [Book]

"It is generally acknowledged that Islamic art is an art of decoration; yet we have to admit that so far hardly any Mussources have been tapped which explain the meaning and mental associations of these decorative schemes. We do not know, for instance, what a Muslim artist had in mind when he painted an arabesque, a peacock, a hare, or the more fananimals such as those which are usually called griffons and harpies. Even the names of many designs are not known to Western scholars. There is usually also no explanation to be found as to why certain motifs became popular at certain times and then disappeared. The following study tries to establish the various iconographic forms and the historical setting of the "unicorn" motif. It also intends to reconstruct the connotations most likely to be found in the mind of a medieval Muslim conwith a picture of the animal." - Ettinghausen

Language: English


E. P. Evans
Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Architecture (London: W. Heinmann, 1896)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

A wide-ranging study of animal symbolism that does not confine itself to church architecture. The book mostly focuses on the Middle Ages, with some content relating to Antiquity and the Renaissance. The Physiologus is examined extensively, other sources less so. Despite the the terms "ecclesiastical architecture" in the book's title, the main focus is on Christian symbology in its various forms, not just that of animals or that represented in architecture. The author also discusses the use of animal images in satire, as, for example, in the fox depicted as a corrupt cleric. While Evans often shows an all too common nineteenth century scorn for the "unscientific" writers of the Middle Ages, and regularly wanders far from his stated topic, this does not greatly detract from the usefulness of the work.

Reprinted in 1969 by Gale Research Company, Detroit.

375 pp., bibliography, index, 78 illustrations.

Language: English
LCCN: 68-18023


The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals: The Lost History of Europe's Animal Trials (London: Faber and Faber, 1987) [Book]

The author makes a serious effort to explore the legal and theological implications of medieval criminal and civil actions against animals e.g. certainly they may be placed under a formal curse but can they really be excommunicated?, is a werewolf an animal?, etc.

384 pages.

Originally published by Dutton and Company, 1906.

Language: English


Joan Evans
Magical Jewels of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, particularly in England (Oxford: 1922) [Book]

Language: English


Joan Evans, ed., Mary S.Serjeantson, ed.
English Medieval Lapidaries (London: Early English Text Society / Oxford University Press, 1960, 1999; Series: Original Series 190) [Book]

218 pp.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-85991-925-0


Oliver Evans
"Selections from the Bestiary of Leonardo Da Vinci" (The Journal of American Folklore, 64:254 (Oct. - Dec), 1951, 393-396)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"It is not commonly known that Leonardo Da Vinci amused himself in his old age by composing a bestiary; the work has never been translated into English, and is almost unknown even in Italy."

Evans provides an English translation of part of Leonardo's bestiary, which consists of short accounts of beast attributes under such titles as "Treachery", "Truth", "Chastity" and "Anger", relating the beast's character to the named virtue or vice.

Language: English


L. Evdokimova
"Le " Bestiaire d’amour” et ses mises en vers: la prose et la poésie, l’allégorie didactique et l’allégorie courtoise" (Reinardus, 13:1 (December), 2000, 67-78) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Deux traductions du Physiologus: Le Sens allégorique de la nature et le sens allégorique de la Bible" (Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society, 11, 1998, 53-66) [Journal article]

Pierre de Beauvais' French language translation (Le Bestiaire) of the Latin Physiologus compared to Guillaume le Clerc.

Language: French


"Disposition des lettrines dans les manuscrits du Bestiare d'amour: des lectures possibles de l'oeuvre" (Le Moyen Age: Revue d'histoire et de philologie, 102:3-4 (part 1); 103:1 (part 2), 1996, 465-478; 83-115) [Journal article]

"Il a été démontré plus d'une fois qu'il est indispensable d'accorder une attention spéciale à la division de l'oeuvre médiévale par les lettrines. En effet, la lettrine représente le moyen le plus répandu de diviser le texte médiéval en unités signifiantes et, donc lui accorder une structure et un sens. Dans une oeuvre qui, comme le Bestiaire d'amour de Richard de Fournival, donne matière à plusieurs interprétations, cette fonction des lettrines apparaît à l'évidence: la disposition des lettrines, en variant d'un manuscrit à l'autre, accetue les differentes de percevoir le sens de l'oeuvre." - Evdokimova

Part 2 consists mostly of tables comparing manuscripts.

Language: French


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Bruno Faidutti
Images et connaissance de la licorne (Fin du Moyen-Age - XIXème siècle) (Paris: Bruno Faidutti, 1996)
 Web site/resource link [Dissertation]

"Thèse de doctorat de l'université Paris XII (Sciences littéraires et humaines) présentée par Bruno Faidutti, novembre 1996".

An extensive look at the medieval concept of the unicorn, with many illustrations.

Contents: Connaissance d'une licorne imaginée; La légende de la licorne; Les silhouettes de la licorne; L'habitat naturel de la licorne; La corne de licorne, chose rare et précieuse; Quelques points de vue au tournant des XVIème et XVIIème siècles; André Thévet, cosmographe, les licornes et les unicornes; Ambroise Paré, pourfendeur de licornes; Laurent Catelan, apothicaire; La licorne face à la science; La licorne existe-t-elle?; La licorne et le rhinocéros; La bête prodigue.


Language: French


Dora Faraci
Il Bestiario medio inglese (ms Arundel 292 della British Library) (L'Aquila: Japadre, 1990; Series: Summa promiscua 5) [Book]

Transcription and Italian translation of the Middle English manuscript Arundel 292. Includes references to Morgan ms. M. 81, M. 397, and M. 890.

263 p., 26 p. of plates, color illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Italian
ISBN: 88-7006-258-9; LCCN:  93142212; LC: PR1836.A64 1990; DDC: 821/.05/0936 20; OCLC: 28586790


"The Bestiary and its sources: some examples" (Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society, 7, 1994, 31-43) [Journal article]

Concludes that a bestiary work should be considered as the outcome of a mixing of sources and ideas derived from various texts which are not always identifiable. With particular reference to MSS. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 448, and Oxford, Bodleian Library,

Language: English


"The Gleða Chapter in the Old Icelandic Physiologus" (in Opuscula, IX, Copenhagen: Reitzel: Bibliotheca Arnamagnaeana, 1991, 108-126) [Book article]

Language: English
ISBN: 87-7421-685-6


"Navagatio Sancti Brendani and its Relationship with Physiologus" (Romanobarbarica, 11, 1991, 149-173) [Journal article]

Discusses the Christian iconography of the whale-island in the legend of S. Brendan. Identifies sources in Physiologus, medieval bestiaries, and related manuscripts, drawing upon both textual descriptions and illuminations, 12th-14th centuries.

Language: English


"Pour une étude plus large de la récéption mediévale des bestiaires" (in Baudouin Van den Abeele, ed., Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Institut d’études médiévales, 2005, 111-125) [Book article]

Language: French


"Sources and cultural background. The example of the Old English Phoenix" (Rivista di cultura classica e medioevale, 42:2, 2000, 225-239) [Journal article]

Examines points of similarity between this work and the OE bestiary Physiologus, discussing the treatment of allegory and symbol in the culture contemporary to these two works.

Language: English


Edmond Faral
"La Queue de poisson des sirènes" (Romania, LXXIV, 1953, 433-506) [Journal article]

Language: French


Jack Farley
The Misericords of Gloucester Cathedral (Gloucester: The King's School, 1981) [Book]

Includes some animal images on misericords. The text is confined to the introduction and to captions for the photographs.

2 p. text, 58 p. black & white photographs.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-9507396-0-X; LC: NK9744.65 F3


Claude Faucheux
"Remarques sur le bestiaire du Rosarius et sur son auteur" (in XIV Congresso internazionale di linguistica e filologia romanza: Atti, V. Naples aprile 1974, Amsterdam: Macchiaroli Benjamins, 1981, 433-443) [Book article]

Language: French


Jean-Claude Faucon
"La répresentation de l'animal par Marco Polo" (Médiévales: langue, textes, histoire (Paris), 32, 1997, 97-117) [Journal article]

Focuses on the reality of Polo's descriptions as compared with the moral symbolism of Christian bestiaries.

Language: French


Robert Favreau
"Le thème iconographique du lion dans les inscriptions médiévales" (Comptes rendus des séances de l'année... - Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, 3, 1991, 613-636) [Journal article]

Pour éclairer les valeurs diverses du lion dans les représentations médiévales et nous assurer des intentions de l'auteur, les inscriptions qui les accompagnent souvent sont précieuses. Ses représentations font référence soit à l'Ancien Testament, - image négative avec Samson, David et Daniel - soit au Christ ressuscité; il revêt une valeur positive inspirée du Physiologus, base des bestiaires médiévaux. Il peut avoir une fonction purement décorative ou un sens christologique, au premier rang celui de la Résurrection, comme le confirment le plus souvent les inscriptions.

Language: French
ISSN: 0065-0536


Gisela Febel, ed., Georg Maag, ed.
Bestiarien im Spannungsfeld zwischen Mittelalter und Moderne (Tübingen: G. Narr Verlag, 1997) [Book]

"Die Ablösung des heilsallegorischen Horizonts der Naturauslegung durch neuzeitliche Wissensformen scheint auch der Konjunktur der Bestiarien ein Ende gesetzt zu haben. Wenn danach die vom Physiologus in frühchristlicher Ära begründete Tradition zunehmend dem Vergessen, ja der Verachtung insbesondere durch die historische Philologie des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts anheimfällt, so muß um so mehr die vielfältige Weise überraschen, in der die Dichtung des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts das Modell des Bestiariums in ihre Dienste nimmt. Apollinaires Le bestiaire ou cortège dOrphée (1911) ist zwar das prominenteste, aber keineswegs ein isoliertes Beispiel für das revival der mittelalterlichen Gattung in der Moderne. Die bislang noch ungeschriebene Nachgeschichte des Genres läßt nicht nur in der französischen, sondern auch in anderen romanischen Literaturen eine Fülle neuer Konkretisationen, teils auch bloßer Schwundstufen der Gattungstradition erkennen, die erstmals in diesem Band untersucht werden." - publisher

German and French.

213 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-8233-5176-1; LCCN: 98-126603; LC: PN56.A64B47 1997; DDC: 809/.93362 21; OCLC: 47101048


Hugh Feiss, Ronald E. Pepin
"Birds in Beinecke MS 189" (Yale University Library Gazette, 68:3-4, 1994, 110-115) [Journal article]

Argues that 12c. people were starting to look upon nature in a new way. A copy of Hugh de Fouilloy's Aviarum (MS. New Haven, Yale University Beinecke Library, Marston MS 189) contains illustrations of birds drawn by someone who knew them from personal observation.

Language: English


Stefan Fellner
Compendium der Naturwissenschaften an der Schule zu Fulda im IX. Jahrhundert (Berlin: T. Grieben, 1879; Series: Landmarks of science.; Monographs) [Book]

"Rhabans ... De universo ... diente als Vorlage für diese Schrift".

24l p., bibliography.

Language: German
OCLC: 32073378


Jonathan Fisher
Scripture Animals: A Natural History of Animals Named in the Bible (Portland: William Hyde, 1834) [Book]

"This nineteenth-century 'bestiary' treats all the living creatures named in the Bible. ... Working from the Hebrew and Greek, Fisher compiled all the Biblical references..." - cover copy

For each animal, Fisher gives references to Bible book, chapter and verse, as well as some commentary.

Reprinted by: Weathervane Books, New York, 1972 (ISBN is for this edition).

347 pp., illustrations by the author.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-517-14590-1; LCCN: 72-79152


Mary C. Fitzpatrick
De ave phoenice (University of Pennsylvania, 1933) [Dissertation]

The treatise on the phoenix by Lactantius. Published Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Language: English


Fitzwilliam Museum
Fitzwilliam Museum Bestiary MS 254 (Fitzwilliam Museum, 2004)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

Part of an online exhibition at the Museum, these pages include a sample leaf from the manuscript and some descriptive text.

Language: English


J. F. Flinn
"L'Iconographie du Roman de Renart" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 257-264) [Book article]

"Dans l'introduction de son album consacré aux romans arthuriens, Arthurian Legends in Medieval Art, R. S. Loomis avait souligné l'importance dans l'étude de la littérature médiévale de rapprocher cette littérature des scènes qu'elle avait inspirées aux artistes, aux peintres et aux sculpteurs du Moyen Age. Cette comparaison peut en effet apporter des renseignements précieux sur l'oeuvre littéraire, sur ses origines, la date de composition, sa popularité et sa signification pour les gens de l'époque. Plus récemment le magnifique ouvrage de Madame Lejeune et de Monsieur Stiennon nous a révélé la richesse de l'iconographie de la Chanson de Roland. Le Docteur Varty nous a montré l'importance de l'iconographie de Renart en Angleterre, d'abord il y a quelques années dans son bel album, et aujourd'hui dans sa communication. Dans d'autres pays d'Europe l'iconographie démontre l'intérêt qu'on portait pendant des siècles, non seulement au Roman de Renart français, mais aussi à ses continuations et aux différentes versions dans d'autres langues. On trouve des exemples de cette iconographie en France, en Belgique, aux Pays-Bas, en Allemagne, en Suisse, en Italie et en Espagne. Des textes du Moyen Age confirment bien l'engouement des gens de l'époque pour les reproductions de Renart et de ses aventures. Dans la Branche XIII du Roman de Renart, Renart et les peaux de goupils, figure la description de la chambre d'un riche châtelain, où était sculpté, à côté de « toutes les bêtes et tous les oiseaux du monde», la très célèbre Procession de Renart de la Branche XVII. La Branche XIII appartient au groupe des branches postérieures, qui datent de la première moitié du XIIIe siècle; La Mort et la Procession de Renart avait, en effet, inspiré les peintres et les sculpteurs jusqu'à la fin du Moyen Age." - Flinn

Language: French


"Littérature bourgeoise et le Roman de Renart" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuvan University Press, 1975, 11-24) [Book article]

"Cette rapide chronologie nous rappelle que la branche la plus ancienne du Roman de Renart était contemporaine d'un bonne partie de la littérature courtoise et épique. ... c'est Joseph Bédier, dans Les Fabliaux, paru en 1893, qui semble le premier avoir insisté sur l'existence d'une littérature spécifiquement bourgeoise... Ce concept d'une littérature bourgeoise qui serait née en même temps qu'une classe vraiment bourgeoise, a connu un succès incontestable." - Flinn

Language: French


Le Roman de Renart dans la Littérature Française et les Littératures Étrangèrs au Moyen Âge (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963) [Book]

Language: French


Nona C. Flores, ed.
Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996; Series: Garland Medieval Casebooks 13) [Book]

"The essays in this collection focus on animals not as literal, living organisms - food, prey, possessions, or companions to man - but as symbols, ideas, or images during the Middle Ages. ... For the opening section, I have selected essays that demonstrate how animal images in medieval art and literature were used as ... books or pictures to teach man some truth about his cosmos... the hermeneutic use of animal imagery during the Middle Ages is due primarily to the Physiologus and the bestiaries. Thus, studies examining these works are a necessary part of this collection. ... The essays in [the] final section all deal with composite creatures, especially combined animal-human forms." - Flores, Introduction

206 p., illustrations, general index, index of animals, contributor biographies.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-1315-2; LCCN: 95-30586; LC: GR705.A54 1996; DDC: 398.2/094/045 20


"'Effigies amicitiae...veritas inimicitiae': Antifeminism in the Iconography of the Woman-Headed Serpent in Medieval and Renaissance Art and Literature" (in Nona C. Flores, ed., Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996, 167-195) [Book article]

"In this essay I will examine the use of the Edenic dracontopede in a small number of the many extant examples available in medieval and Renaissance art and literature. My interest is an iconographic one: I have tried to elicit the significance of an image that is largely unsupported by authority but that was developed so creatively by artists and writers for over 400 years. I have further limited my focus to the dracontopede of Genesis 3 and analogous biform creatures associated with this figure. Thus I do not discuss the woman-serpents of folklore and romance; though fascinating, these come from a tradition separate from Christian patristics. Finally, I have chosen examples in which the depiction of the woman-headed snake underlines the sins ascribed to Eve at the fall -- primarily lust, pride, and fraud -- all of which provided a basis for centuries of antifeminist moralizing." - Flores

Language: English


"Elephants" (in John Block Friedman & Kristen Mossler Figg, ed., Trade, Travel and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia, New York: Garland Press, 2000, 175-178) [Book article]

Language: English


"The Mirror of nature distorted: the medieval artist's dilemma in depicting animals" (in Joyce E. Salisbury, ed., The Medieval World of Nature: A Book of Essays, New York: Garland, 1993, 3-45) [Book article]

Argues that the passion for drawing from nature is tempered by pre-existing artistic conceptions.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-0752-7


Thomas R Forbes
"Medical lore in the bestiaries" (Medical History, 12:3 (July), 1968, 245–253)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"...relatively little attention seems to have been given to one aspect of the bestiary, its content of crude medical lore, although the important studies of Dr. Beatrice White disclosed a rich fleld. My concern is with medical elements in the bestiaries proper, excluding the related but separate compilations of traditional remedies ascribed to, or written by, St. Hildegard of Bingen, Alexander Neckam, Johannes Cuba, and others. If one concedes its broad influence in the realms of art and literature, it seems safe to assume that the bestiary may also have been an influential element in popular medicine." Forbes

Language: English


S. G. Forrest
The Aberdeen Bestiary (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University M.A. Dissertation, 1979) [Dissertation]

Language: English


Ilene H. Forsyth
"The Theme of Cockfighting in Burgundian Romanesque Sculpture" (Speculum, 53:2, 1978, 252-282)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Among the iconographic enigmas of Burgundian Romanesque sculpture, the subject of cockfighting is one of the most intriguing. Although rare, it can be seen at Autun, Saulieu, and Beaune. ... Exotic subjects such as enigmatic demons, grotesques, and fantastic semihuman forms, often of aggressive and violent character, are common enough in Romanesque church sculpture. As far as we know, most of these are fabulous and devoid of more than decorative or whimsical meaning. The cockfight scenes, however, cannot be so easily dismissed: they have dramatic immediacy and unusual naturalness; they appear to be based on the observation of thoroughly familiar and well-understood action; they seem rough and cruel rather than playful. Within a monastic or collegiate, context, the modern viewer finds them curious and distracting. If originally intended as allegories to convey serious religious ideas or moral precepts, their arcane meanings elude us. Still, the possibility of such allegorical meaning deserves exploration." - Forsyth

Language: English


Catherine Fountain
"From a Catalan Bestiary De la natura de la cerena" (Cornell Working Papers in Linguistics (CWPL), Fall; 17, 1999, 10-13) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0888-3122


Jean Fournée
Des Animaux dans nos églises (Limeil-Brevannes: Société parisienne d'histoire et d'archéologie normandes, 1994; Series: N° spécial des : "Cahiers Léopold Delisle", 43, 1994) [Book]

Language: French
ISBN: 2-901488-45-5


José Manuel Fradejas Rueda
"El Bestiario de Juan de Austria (c. 1570)" (in Bestiaires médiévaux. Nouvelles perspectives sur les manuscrits et les traditions textuelles, Louvain-la-Neuve: Louvain-la-Neuve, 2005, 127-140) [Book article]

Language: Spanish


Lothar Frank
Die physiologus - Literaturen des englischen Mittelalters und die Tradition (Tübingen: 1971) [Dissertation]

Old English and Middle English Physiologus. From a dissertation - Tübingen.

220 pp., bibliography.

Language: German
LCCN: 73-340330; LC: PR166.F7; OCLC: 15708069


Henri Frankfort
The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (London: Penguin Books, 1970; Series: The Pelican History of Art) [Book]

"Professor Frankfort first traces the development of Mesopotamian art from Sumerian times to the late Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods. In a second section he covers the art and architecture of Asia Minor and the Hittites, of the Levant in the second millenium B.C., of the Aramaeans and Phoenicians in Syria, and of Ancient Persia." - publisher

Includes many references to, and images of, animals both real and imaginary found in ancient artifacts, some of which have direct bearing on animal mythology in the West.

456 pp., 447 black & white illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
LCCN: 70-128007; DDC: 709.35


James George Frazer
Folklore in the Old Testament (New York: Macmillan Co., 1923) [Book]

Language: English


"Jacob and the Mandrakes" (Proceedings of the British Academy, 8, 1917, 23 p.)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

An extensive discussion of the legends of the mandrake plant through history, from the Genesis account to Greek mythology, Hebrew herbalism, medieval bestiaries and into the nineteenth century.

Language: English


Margaret B. Freeman
The Unicorn Tapestries (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, and E.P. Dutton, 1983) [Book]

Seven late Gothic tapestries depicting the Hunt of the Unicorn on permanent exhibition at The Cloisters in New York.

Color illustrations.

Language: English


Roger French
Ancient Natural History: Histories of Nature (London; New York: Routledge, 1994) [Book]

"Ancient Natural History surveys the ways in which people in the ancient world thought about nature. The writings of Aristotle, Theophrastus, Strabo and Pliny are examined, as well the popular beliefs of their contemporaries. Roger French finds that the same natural-historical material was used to serve the purposes of both the Greek philosopher and the Christian allegorist, or of a naturalist like Theophrastus and a collector of curiosa like Pliny. He argues convincingly that the motives of ancient writers on nature were rarely "scientific" and, indeed, that there was no science at all in the ancient world." - publisher

Chapters: Aristotle and the Natures of Things; Theophrastus, plants and elephants; Geography and natural history; Greece and Rome; the Natural History of Pliny; Animals and parables.

357 p., 33 black & white photgraphs, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-415-08880-1; LCCN: 94-5131; LC: QH15.F74 1994; DDC: 508'.09'01-dc20


Science In The Early Roman Empire: Pliny the Elder, His Sources and His Influence (London: Croom Helm, 1986) [Book]

The symposium studies collected in this book represent the newest research being done on the important and difficult figure of Pliny the Elder (ca. 23-79 AD). If Rome is not always regarded as the most natural home for the scientific spirit--that seeming rather to characterize the Greeks--particular problems are raised by the effort Pliny had to make to transfer his Greek sources into a Roman form and context.

CONTENTS: The Elder Pliny and his times [J. Reynolds]. The Pliny translation group of Germany [R.C.A. Rottlander]. The structure of Pliny the Elder's "Natural History" [A. Locher]. The perils of patriotism: Pliny and Roman medicine [V. Nutton]. Pharmacy in Pliny's "Natural History": Some observations on substances and sources [J. Scarborough]. Pliny on plants: His place in the history of botany [A.G. Morton]. Aspects of Pliny's zoology [L. Bodson]. Pliny on mineralogy and metals [J.F. Healy]. Chemical tests in Pliny [F. Greenaway]. Some astronomical topics in Pliny [O. Pedersen]. Pinian astronomy in the Middle Ages [B.S. Eastwod]. Pliny in Renaissance medicine [R.K. French].

287 pp. Illustrations, bibliographical notes, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7099-1084-3; LC: PA6614; DDC: 001.2'0942'4


Roger French, Andrew Cunningham
Before Science: the Invention of the Friars' Natural Philosophy (Aldershot, Hants: Scolar Press, 1996) [Book]

"Science, both as a practice and as a way of knowing the natural world, is of recent creation. For six centuries before the creation of science, nature was explored and discussed in Christian Europe within the discipline known as 'natural philosophy', a God-oriented discipline. The present book investigates the origin of two versions of 'natural philosophy', those created by two of the Orders of friars, the Dominicans and the Franciscans, in the early thirteenth century. It also argues that these natural philosophies were both created to help meet specific religio-political needs of the thirteenth-century Catholic Church. The famous medieval conflict between 'science' and 'religion' is in fact a construct of the nineteenth century. The medieval discipline of natural philosophy, by contrast, was one in which nature was explored in the cause of defending Roman Catholicism - fighting heresy and promoting lay spirituality." - publisher

Includes discussion of the works of Albertus Magnus, Aristotle, Avicenna, Roger Bacon, Bartholomeus Anglicus, Roger Neckham, Pliny, Augustine, Dominic, Francis, Thomas of Cantimpré, Vincent of Beauvais, and others.

298 p., illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-85928-287-3; LCCN: 95047878; LC: B738 N3F74 1996; DDC: 261.5'5'0902


John Block Friedman
"Albert the Great's Topoi of Direct Observation and his Debt to Thomas of Cantimpré " (in Peter Binkley, ed., Pre-Modern Encyclopaedic Texts, Leiden: Brill, 1997) [Book article]

Language: German


The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000) [Book]

"The unusual races of men that make up the subject of this book represented alien yet real cultures existing beyond the boundaries of the European known world from antiguity through the Middle Ages. They occur with great frequency in medieval art and literature... I call them "monstrous" because that is their most common description in the Middle Ages. But many of these peoples were not monstrous at all. They simply differed in physical appearance and social practices from the person describing them. ... Even the most bizarre, however, were not supernatural or infernal creatures, but varieties of men..." - Friedman, Introduction.

Reprint of 1981 Harvard University Press edition, with corrections and a new bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8156-2826-9


"Peacocks and preachers: analytic technique in Marcus of Orvieto's Liber de moralitatibus, Vatican lat. MS 5935" (in Willene B. Clark & Meradith T. McMunn, ed., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and its Legacy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 176-196) [Book article]

"...discusses the use of animal exempla in Marcus of Orvieto's Liber de moralitibus and provides an edition of the text." - introduction

Language: English


"Thomas of Cantimpré, De Naturis Rerum [Prologue, Book III, Book XIX]." (in La science de la nature: théories et pratiques (Cahiers d'études médiévales 2), Montréal/Paris: Bellarmin; J. Vrin, 1974, 107-154) [Book article]

Language: English


John Block Friedman, Jessica W. Wegman
Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998; Series: Garland Medieval Bibliographies Volume 20) [Book]

"Aims to help the researcher locate visual motifs, whether in medieval art or in literature, and to understand how they function in other medieval literary or artistic works. Chapter One, Art broadly covers various aspects of medieval art understood as the tools of investigation, such as the theory of iconography, genres like woodcarving, sculpture, and manuscript painting, periods like Anglo-Saxon, and countries. Chapter Two, Other Tools, offers a guide to works which are not in themselves visual but which medieval artists may have consulted or been influenced by, such as encyclopaediae offering the physical descriptions, habits, and oddities of animals, plants, and insects, and exempla and sermon collections containing illustrative stories like those using the fox as a symbol of duplicity. Chapter Three, Learned Imagery, treats traditions, works, concepts, and persons of interest to educated medieval people, such as alchemy, mythology, astrology, Alexander the Great, or the legend of the philosopher Aristotle ridden about like a horse by a woman named Campaspe or Phyllis. Chapter Four, The Christian Tradition, treats the Bible and figures and situations in it, as well as the vast body of glosses, exegesis, and legend which was copied into the medieval Bible in the course of manuscript transmission. Chapter Five, The Natural World, covers "natural history": medieval scientific conceptions; animals, listed as specific terrestrial, aerial, and marine creatures as well as imaginary forms of life, like the griffin or barnacle goose; members of the plant kingdom; and geographical features such as cliffs and mountains. Books like herbals and bestiaries are also studied in themselves. Chapter 6, Medieval Daily Life, treats a great variety of subjects somewhat more popular in appeal than those touched on in Chapter Three, including baths, beauty and ugliness, costume, fools and madness, magic, and ships." - publisher

437 pp , 1,896 entries. Index of authors and subjects.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-1753-0; LC: Z5933.F75 1998; LCCN: 97-42974; DCC: 016.700'9'02-dc21


Herbert Friedmann
A Bestiary for Saint Jerome: Animal Symbolism in European Religious Art (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980) [Book]

"Anyone who has frequented the great museums in this country or abroad will have noted the numerous intriguing and strinking representations of Saint Jerome, many of which include a lion and often one or more other kinds of animals. ... the story of Saint Jerome was one of the few themes within the conventional limits of church art that leant itself readily to extensive use of natural history material. ... [This] book may, therefore, be of some interest to naturalists and historians of the natural sciences, as well as iconologists and art historians. With the former group in mind, I have thought it necessary to deal with the nature and special logic of symbolism and allegory, since without these attributes the whole artistic effort would have been meaningless and probably would never have developed." - introduction

378 p., bibliography, index.

Language: English
874744466; LCCN: 79-607804; LC: ND1432.E85F74 1980; DDC: 704.94'6


Naoyuki Fukumoto
"Sur la Nouvelle Edition du Roman de Renart d'apres les Manuscrits du Groupe G" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 215-226) [Book article]

Notes on a planned new edition of the Roman de Renart: includes discussion of previous editions, the manuscripts used, the branches of the text, and the form of the new edition.

Language: French


G   A  B  C  D  E  F  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z      Top
Anna Gannon
"King of all Beasts ­ Beast of all Kings: Lions in Anglo-Saxon Coinage and Art" (in Aleks Pluskowski, ed., Medieval Animals, Cambridge: Archaeological Review from Cambridge 18, 2002, 22-37) [Book article]

Language: English


Peter F. Ganz
"Der Millstätter Physiologus" (in Geistliche Dichtung des 12. Jahrhunderts: Eine Textauswahl, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 1960, 47-58) [Book article]

A description of a German version of the Physiologus found in manuscript Landesmuseums für Kärnten in Klagenfurt Pergamentkodex VI/19, along with a 356 line verse transcription.

Language: German
LC: PD25.P45 v.7


Robert Max Garrett
Precious Stones in Old English Literature (Munich: 1909) [Book]

Language: English


Fielding H Garrison
Herbals and bestiaries (New York: New York Academy of Medicine, 1931) [Book]

Part of a volume of 20 pamphlets by the same author.

Language: English
OCLC: 42623555


Antonio Garrosa Resina
"La tradicion de animales fantasticos medieval espanola" (Castilla: Boletin del Departamento de Literatura Espanola, 9-10, 1985, 77-101) [Journal article]

The treatment of animals and monsters and the relationship to the fantastic in the Medieval period.

Language: Spanish
ISSN: 0378-200X


Milton S. Garver
"Some Supplementary Italian Bestiary Chapters" (Romanic Review, 11, 1920, 308-327) [Journal article]

"The edition of the following bestiary chapters is intended to present hirthto unpublished material which may prove of value to the further study of Italian bestiaries and also to supplement two previous works on this subject. These are the edition by Ein Tosco-Venezianischer Bestiarius (Halle, 1892) Goldstaub and Wendriner of the manuscript in Padua and that of Garver and McKenzie of the Tuscan bestiary according to manuscripts in Paris and Rome. The chapters here presented are from a fifteenth century manuscript in the Riccardi Library, Cod. Ricc. 1357 P. III. 4 and designated by the symbol R3 in the above mentioned studies. It consists of 248 folios and contains the Etica and Fisonomia of Aristotle, various ecclesiastical writings, lives of saints, and, ff. 74-108, the Libro della natuara degli animali..." - Garver

Language: English


"Sources of the Beast Similies in the Italian Lyric of the Thirteenth Century" (Romanische Forschungen, XXI, 1905-08, 276-320) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Symbolic Animals of Perugia and Spoleto" (in 32:181 (April)The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, 1918, 152, 156-160)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book article]

A description of two medieval Italian churches, S. Pietro in Spoleto and S. Costanza in Perugia, which have animal carvings on their façades. The author sees the images as both decorative and symbolic.

Language: English


Milton S. Garver, Kenneth McKenzie
Il Bestiario Toscano secondo la lexione dei codice di Padua e di Roma (Rome: Studi romanzi, 1912) [Book]

Reprinted: Bologna, Il Mulino, 1971, 1972. Spogli elettronici dell'italiano delle origini e del Duecento. II. Forme., volume 9.

313 pp.

Language: Italian


Brian W. Gastle
"The Old and Middle English Beast Fable" (in Laura Cooner Lambdin & Robert Thomas Lambdin, ed., A Companion to Old and Middle English Literature, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002, 69-85) [Book article]

"This reference collection categorizes primary texts in old and middle English literature by sepcific genres. The Beast Fable entry includes a

general introduction to the genre, discussions of the Old English Physiologus, The Phoenix, the Middle English Bestiary, The Fox and the

Wolf, Chaucers Nuns Priests Tale, Lydgate, Henryson, and others. It concludes with a brief critical survey." - Gastle

Language: English


Deborah Gatewood
Illustrating a Thirteenth Century Natural History Encyclopedia: The Pictorial Tradition of Thomas of Cantimpre's "De Natura Rerum" and Valencienne's Ms. 320 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2000) [Dissertation]

PhD thesis. Advisor: Alison Stones.

The illustrations of the Liber de natura rerum of Thomas of Cantimpré in Bibliothèque Municipale de Valenciennes MS 320.

Language: English


Patricia M. Gathercole
Animals in Medieval French Manuscript Illumination (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1995) [Book]

"Medieval manuscript painting offers a rich storehouse of material for literary scholars. This volume concentrates on domestic and wild mammals, rather than on the birds and monsters which have been treated elsewhere. Eighteen sections deal concisely with bears, camels, cats, dogs, elephants, etc., in what sorts of manuscripts they are found, and how they are presented. In addition, there are an introduction, conclusion, bibliography, and seventeen black and white illustrations from the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and a color frontispiece." - publisher

142 pp.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7734-8991-6


Kathleen Sue Gaylord
The Medieval Bestiary In The Golden Age: Allegory And Emblem In Gracian's 'El Criticon' (University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign, 1986) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University Of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign.

"The perpetual problems of pessimism versus optimism and Christianity versus secularity in El Criticon have always been issues without resolution. Many critics erroneously assume that because Gracian was a Jesuit and Spain a Catholic country that therefore El Criticon was an optimistic, Christian work. Through an examination of the role of the medieval bestiary and emblem literature in El Criticon, this thesis endeavors to prove that such a premise is unacceptable. The thesis begins with a definition of a bestiary as allegorized animal lore, although occasionally a bestiary author will omit the allegories. Allegory is the connecting point between emblem literature and the bestiary, its medieval ancestor. The emblematic procedure was already latent in the bestiaries which gave an animal's description and typological characteristics, omitting only the graphic representations of emblem literature. After an examination of representative theories concerning the question of optimism versus pessimism, the thesis then demonstrates the extent to which Gracian relied upon medieval bestiary tradition. A description of each major beast is given, followed by its Christian allegory, and Gracian's use of the beast in El Criticon. In most instances the medieval moral viewpoint is transformed into an illustration of the secular morality necessary for the exceptional man endeavoring to live successfully in this world. The culminating point in Gracian's use of beast lore is animal related grotesquerie whose point of departure is traditional beast allegory which is extended until at times it even becomes independent of its medieval ancestor. The treatment of beast related grotesque is divided into two areas: the relationship with the themes of carnival and mask and the creation of composite figures. Gracian's condemnation of vice through these techniques serves to illustrate for the reader the evils he must conquer in order to survive life's journey and arrive at the Isle of Immortality." - abstract

169 p.

Language: English
PQDD: AAT8623302


Demetri Gazdaru
"Vestigios de bestiarios medievales en las literaturas hispanicas e iberoamericanas" (Romanistisches Jahrbuch, 22, 1971, 259-274) [Journal article]

Language: Spanish
ISSN: 0080-3898


Archibald Geikie
The Birds of Shakespeare (Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons, 1916) [Book]

Notes on birds found in Shakespeare's writing, with many references to Physiologus and bestiary material.

121 p., illustrations, index.

Language: English
LC: PR3044.G4


Jeremiah Genest
Natural History in the Middle Ages (Jeremiah Genest, 1998)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A general discussion of medieval concepts of natural history, with topics including Animals, Plants, Lapidaries, the bestiary, etc. Part of a role-playing game site (Ars Magica), but this article does not relate directly to game playing.

Language: English


Maurice Genevoix
Le Roman de Renard (Paris: Presses de la Cité, 1958) [Book]

A retelling in prose of several of the Reynard the Fox tales, with commentary.

"Le Roman de Renard compte parmi les titres les plus célèbres de notre littérature populaire du Moyen Age. Mais derrière ce titre, qu'est-ce qu'il y a? La lecteur d'aujourd'hui serait bien en peine de le dire. S'l y allait voir, il trouverait ou branches, dus à divers anonymes des XIIe, XIIIe et XIVe siècles - des histoires sans suite, qui, souvent, se répètent à moins qu'elles ne se contredisent. Donc, pas trace de roman au sens où nous entendrons ce mot, rien qu'un héros de roman, Renard le Goupil, un héros de roman en quête de son romancier." - publisher

Language: French


Wilma B. George
"The Living World of the Bestiary" (Archives of Natural History, 12:1 (April), 1985, 161-164) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0260-9541; OCLC: 12746550


"The Yale" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 31, 1968, 423-28)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The first written record of the animal called yale or eale is in Pliny's Natural History. After that it was taken up by Solinus, occurred in the majority of Latin bestiaries and died out as a regular bestiary animal in the seventeenth century. But, by that time, it had become firmly established in English heraldry. Although it has been commented on in edited texts of Pliny and several articles have been written on it, it has never been satisfactorily identified with any living, or recently extinct, animal. It is typically dismissed as one of Pliny's now shrinking number of mythical animals... Subsequent authors have tried to identify the yale with a gnu, a mountain goat or a deformed cow but the majority have concurred with Notes on the History of the Heraldic Jall or Yale (1911) Druce, who must be regarded as the authority on yales, that it is unidentifiable. In the course of a survey of animals depicted on ancient maps it became clear that a number of hitherto unidentified animals would be worthy of further investigation. ... Considering this evidence from the point of view of a zoologist several interesting suggestions emerged, one of which has been the possible identification of the yale. ... All the evidence points to the water buffaloes as the origin of the yale. African cape buffalo or Indian water buffalo is difficult to decide but, on balance, the evidence seems to be in favour of the Indian water buffalo." - George

Two pages of black & white photographs of yale images in manuscripts as well as the living animals discussed in the article as possible origin animals.

Language: English


Wilma B. George, Brunsdon Yapp
The Naming of the Beasts: Natural History in the Medieval Bestiary (London: Duckworth, 1991) [Book]

"Bestiaries have been much studied, but almost entirely from a textual point of view. Little attention has been paid to the pictures, and until recently almost none to the natural history. The object of this book is to correct these deficiencies, and to show that, so far from being an ignorant collection of moralities and old wive's tales, as has usually been assumed by scholars, a bestiary is an attempt, not wholly unsuccessful or discreditable for the time at which it was produced, to give an account of some of the more conspicuous creatures that could be seen by the reader or that occurred in legends. In spite of its name, it is not concerned only with beasts. It usually includes rather more birds than mammals (to which 'beasts', Latin bestia, are equivalent), often some fishes and reptiles, and a few insects and other invertebrates.There are also accounts of trees and, in a few copies, of sundry natural phenomena and unnatural wonders. We shall deal mainly with the beasts and birds, where the best natural history is found." - Yapp, introduction

231 pp., illustrations (some color), bibliography, index, manuscript lists.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7156-2238-2; LCCN: 93-110777; LC: QL351.G46 1991; DDC: 591.012 20; OCLC: 20524101


Gerald of Wales, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, trans.
The Itinerary of Archibishop Baldwin through Wales (London: Everyman's Library/Dent, 1908)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

English translation of The Journey Through Wales (Itinerarium Kambriae) by Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis) written after 1188. Gerald describes his travels in Wales with Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury. In The Journey Through Wales Gerald includes several descriptions of animals supposedly found in Wales. The text is the translation of Sir Richard Colt Hoare, originally published in 1806.

Language: English


The Journey Through Wales and the Description of Wales (London: Penguin Books, 1978) [Book]

English translations of two works by Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis): The Journey Through Wales (Itinerarium Kambriae) and The Description of Wales (Descriptio Kambriae), both written after 1188. Gerald describes his travels in Wales with Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury. In The Journey Through Wales Gerald includes several descriptions of animals supposedly found in Wales.

Language: English


Christoph Gerhardt
"Gab es im Mittelalter Fabelwesen?" (Wirkendes Wort: Deutsche Sprache in Forschung und Lehre, 38:2, 1988, 156-171) [Journal article]

Language: German


Mia L. Gerhardt
"The Ant Lion: Nature Study and the Interpretation of a Biblical Text, from the Physiologus to Albert the Great" (Vivarium: Journal for the Philosophy and Intellectual Life of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 3, 1965, 1-23) [Journal article]

Language: English
ISSN: 0042-7543


Bruno Gerling
" De proprietatibus rerum": die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus (um 1230) und deren Abschnitte zur Zahnheilkunde (Feuchtwangen: Tenner, 1991; Series: Kölner medizinhistorische Beiträge 58) [Book]

Language: German
ISBN: 3-925341-57-9


Philippe Germond
An Egyptian Bestiary (London: Thames & Hudson, 2001) [Book]

"The magnificent photographs in this volume show the incomparable richness of the pharonic fauna in all forms of artistic expression - painting, sculpture, relief carving, architectural ornamentation and hieroglyphs - ranging from astonishing realism in the depiction of birst and beasts, both wild and domesticated, with which the people of the Nile Valley came into daily contact, to hieratic stylization in portraying the pantheon of animal-headed gods and the sacred and fabulous creatures that inhabited the ancient Egyptions' devotional, funerary and magical world. The sholarly descriptions and informative captions that accompany this amazing bestiary place each animal depicted in its proper context in relation to man, to the environment and to the gods. From geese to monkeys, crocodiles to scorpions, the list is virtually endless, while the superb artistry and extraordinary range of the subject matter will open the eyes of Egyptologists and naturalists alike to a subject that has never before been so superbly displayed and explained." - publisher

Originally published as Bestiaire Egyptian in Paris.

224 p., 280 color illstrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-500-51059-8; LCCN: 2001088627; LC: N7660 .G4313 2001


Willem Pieter Gerritsen
"Waar is De beestearis?" (in W.P. Gerritsen, Annelies van Gijsen & Orlanda S.H. Lee, ed., School spierinkjes (Een): Kleine opstellen over Middelnederlandse artes-literatuur, Hilversum: Verloren, 1991, 68-71) [Book article]

"Where is De beestearis?"

Discusses 13th century fragment from MS. Amsterdam, U.B., I.A.24, interpreting it as minnesang allegory; with reference to works of Willem uten Hove and Richard de Fournival.

Language: Dutch


"De eenhoorn, de Bijbel en de Physiologus : De metamorfose van een Oud-Indische mythe" (Queeste: Journal of medieval literature in the Low Countries, 14:1, 2007) [Journal article]

"This article takes as its point of departure the observation that the unicorn, which modern perspectives categorize as a fabulous animal, is mentioned no less than eight times in the Bible (late-antique, medieval and early modern translations). The earliest occurrences of the Greek word for unicorn as a translation of Hebrew re'em ('wild bull', 'aurochs') are found in the Septuagint, a translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek made for the Jewish community of Alexandria in 300-100 B.C. J.L.W. Schaper has argued that the translation monokeros ('unicorn') was not the result of a misunderstanding, but rather a deliberate adaptation to changed cultural surroundings. In the Septuagint, the image of the unicorn, an animal thought to possess magical virtues, fits into a network of Messianic references. In the second part of the article the story of the capture of a unicorn by a virgin, first found in the Greek Physiologus (200-300 A.D.), is traced back to the Old-Indian myth of the hermit Ekasrnga ('unicorn'), according with the conclusions reached by Schlingloff and Haug." - publisher

Language: Dutch


Gervaise, Paul Meyer, ed.
"Le Bestiaire de Gervaise" (Romania, I, 1872, 420-443)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

The Bestiaire of Gervaise is found in only one manuscript, British Library Additional MS. 28260. This article includes a description of the manuscript, a discussion of its relationship to the bestiary genre, some notes on the possible identity of its author, and a complete edition of the 1280 lines of verse.

Language: French


Konrad Gesner
Gesner's Curious and Fantastic Beasts (Mineola, NY: Dover, 2004) [Book]

Mostly clip art from Konrad Gesner (1516-1565).

48 p., illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-486-99577-1; DDC: 745.4; OCLC: 53392741


Konrad Gesner, Carol Belanger Grafton, ed.
Beasts & Animals in Decorative Woodcuts of the Renaissance (New York: Dover Publications, 1983; Series: Dover pictorial archive series) [Book]

61 p. of illustrations, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-486-24430-X; LCCN: 82017756; LC: NE1150.5.G47 A4 1983; DDC: 769/.432/094 19


Laura Gibbs
Bestiaria Latina (Laura Gibbs, 2006+)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

While not specifically about bestiaries, this site uses bestiary material to aid in the learning of Latin. The site contains many excerpts in Latin from bestiaries, fables (particularly Aesop), and encyclopedias. There are also numerous images.

"Bestiaria Latina is a free website containing hundreds of Latin animal fables, poems, and proverbs from the Bestiaries, Aesop's Fables, and other ancient and medieval sources. You will find grammar notes, study guides, and other learning materials to help you as you read the Latin."

Language: English / Latin


Lost in a Town of Pigs: The Story of Aesop's Fables (Berkeley: University Of California, Berkeley, 1999) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the University of California, Berkeley.

'Using the structuralist approaches of Propp, Permiakov, and Greimas, I define the Aesopic fable as the story of a mistake, an exemplum in which the protagonist is either a fool who makes a mistake and suffers its consequences, or a wise character who does not make a mistake. This structural analysis of the plot is able to explain the relationship between stories about animals in the natural history writers (Pliny, Plutarch, and Aelian) and similar stories about animals found in Aesop's fables. I then analyze the morals of the fables, comparing the figurative language of the morals to proverbs and riddles. As an oral folklore form, the Aesopic fable features an 'endomythium,' a moral 'inside' the fable. Promythia and epimythia, morals added before or after the fable, are features of the fable as a literary form. To illustrate different aspects of orality in the fable's morals I analyze versions of 'The Belly and the Members' fable as reported in Livy, Plutarch, and Shakespeare's Coriolanus. The promythia and epimythia start to supplant the endomythia in the verse fables of the Roman poet Phaedrus, who also reinterprets the traditional Aesopic plot structure in more ethical terms. Odo of Cheriton's medieval fables provide an explicitly Christian reinterpretation of the Aesopic tradition, while supplying the fables with allegorical interpretations similar to the allegories found in the Physiologus and bestiary tradition. I then compare Odo's allegories to the allegories of the Esopo toscano, an Italian translation of Walter of England's fables in which the animals are anthropomorphic to a greater degree than in earlier Greek or Latin fables. The dissertation contains an index listing the different versions of the fables that are analyzed in these shifting historical and literary contexts." - abstract

303 p.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-599-71161-2; PQDD: AAT9966387


Pierre Gilles, Heliodorus Prusaensis
Ex Aeliani historia per Petrum Gyllium latini facti : itemque ex Porphyrio, Heliodoro, Oppiano, tum eodem Gyllio luculensis accessionibus aucti libri XVI, de vi et natura animalium (Lugduni apud Seb. Gryphium, 1533)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Extracts from Aelian and others, in Latin. The book consists of short articles on various animals.

Language: Latin


Miriam Giombini
"Liber Floridus Lamberti canonici -- appunti per una ricerca sul codice 92 di Gand" (Palimszeszt, 1999)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

A short article on the Liber Floridus of Lambert of Saint-Omer, with reference to manuscript Universiteitsbibliotheek Gent MS 92. Contents: The text of the encyclopedia of Lambert of Saint-Omer; The author and the historical period; The illustrations.

Language: Italian


Jost Gippert
"Physiologus. Die Verarbeitung antiker Naturmythen in einem frühchristlichen Text" (Studia Iranica, Mesopotamica et Anatolica, 3, 1997-98, 161-177)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Der unter dem Namen 'Physiologus' bekannte Text steht innerhalb der antiken griechischen Tradition in mancherlei Hinsicht einzigartig da. Das betrifft zum einen die Frage, wer ihn verfaßt hat: Obwohl er gerade nach einem präsumptiven Autor, genauer nach dessen "Funktion als eines 'Naturbeschreibers', benannt ist, ist die Person dieses Autors doch bis heute in keinerWeise historisch identifiziert worden. Wir werden auf diese Problematik unten noch zu sprechen kommen. Es betrifft zum anderen die Frage, wann der Text entstanden ist. Auch wenn die bisher hierzu geäußerten Ansichten durchaus divergieren, fallen die verschiedenen Ansätze doch alle in den Zeitraum zwischen dem 2. und 4. nachchristlichen Jh., so daß man ihn wohl zu Recht dem Übergang von der Antike zur Spätantike zuweisen wird. Zu berücksichtigen bleibt dabei aber, daß der 'Physiologus', mehr als die meisten anderen Texte aus dieser Epoche, nicht nur zu seiner Entstehungszeit, sondern über viele weitere Jahrhunderte hin, über das Mittelalter bis in die frühe Neuzeit, innerhalb des gesamten christlichen Kulturraums eine eminente Verbreitung und Bedeutung erlangt hat: Wo immer eine Sprache auf christlichem Hintergrund anfing, eine eigene schriftliche Tradition zu entwickeln, gehörte der Physiologus zu den ersten in diese Sprache übersetzten Texten, und dementsprechend zahlreich sind seine uns überkommenen versiones aus dem west- und ostkirchlichen Bereich1; und der Einfluß des Physiologus auf die bildende Kunst im gleichen Zeitraum ist geradezu legendär zu nennen. Angesichts dieser Bedeutung erscheint es angebracht, den 'Physiologus' einen frühchristlichen Text zu nennen; eine Bezeichnung, die jedoch nicht ohne Probleme ist, wie sich im weiteren zeigen wird." - Gippert

Language: German


Jost Gippert, Werner Abraham
"The Middle High German Prose Version of the Physiologus" (TITUS, 2000)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

The Middle High German Prose Version of the Physiologus on the basis of the edition Der altdeutsche Physiologus.

Die Millstätter Reimfassung und die Wiener Prosa (nebst dem lateinischen Text und dem althochdeutschen Physiologus)

herausgegeben von Friedrich Maurer. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1967. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Nr. 67), S. 2-72.

Text entry by Werner Abraham, Groningen 1999-2000. TITUS version by Jost Gippert, Frankfurt a/M, 15.4.2000 / 1.6.2000.

Language: German


"The Middle High German Rhyme Version of the Physiologus" (TITUS, 2000)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

The Middle High German Rhyme Version of the Physiologus on the basis of the edition Der altdeutsche Physiologus.

Die Millstätter Reimfassung und die Wiener Prosa (nebst dem lateinischen Text und dem althochdeutschen Physiologus) herausgegeben von Friedrich Maurer. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1967. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Nr. 67), S. 2-72.

Text entry by Werner Abraham, Groningen 1999-2000. TITUS version by Jost Gippert, Frankfurt a/M, 31.3.2000 / 1.6.2000.

Language: German


"The Old High German Version of the Physiologus" (TITUS, 2000)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

The Old High German Version of the Physiologus on the basis of the edition Der altdeutsche Physiologus.

Die Millstätter Reimfassung und die Wiener Prosa (nebst dem lateinischen Text und dem althochdeutschen Physiologus) herausgegeben von Friedrich Maurer. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1967. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Nr. 67), S. 2-72.

Text entry by Werner Abraham, Groningen 1999-2000. TITUS version by Jost Gippert, Frankfurt a/M, 31.3.2000 / 1.6.2000

Language: German


Antoine Glaenzer
"Catelles en relief du XIVe siècle de Cressier" (Zeitschrift für schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte, 56:3, 1999, 153-182) [Journal article]

Publication d'un ensemble de 96 carreaux de faïence de la fin du 14e s. découverts dans une maison de Cressier lors d'investigations menées par le Service de la Protection des Monuments et Sites du canton de Neuchâtel. Ils décoraient un poêle dont l'auteur propose une reconstitution. Leur analyse permet de tirer un certain nombre de conclusions quant à leur mode de fabrication et à leur iconographie. Si les animaux inspirés des bestiaires médiévaux occupent une place importante, le motif de la pastourelle a pu être identifié d'après une illustration du Codex Manesse (Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, MS pal. germ. 848). Les carreaux sont très probablement importés de Suisse alémanique.

46 illustrations. Summaries in French, German, Italian, English.

Language: French
ISSN: 0044-3476


"La tenture de la Dame à la licorne, du Bestiaires d'amours à l'ordre des tapisseries" (Micrologus: Natura, scienze e società medievali, 10, 2002, 401-428) [Journal article]

Discusses the representation of the five senses in «The Lady with the Unicorn», one from a series of six tapestries produced at the end of the 15c. in the region of Brussels in the context of iconography of animals in bestiaries, demonstrating how the five senses open up the sixth «à la merci de la dame».

Language: French


Marion Glasscoe, Michael Swanton
Medieval Woodwork in Exeter Cathedral (Exeter: Dean and Chapter, Exeter Cathedral, 1978) [Book]

A guide to the medieval wood carving in Exeter Cathedral, including misericords, bench-ends, other decorations. Includes many animal carvings. Limited commentary.

35 pp., black & white photographs.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-9503320-1-1; LC: NK9744.E93G58


Robert James Glendinning
A critical study of the Old High German Physiologus and its influence (Winnepeg: University of Manitoba, 1959) [Dissertation]

MA dissertation at the University of Manitoba.

172 p., illustrations.

Language: English
OCLC: 27116258


Stephen E. Glickman, A. Platt
"The Spotted Hyena from Aristotle to the Lion King: Reputation is Everything" (Social Research, 62, 1995) [Journal article]

Language: English


Stephen O. Glosecki
"Moveable Beasts: The Manifold Implications of Early Germanic Animal Imagery" (in Nona C. Flores, ed., Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays (Garland Medieval Casebooks, 13), New York: Garland, 1996) [Book article]

"...poses the key question about visual images of animals during the Middle Ages: does the image mean something, or is it 'just for pretty'? Furthermore, if we believe the image does signify something beyond its obvious literal representation, which of the many possible meanings do we choose? And finally, how does the meaning change - that is, 'move,' in the author's own words - as its cultural context shifts?" - Flores, Introduction

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-1315-2


Belita Goad
Bestiary influences upon medieval demonography (Louisville: University of Louisville, 2004) [Dissertation]

Thesis (M.A.), Department of Art History, University of Louisville.

viii, 62 leaves, illustrations (some color), bibliographical

Language: English
OCLC: 61346780


Allen H. Godbey
"The Unicorn in the Old Testament" (The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 56, No. 3. (July), 1939, 256-296)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

The author begins with an account of an American biologist who in an experiment on a new-born calf managed to move its horn buds to the center of its forehead, where they eventually grew into a single horn. The biologist claimed to have created the unicorn. The author then examines other "artificial" unicorns through history, looks at the unicorn legend and the possible sources in real animals, and finally provides Old Testament references to the unicorn.

Language: English


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Thomas James Arnold, trans.
The Story of Reynard the Fox (New York: The Heritage Press, 1954) [Book]

A verse translation of the original German poem Reineke Fuchs by Goethe. The German version used by Goethe, produced in Berlin in 1794, was based on the Low German text of 1498, which was itself likely derived from a Flemish version of the early thirteenth century. It is here rendered into rhymed couplets, and illustrated with twentieth century wood engavings by Fritz Eichenberg.

248 pp. Introduction by Edward Lazare.

Language: English


Edmund Goldsmid
Un-Natural History, or Myths of Ancient Science (Edinburgh: 1886) [Book]

"Being a Collection of Curious Tracts on the Basilisk, Unicorn, Phoenix, Behemoth or Leviathan, Dragon, Giant Spider, Tarantula, Chameleons, Satyrs, Homines Caudati, &c. Now first translated from the Latin and edited, with notes and illustrations"

"It has seemed to me that the following tracts, on myths so strange, yet so widely credited in ancient times, could not fail to prove interesting, especially as the tracts themselves, written in the 17th century by German savants, and printed (very badly, by the way) at Wittemberg, Frankfort-on-Oder, &c., are quite unknown, not only in this country, but even in the land of their production. ... The myths treated of in the following treatises are: the Basilisk, Unicorn, Phoenix, Behemoth, Dragon, Giant Spider, Tarantula, Chameleons, Satyrs, Tailed Men, and the Shining Lilies of Palestine. ... George Caspard Kirchmayer, the author of the first six tracts, was born at Uffeinheim, in Franconia, in 1635. He became Professor at Wittemberg, and was a Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Vienna. ...The six Treatises here translated and printed, under the collective title of Hexas disputationum Zoologicaram, at Wittemberg, in 1661. ... Hermann Grübe was born at Lübeck, in 1633. He studied at Leyden, and became Professor of Medicine at Frankfort. He is said to have published several medical works, none of which are now ever read. His treatise, De Ictu Tarantulae, here translated, is, I believe, quite unknown to Bibliographers. It is a small tract of some 90 pages, published at Frankfort in 1679... Martin Schoochius was born at Utrecht in 1614. After studying at that University he became successively Professor of Languages, of Eloquence and History, of Physic, of Logic, and of Practical Philosophy at Utrecht, Deventer, Groningen, and lastly at Frankfort-on-Oder, where he died in 1669. ... The treatise which is here translated seems utterly unknown to all Bibliographers. It is a small 4to, abominably printed on atrocious paper, and bears the imprint of Frankfort-on-Oder, 1680. The only copy I know of is the one in my possession. ... To me these learned and eccentric tracts have ever been extremely interesting. I trust they may prove so to my readers, and I have tried to increase their value by tracing out in the notes the various allusions of the text, and amplifying from such sources as I have had at my disposal, the subjects suggested rather than dwelt upon by these sage and quaint old writers of the 17th century." - introduction

Language: English


Maximilian Goldstaub
Der Physiologus und seine Weiterbildung, besonders in der lateinischen und in der byzantinsichen Litteratur (Leipzig: Dieterich, 1899; Series: Philologus; Bd. 8, H. 4.Supplementband) [Book]

404 pp., index.

Language: German


"Physiologus-Fabelein über Brüten des Vogels Strauss" (Festschrift Adolf Tobler, 1905, 153-190) [Journal article]

Reprinted in book form in Braunschweig by G. Westermann, 1905.

Language: German
OCLC: 43778140


Maximilian Goldstaub, ed., Richard Wendriner, ed.
Ein Tosco-Venezianischer Bestiarius (Halle: M. Niemeyer, 1892) [Book]

The Tuscan bestiary. Text of the Bestiary in Italian; introduction and notes in German.

526 pp.

Language: German
LC: PQ4265; OCLC: 1960557


Maria Isabel Rebelo Gonçalves
Livro das aves (Lisboa: Edições Colibri, 1999; Series: Obras clássicas da literatura portuguesa 61) [Book]

The De avibus of Hugh de Fouilloy (Hugo de Folieto).Text in Latin and Portuguese on facing pages; introductory matter in Portuguese. "Inicialmente atribuído a Hugo de S. Vítor, mas impresso por Migne como obra de Hugo de Folieto. ... O chamado Livro das Aves é uma cópia do livro I (De auibus ou Liber auium) do tratado De bestiis et aliis rebus (séc. XII). Edição do texto latino a partir dos manuscritos portugueses, tradução do latim e introdução por Maria Isabel Rebelo Gonçalves. O chamado Livro das Aves é uma cópia do livro I (De auibus ou Liber auium) do tratado De bestiis et aliis rebus (séc. XII)."

195 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Portuguese
ISBN: 972-772-123-0; LC: PA8275.B4; OCLC: 46326925


Jan Gondowicz, Adam Pisarek
Zoologia fantastyczna uzupelniona z dodaniem ukladu systematycznego Adama Pisarka (Warsaw: Wydawn. Male, 1995) [Book]

Animals, Mythical. Bestiaries.

144 pp., illustrations.

Language: Polish
ISBN: 83-903609-0-X; LCCN: 96-178853; LC: GR825.G58 1995; OCLC: 36292542


Jan Goossens, ed., Timothy Sodmann, ed.
Third Annual Beast Epic, Fable and Fabliau Colloquium, Munster 1979: Proceedings (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 1981; Series: Niederdeutsche Studien, Bd. 30) [Book]

Proceedings of the Third International Beast Epic, Fable and Fabliau Colloquium, Münster, 1979.

Text in English, French or German.

538 pp., 16 p. of plates, illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 3-412-04881-X; DDC: 839.4; OCLC: 8361681


Lise Gotfredsen
The Unicorn (New York: Abbeville Press, 1999) [Book]

"This wide ranging cultural history traces the remarkable interpretations and myths that have grown up around the unicorn in art, science, religion, and literature." - cover copy

Chapters include: The Unicorn and the Orient; The Classical Inheritance; Biblical Texts; Physiologus; Pictorial Art in the Middle Ages; The Unicorn and the Huntsmen; The Unicorn of the Troubadors; The Flemish Tapestries; The Lady with the Unicorn; etc.

192 pp., color and black and white illustrations on almost every pages, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7892-0595-5


K. H. Göttert
"Überlieferungsprobmatik und Wirkungsgeschichte des mittelhochdeutchen Reinhart Fuchs" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 67-84) [Book article]

"Die Beschäftigung mit der mittelalterlichen Tierepik hat stets Anlaß gegeben, die europäische Tradition im ganzen einzubeziehen. Für den mittelhochdeutschen Reinhart Fuchs (RF) Heinrichs des glîchezâre gab es in diesem Punkt bekanntlich heftige Kontroversen, besonders was sein Verhältnis zum französischen Roman de Renart (RdR) angeht. Nun ist zwar heute klar, wer hier der Geber bzw. der Nehmer war, weniger sicher dürfte man allerdings in der Beurteilung der Frage sein, wie die merkwürdig isolierte Stellung des RF in seiner Verwandtschaft zu erklären ist. ..." - Göttert

Language: German


Richard Gottheil
"The Greek Physiologus and Its Oriental Translations" (The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, 15, 2003, 120)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Language: English


Dagmar Gottschall
Konrad von Megenbergs Buch von den Natürlichen Dingen: Ein Dokument deutschsprachiger Albertus Magnus-Rezeption im 14. Jahrhundert (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2004; Series: Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 83) [Book]

"This study offers a new interpretation of the Book of Natural Things, a major work by Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) written in the vernacular around 1350 in Regensburg. For the first time, the work is put into the context of the 14th-century Faculty of Arts. In addition, this interpretation draws on Megenbergs 8-year teaching career as professor of natural philosophy in Paris and his thematically similar writings in Latin. The volume describes Konrad of Megenbergs intellectual profile and analyzes his process of creating a vernacular scientific discourse based on Latin sources. Albert the Greats paraphrases of Aristotle, as well as the neoplatonic writings of ps.-Albertus Magnus, emerge as significant in positioning of the Book of Natural Things within its philosophical and cultural context." - publisher

Language: German
ISBN: 90-04-14015-8; LC: QH41; DDC: 508; OCLC: 55488154


Charles Gould
Mythical Monsters (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1886)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"It would have been a bold step indeed for anyone, some thirty years ago, to have thought of treating the public to a collection of stories ordinarily reputed fabulous, and of claiming for them the consideration due to genuine realities, or to have advocated tales, time-honoured as fictions, as actual facts; and those of the nursery as being, in many instances, legends, more or less distorted, descriptive of real beings or events. Now-a-days it is a less hazardous proceeding. The great era of advanced opinion initiated by Darwin, which has seen, in the course of a few years, a larger progress in knowledge in all departments of science, than decades of centuries preceding it, has among other changes, worked a complete revolution in the estimation of the value of folk-lore... I have, therefore, but little hesitation in gravely proposing to submit that many of the so-called mythical animals, which throughout long ages and in all nations have been the fertile subjects of fiction and fable, come legitimately within the scope of plain matter-of-fact Natural History, and that they may be considered, not as the outcome of exuberant fancy, but as creatures which really once existed, and of which, unfortunately, only imperfect and inaccurate descriptions have filtered down to us, probably very much refracted, through the mists of time. I propose to follow, for a certain distance only, the path which has been pursued in the treatment of myths by mythologists, so far only, in fact, as may be necessary to trace out the homes and origin of those stories which in their later dress are incredible; deviating from it to dwell upon the possibility of their having preserved to us, through the medium of unwritten Natural History, traditions of creatures once co-existing with man, some of which are so weird and terrible as to appear at first sight to be impossible. I propose stripping them of those supernatural characters with which a mysteriously implanted love of the wonderful has invested them, and to examine them, as at the present day we are fortunately able to do, by the lights of the modern sciences of Geology, Evolution, and Philology." - Gould

Reprinted by: Crescent Books, New York, c1989 (ISBN is for the reprint).

407 pp., illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-517-68636-8


Robert Gould
The Case for the Sea-Serpent (London: P. Allan, 1930) [Book]

Language: English


Georg Graf
"Der georgische Physiologus" (Caucasica, 2, 1906, 93-114) [Journal article]

Language: German


Edward Kidder Graham
The De universo of Hrabanus Maurus : a mediaeval encyclopedia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1934) [Book]

Dissertation / Thesis (M.A.) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1934.

Language: English
OCLC: 37991904


Victor Graham
"The Pelican as Image and Symbol" (Revue de litérature comparée, 36, 1962, 233-243) [Journal article]

Language: English


Robert M. Grant
Early Christians and Animals (London: Routledge, 1999) [Book]

"...examines the significance of animals in early Christian thoght, tradition, text and art. ...explores the diverse sources from the encyclopedic cataloging of Aristotle and Pliny to the Biblical story of the snake in the Garden of Eden, the Roman letter of Clement drawing on the fabulous phoenix as proof of the resurection of Christ, and the apocryphal Acts of the Apostles with their exotic tales of friendly lions and considerate insects, through to the fanciful tales collected in the Physiologus and finally to the systematic studies of animals in Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. ...provides fresh translations of these key sources, namely the Physiologus, Basil's Homilies, and Isidore's Etymologies... illustrations from various illuminated manuscripts and from the Physiologus..." - cover copy

213 pp., 22 illustrations, index, bibliography

Language: English
ISBN: 0-415-20204-3


Pamela Gravestock
"Did imaginary animals exist?" (in Debra Hassig, ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 119-139) [Book article]

Explores to what extent medieval people believed in the existence of mythological monsters and fabulous creatures found in bestiaries and other art forms.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


Miranda Green
Animals in Celtic Life and Myth (London: Routledge, 1992) [Book]

Green examines the intimate relationship between the Celts and animals, covering their crucial role in the Celtic economy, in hunting and warfare, in art and literature and in religion and ritual. The book covers the period between 800 BC and 400 AD.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-415-05030-8


Nile Green
"Ostrich Eggs and Peacock Feathers: Sacred Objects as Cultural Exchange between Christianity and Islam" (Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean, 18:1 (March), 2006, 27 - 78)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This article uses the wide dispersal of ostrich eggs and peacock feathers among the different cultural contexts of the Mediterranean and beyond into the Indian Ocean world to explore the nature and limits of cultural inheritance and exchange between Christianity and Islam. These avian materials previously possessed symbolic meaning and material value as early as the pre-dynastic period in Egypt, as well as amid the early cultures of Mesopotamia and Crete. The main early cultural associations of the eggs and feathers were with death/resurrection and kingship respectively, a symbolism that was passed on into early Christian and Muslim usage. Mercantile, religious and political links across the premodern Mediterranean meant that these items found parallel employment all around the Mediterranean littoral, and beyond it, in Arabia, South Asia and Africa. As an essay in the uses of material culture in mapping cultural exchange and charting the eclectic qualities of popular religiosity, the article provides a wide-ranging survey of the presence of these objects, from their visual appearance in Renaissance paintings to their hanging in the shrines of Indo-Muslim saints. A final section draws conclusions on the relationship between shared objects, cultural boundaries and the writing of history.

Language: English
ISSN: 0950-3110; DOI: 10.1080/09503110500222328


D. C. Greetham
"The Concept of Nature in Bartholomaeus Anglicus" (Journal of the History of Ideas, 41:4 (October-December), 1980, 663-677)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"It has long been taken for granted that Bartholomaeus Anglicus' encyclopedia, De Proprietatibus Rerum, was probably among the most influential of all reference works in the Middle Ages. ... the several earlier versions (in Latin and other languages) have been shown to have exerted a wide-ranging effect on numerous important late medieval and early renaissance authors. ... Written by one of the most learned of Biblical commentators as a simplified analysis of patristic exegesis on the nature of the universe-from God down to rocks-and having as its immediate readers the Franciscan teaching friars, perhaps the most educationally influential of all orders in the thirteenth century, DPR is to the modern researcher one of the most important reference works on popular medieval learning and can tell us a great deal about the ordinary medieval mind as it considered both the wonders of nature and the theoretical interpretation of these wonders as argued by the Church Fathers." - author

Language: English


Gerald K. Gresseth
"The Myth of Alcyone" (Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, 95, 1964, 88-98)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"The essentials of the myth of Alcyone as reported in the handbooks of mythology are: Alcyone married Ceyx, son of the Morning Star, and they were changed into birds, she into a halcyon, he into another sea-fowl called keyx, because of their impiety (they called themselves Zeus and Hera) or because he was drowned at sea and she mourned for him so piteously that the gods released her. ... I would like now to present my own interpretation, which does not account for everything in the story but at least attempts to account for the main features of this myth and to indicate how in all probability they came to be related to each other. Briefly stated, my view is that in comparative myth the sun is frequently symbolized as a bird; further, that, as in the case of the Phoenix, birds in myth often renew themselves. In the myth of Alcyone these motifs were combined to form a story of the rebirth of the sun at the time of the winter solstice." - author

Language: English


Denis Grivot
Le Bestiaire de la Cathedrale d'Autun (Lyon: Ange Michel, 1954/1973) [Book]

38 pages with black and white photos of the architectural beast adorments like gargoyles and griffins, beasts and monsters.

Language: French


Christa Grössinger
"Carlisle Cathedral Misericords: Style and Iconography" (in Michael McCarthy and David Weston, ed., Carlisle and Cumbria: Roman and Medieval Architecture, Art and Archaeology (The British Archaeological Association: Conference Transactions XXVII for 2001), Leeds: Maney Publishing, 2004, 199-213) [Book article]

"In this article I will attempt to present the latest thoughts on the misericords at Carlisle Cathedral. The style of the misericords is characterised, and comparisons are made with others in the north of England, in order to discover influences and similarities. The iconography, with its dependency on the Bestiary, is examined; the meaning of other scenes is commented on, and they are interpreted in relationship to their audience in the choir." - Grössinger

The date of the misericords is early 15th-century, probably installed under William Strickland, bishop of Carlisle 1400-19. With 20 illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-902653-90-4


"English Misericords of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and their relationship to manucsript illuminations" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 38, 1975, 97-108)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"This article sets out to examine the relationship between misericords and manuscripts, while bearing in mind a parallel approach in other arts such as stone carving or embroidery and tiles. ... To sum up the development of misericords, the earliest tend to apply foliage patterns or a combination of foliage and dragons - as in twelfth-century manuscripts. The beginnings of marginal drawings seem to coincide with the flourishing of misericord decorations; and starting with the misericords at Ely the carvers make an attempt to follow the achievements of manuscript illuminators more closely by enlarging upon their themes. ... While some of the more sophisticated masters may have been able to draw from manuscript illumination direct, much of their information probably travelled via sketchbooks and examples seen in the vicinity." - Grössinger

Illustrated with numerous black & white photographs of misericords and manuscripts.

Language: English


The World Upside-Down: English Misericords (London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 1997) [Book]

"The first part of this book describes the development of misericords, comparing Continental examples with Egnlish ones and tracing the influences of illuminated manuscripts and prints. The author discusses the working practices of the carvers, the meaning of the subjects and the transmission of ideas from one center to another. In the second part, which is organised thematically, the iconography of the misericords is examined in greater depth and local variations are explained. ... Fully illustrated with new, specially commissioned photographs and with a map giving the location of all misericords mentioned..." - cover copy

Includes a section on bestiary stories and images as used on misericords.

192 pp., 270 photographic illustrations, map, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-872501-64-8


Klaus Grubmüller
"Überlegungen zum Wahrheitsanspruch des Physiologus im Mittelalter" ( Frühmittelalterliche Studien: Jahrbuch des Instituts für Frühmittelalterforschung der Universität Münster, 12, 1978, 160-177) [Journal article]

Language: German


Christo Gruncharov, Bogdan B. Athanassov
A Middle English Reader (Veliko Tirnovo: Cyril and Methodius University) [Book]

Includes the Middle English bestiary (Physiologus).

Language: English
LCCN: 78352401; LC: PR1120 .M53; DDC: 821/.1/08


Angelo de Gubernatis
Zoological Mythology; or The Legends of Animals (London: Trubner & Co., 1872) [Book]

Language: English


H. A. Guerber
Legends of the Middle Ages: narrated with special reference to literature and art (New York: American Book Company, 1896)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Includes a version of Reynard the Fox.

Language: English
LC: PN683.G85


Nilda Guglielmi
El fisiólogo: bestiario medieval (Madrid: Eneida, 2002; Series: Colección Bestiarios 9) [Book]

184 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Spanish
ISBN: 84-95427-72-9; LCCN: 2003441286


Guillaume le Clerc, George C. Druce, trans.
The Bestiary of Guillaume le Clerc (Ashford: Headly Brothers, Invicta Press, 1936) [Book]

Printed for private circulation. A translation into English of the work originally written in 1210-1211. Extremely rare.

Includes black and white photographs of pages from the original. Based on Le Bestiaire: Das Thierbuch des Normannischen Dichters Guillaume le Clerc (New York, 1973) Reinisch's edition.

110 p., plates, facsimiles.

Language: English
LC: PQ1483.G7; LCCN: 39000139; OCLC: 2290751


Guillaume le Clerc, C. Hippeau
Le Bestiaire Divin de Guillaume Clerc de Normandie (Caen: Chez A. Hardel, Imprimeur-Libraire, 1852)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"Trouvère du XIIIe siècle; publié d'après les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque national avec une introd. sur les bestiaires, volucraires et lapidaires du Moyen Age considérés dans leurs rapport avec la symbolique chrétienne."

Reprinted by: Slatkine Reprints, Geneva, 1970.

323 pp., bibliography.

Language: French
LCCN: 76-506418; LC: PQ1483.G7; OCLC: 38128211


Edmund J. Guillezet
A comparison of the physical characteristics and allegories of animals in the bestiaries of Philippe de Thaun and of Guillaume le Clerc (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1937) [Dissertation]

Thesis (M.A.--French) at the Catholic University of America, 1937.

53 leaves, bibliography. Catholic University masters dissertation number 2474.

Language: English
LC:  PC13.C3 G84


Jacques Guilmain
"Zoomorphic Decoration and the Problem of the Sources of Mozarabic Illumination" (Speculum, 35:1 (January), 1960, 17-38)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

An examination of the character and sources of the animal decoration found in 9th to 11th century Mozarabic manuscripts of Spain. The relationship of these decorations with those of northern Europe is discussed. Includes comparative llustrations from the decorations in Mozarabic and northern European manuscripts and other artwork.

Language: English


J. P. Gumbert, P. M. Vermeer
"An unusual Yogh in the Bestiary manuscript - a palaeographical note" (Medium Aevum, 40:1, 1971, 56-59) [Journal article]

A discussion of the use of the 'yogh' character in British Library, Arundel MS 292, which is differentiated from the letter 'g'.

"A tentative conclusion would be that the script of Arundel 292 is a result of an attempt (single-handed, or restricted to a very small group) to lessen the graphemic distance between vernacular and Latin script, by choosing or creating shapes for the typically English graphemes which are as close as possible to Latin ones." - authors

Language: English
ISSN: 0025-8385


R. D. Gupta
"Indian Parallels of the Fox Story" (in E. Rombauts, A. Welkenhuysen & G. Verbeke, ed., Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 241-250) [Book article]

"This paper attempts to show some Indian parallels of the fox story, mainly drawn from the Jatakas and the Pañcatantra. Naturally, the scope of the paper is not large enough for a full treatment of the subject. I must also stress at the outset that it is not my aim to go into the question of direct borrowing, nor shall I try to prove the influence which the Indian fable seems to have produced; my principal aim is simply to present some interesting parallels from Indian literature of a date earlier than that of Reynard the fox." - Gupta

Language: English


M. Gysseling
Corpus van Middelnederlandse teksten (tot en met het jaar 1300) ('s-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff, 1981; Series: Reeks II: Literaire handschriften)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

Contains a transcription of Der Naturen Bloeme by Jacob van Maerlant (volume 2, pages 16-416).

"Der naturen bloeme, door Jacob van Merland, is een vertaling, met uitweidingen ... en inkortingen, van een uitgebreide versie van het Liber de natura rerum, geschreven in het midden van de 13de eeuw door Thomas van Cantimpré."

941 p., index.

Language: Dutch
OCLC: 21716642


"Datering en localisering van Reinaert I" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 165-186) [Book article]

"Van Reinaert I zijn tot op heden vijf handschriften bekend: twee fragmentarische uit de 13de eeuw (G en E), twee volledige uit de 14de eeuw (F en A) en een fragmentarisch uit de 15de eeuw. Het oudst, maar ook het meest verminkt en het geringst in omvang, zijn de fragmenten G, die bewaard worden op de Gemeentebibliotheek te Rotterdam: het schrift is van zowat 1270-80. De taal vertoont Noordnederrijnse insluipsels. Het bijwoord 2190 wo "hoe" is Noordnederrijns (Kleef-Geldern) en Nederduits (westwaarts tot de IJselstreek). Niet vocaliseren van l (2189 solde voor soude) wijst in de ontstaanstijd van Reinaert G in hoofdzaak naar Utrecht, Gelderland, de Nederrijn en het Neder- en Hoogduitse taalgebied. De vormen 2212 deir voor der, neiman voor nieman en 2217 heit voor hiet horen thuis in Utrecht, Gelderland, Limburg, de Nederrijn en het Nederduitse taalgebied. Van het in hoofdzaak Nederduitse bet (2214) duikt een westelijk voorbeeld op te Utrecht in 1295. De vorm 3246 scirpe met bewaarde ir (cf. Mhd. schirpe) is evenwel niet Nederduits, maar Limburgs-Nederrijns. Het afschrift G mag bijgevolg gelocaliseerd worden in de streek van Geldern-Kleef." - Gysseling

Language: Dutch


H   A  B  C  D  E  F  G  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z      Top
Berechiah ha-Nakdan, Moses Hadas, trans. & ed.
Fables of a Jewish Aesop: Translated from the Fox Fables of Berechiah ha-Nakdan (Jaffrey, NH: David R Godine, 2001) [Book]

"... a translation of the justly famous Hebrew Fox Tales of Berechiah ben Natronai ha-Nakdan, a Jewish philosopher, Biblical commentator and Hebrew grammarian who lived in France during the late twelfth or early thirteenth century. Berechiah added his own narrative details to the traditional stories, using every opportunity to introduce Biblical quotaions and allusions and use the language and lessons of the Old Testament. By using the language of the King James version Moses Hadas' translation beautifully preserves the Biblical character of the original, allowing the reader to appreciate the most interesting aspect of Berechiah's work - the change which Aesop's fables underwent when viewed in the mirror of Hebrew culture." - publisher

233 pp., woodcut illustrations by Fritz Kredel, introduction by W.T.H. Jackson.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-56792-131-0


Laurent Hablot
"Emblématique et mythologie médiévale : le cygne, une devise princière" (Animalia (Histoire de l'art), 49, 2001, 51-64) [Journal article]

"A partir du 14e s., l'image du cygne apparaît sur les insignes (vêtement, bijou, sceau, décor mural et carrelage) dans l'ensemble du monde occidental, en particulier chez les Lancaster. Cette revalorisation du cygne, longtemps boudé par le bestiaire et l'héraldique médiévaux, a plusieurs origines. L'une d'entre elles est la légende du Chevalier au Cygne qui puise à la fois dans le fonds culturel antique, qui véhicule une image positive du cygne, et dans les mythes fondateurs des grandes familles féodales notamment ceux de la maison de Boulogne. Progressivement, le cygne comme emblème ou devise, devient une référence et un patrimoine commun de la société médiévale pour laquelle il évoque le monde chevaleresque, courtois et nobiliaire." - abstract

Language: French
ISSN: 0992-2059


Earle Hackett
"The charadrius: A useful bird" (Irish Journal of Medical Science (1926-1967), 30:11, 1955, 491-498)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"There is no original investigation in the foregoing piece. It was written for its medical interest, which is admittedly slight. All the essential pointers are to be found in Mr. Druces remarkable paper, in Mr. Whites modern Bestiary, and in dictionaries and encyclopaedias. There is an account summarising nearly all the references in one article in Prof. DA. W. ThompsonsGlossary of Greek Birds, to which Prof. Stanford drew my attention when these notes were almost finished. Had I consulted that work first I would not have started a burst of reading for which I am ill-equipped. Every printed work mentioned has been consulted directly, and responsible translations of classical authors have been used." - abstract

Language: English
DOI: 10.1007/BF02948298


Tobias Hagtingius
"A Pornographic Fox" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 235-248) [Book article]

A discussion of the common image of the friar-fox preaching to an audience of geese or other birds, with particular attention to the possible sexual overtones of the fox/friar as seducer of his flock. Six illustrations.

Language: English


C. Hahn
"The creation of the cosmos: Genesis illustration in the Octateuchs." (Cahiers Archéologiques Paris, 28, 1979, 29-40) [Journal article]

A discussion of the map of the world illustrating the Christian Topography of the Cosmos (Laurenziana Plut. IX, 28, fol. 92v), and of animals of the Physiologus as sources of the illustration of the Seraglio Octateuch (Istanbul), like those of other examples, such that of Smyrna.

Language: English


Margaret Haist
"The lion, bloodline, and kingship" (in Debra Hassig, ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 3-21) [Book article]

Discusses the image of the powerful lion as used in biblical texts and by medieval kings.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


Daniel Hall, Farson Angus
Mysterious Monsters (New York: Mayflower Books, Inc, 1975) [Book]

Language: English


J. Hall
Selections from Early Middle English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1920)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Includes a transcription of the Middle English Bestiary (British Library Arundel MS 292). See also Hall's Edition of the Middle English Bestiary (1957) Emory, 1957 for corrections to the transcription.

Language: English


Einar S. Hallbeck
The language of the Middle English bestiary (Cristianstad: Länstidning Press, 1905)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Middle English phonology and inflection.

66 pp., bibliography.

Language: English
LC: PE540; OCLC: 14951301


Robert Halleux
"Damigéron, Evax et Marbode: l'héritage alexandrin dans les lapidaires médiévaux" (Studi medievali, 3rd series 15/1, 1974, 327-347) [Journal article]

Language: French


W. R. Halliday
"Picus-who-is-also-Zeus" (Classical Review, XXXVI, 1922, 110-112) [Journal article]

Language: English


Elisabeth Halna-Klein
"Sur les traces du lynx" (Médiévales: langue, textes, histoire, 141, 1995, 119-128) [Journal article]

Discusses how in the early Middle Ages, the classical view persisted of the lynx as an evil, harmful animal, while later writers describe it as positive, independent and useful. Summaries in English.

Language: French


Edward B. Ham
"The Cambrai Bestiary" (Modern Philology, 36:3 (February), 1939, 225-237)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"An oversight in A. Molinier's catalogue of the Bibliothéque municipale at Cambrai has caused the thirteenth-century prose bestiary published here to remain unknown until now. While it is always desirable to bring to light any medieval French text of literary intent, this particular bestiary merits attention for additional reasons. It is an early sample of the suppression of didactic elements in such treatises... Derived from the Bestiaire d'amour of Richard de Fournival, it also accounts very largely for the origin and form of the late thirteenth-century Provençal adaptation in the famous La Vallière chansonnier (Bib. Nat. fr. 22543). Discovery of the Cambrai bestiary increases the evidence for the rather considerable contemporary popularity of Richard de Fournival..." - Ham

Language: English


Hampshire Record Office
Dragons and Beasts at the Hampshire Record Office (Hampshire Record Office, 2002)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

"At Hampshire Record Office dragons and beasts appear almost exclusively in written records connected to the Church and its estates, or those belonging to monastic houses such as abbeys. ... There are illustrations of dragons to be found amongst some of the parchment pages of the estate records of the bishops of Winchester known as pipe rolls, dating from medieval and Tudor times, and within the Mottisfont Rental, from the medieval abbey at Mottisfont. ... It seems likely that scribes were familiar with drawings of real and mythical beasts which they had seen in bestiaries elsewhere. ... Almost all of the medieval books containing dragons and beasts at Hampshire Record Office would have been written by local scribes from monastic houses." - Hampshire Record Office

Language: English


Noboru Harano
"Caracteres des manuscrits du groupe G du Roman de Renart" (in Gabriel Bianciotto & Michel Salvat, ed., Épopée Animale, Fable, Fabliau: Actes du IVe Colloque de la Société Internationale Renardienne, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984, 249-254) [Book article]

A study of the Roman de Renart manuscripts in group Ã, with a table of the rubrics and incipits of each tale in the manuscripts.

Language: French


P. Hardwick
"Through a Glass, Darkly: Interpreting Animal Physicians" (Reinardus, 15:1, 2002, 63-70) [Journal article]

"The present paper addresses medieval English depictions in wood and stained glass of the apparently satirical image of the monkey physician examining the urinal. Some images clearly correspond to contemporary concerns about physicians, as expressed in works such as The Simonie and Chaucers Canterbury Tales. However, I suggest that by drawing upon contemporary discussions concerning the health of the body and the soul, we may perhaps read into these images an important message concerning individual salvation."

Language: English
ISSN: 0925-4757


Laurence Harf-Lancner
Métamorphose et bestiaire fantastique au Moyen Age (Paris: Ecole normale supérieure de jeunes filles, 1985; Series: Collection de l'Ecole normale supérieure de jeunes filles; no 28) [Book]

"études rassemblées par Laurence Harf-Lancner."

334 p., illustrations, bibliography.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-85929-021-4; LCCN: 86179171; LC: PQ155.M27M48 1985; DDC: 840.9001


N. Häring
"Notes on the Liber Avium of Hugues de Fouilloy" (Recherches de Théologie ancienne et médiévale, 56, 1979, 53-83) [Journal article]

Language: English


Elina Suomela Harma
"'... li goupil ou li renart ont fosses...' (Mt 8,20)" (Revue des Langues Romanes, 98:2, 1994, 269-286) [Journal article]

Language: French


Nigel Harris
"'gar süezen smac daz pantir hât'. Der Panther und sein Atem in der deutschsprachigen Literatur des Mittelalters" (in Alan Robertshaw & Gerhard Wolf, ed., Natur und Kultur in der deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters: Colloquium Exeter 1997, Tübingen: Niemeyer, 65-75) [Book article]

Language: German
ISBN: 3-484-64005-7


R K Harrison
"The Mandrake and the Ancient World" (The Evangelical Quarterly, 28.2, 1956, 87-92)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of the mandrake, as it occurred in the ancient middle east, and with notes on biblical references.

Language: English


Thomas P. Harrison
"Bird of Paradise: Phoenix Redivivus" (Isis, 51:2 (Hune), 1960, 173-180)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"From the time of Hesiod in the eighth century B.C. until the scientific awakening of the Renaissance the Phoenix lived undisputed in the beliefs of the literate. Though aspects of the legend were altered by Herodotus, Ovid, Pliny, Lucian, the Physiologus, Lactantius and others, this bird of surpassing beauty remained the symbol par excellence of renewal through rebirth from its ashes. But the New Science, casting miracles aside, was concerned with actual identification in the vernaculars of those birds named by the Ancients. Yet, having lived in men's minds many times its allotted span, the Phoenix was not yet to die. For a time it was reborn as a real bird, the Bird of Paradise, whose flowing plumes were brought to Europe by spice traders from the Moluccas. ... How this real but mysterious bird came to be identified with the imaginary one of venerable tradition may be understood by a glance at certain attributes of the Phoenix. ... It is uncertain how long before Magellan's expedition the bird of paradise was known in Europe or even on the Asiatic mainland - perhaps for centuries. Whatever the date, it is not in the least surprising that this real bird from the East was for a time identified as the Phoenix. Contradictory though ancient authority was found to be - even erroneous on occasion as, for example, in its opinion that there was only one in the world - respect for this 'authority was absolute. To the reality of this reverence add the new birds with their marvellous plumage now arriving from the Indies and the conclusion is inevitable: this is the Phoenix! The very errors with regard to this distorted bird as well as the reports of its unique life above earth conspired to fix the delusion in the popular mind."

Language: English


Ulrich Harsch, ed.
Der Ältere Physiologus (Bibliotheca Augustana, 2001)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The text of an Old German manuscript of the Physiologus, with 12 chapters. Each chapter has a color illustration.

Language: German


Elizabeth den Hartog
"All Nature Speaks of God · All Nature Teaches Man: The Iconography of the Twelfth-Century Capitals in the Westwork Gallery of the Church of St. Servatius in Maastricht" (Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 59 Bd., H.1, 1996, 29-62)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

The Iconography of the capitals in the church of St. Servatius in Maastricht and their relationship to the Physiologus and the bestiaries.

Language: English


"In the Midst of the Nations... The Iconography of the Choir Capitals in the Church of Our Lady in Maastricht" (Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 62 Bd., H. 3., 1999, 320-365)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"One of the most important ensembles of Romanesque sculpture in the Meuse Valley is the set of twenty capitals in the choir ambulatory of the church of Our Lady in Maastricht. These capitals portray not only biblical scenes, but also various kinds of animals, monsters, birds, naked or scarcely-dressed human figures entangled in foliage and humans fighting with or being attacked by animals. At first sight the series seems to lack cohesion, and not surprisingly, scholars have been puzzled by it, warning against over-interpretation and fruitless speculation. Flament and Ligtenbergj managed to relate certain creatures on the capitals to their counterparts in bestiaries and the like, but the latter concluded that, although it was possible to interpret the meaning of certain individual capitals, or of one of the sides, it was impossible to find a satisfactory explanation for the entire series or even for a part of the series. There seems to be a general consensus among scholars that the capitals were mainly intended to serve decorative purposes and do not represent a unified programme. Can this be true?" - Hartog

Language: English


E. Ruth Harvey
"The Swallow's Nest and the Spider's Web" (in M. J. Toswell & E. M. Tyler, ed., Studies in English Language and Literature: "Doubt Wisely" (Papers in Honour of E. G. Stanley), London: Routledge, 1996, 327-341) [Book article]

Animal symbolism in William Langland's Piers Plowman and its sources in the bestiary.

Language: English


William O. Hassall
"Bestiaires d'Oxford" (Dossiers de l'archéologie: (later Histoire et archéologie. Les dossiers), 16, 1976, 71-81) [Journal article]

Language: French


Bestiary: Ms. St. John's 61 (Wakefield, Yorkshire: Micro Methods, 1969) [Microfilm]

A facsimile of an English 13th century bestiary manuscript: St. John's College, Oxford, MS. 61.

Guide title: St. John's College, Oxford, MS. 61, Bestiary, English 13th cent./ "Adviser: W.O. Hassall."/ Errata slip inserted in guide.

1 microfilm reel; chiefly color illustrations; 35 mm. +e1 guide (9 p.).

Language: English
OCLC: 24937848


Bodley Herbal and Bestiary: MS. Bodley 130 (Oxford: Oxford Microform Publications, 1978; Series: Illuminated Medieval Manuscripts in Microform Series 1; Major treasures in the Bodleian Library 8) [Microfilm]

Consists of two manuscripts bound together (MS. Bodley 130): 1. A corrupt version of a 5th century herbal falsely ascribed to Apuleius Barbarus; and, 2. An abbreviated version of Sextus Placitus' 4th century (?) De virtutibus bestiarum in arte medicinae. Both written in England about 1100. English translations of Latin names added in 13th and 14th centuries. Includes commentary and bibliographical references.

Fiche 1-3: Herbal. Fiche 3-4: Bestiary. Fiche 5a-5b: Commentary and bibliography.

ix, 3 p. ; 16 cm. & microfiche (5 sheets: color illustrtions; 11 x 15 cm.) in pockets.

Language: English


Major Treasures in the Bodleian Library (Oxford: Oxford Microform Publications, 1976; Series: Medieval manuscripts in microform, series 1) [Microfilm]

Microfiches bound in 10 volumes, each with accompanying introductory text and introduction.

Contents: 1. The Romance of Alexander, MS. Bodley 264 -- 2. The Douce Apocalypse, MS. Douce 180 -- 3. The Ormesby Psalter, MS. Douce 366 -- 4. The Englebert Book of Hours/Master of Mary of Burgundy, MS. Douce 219-220 -- 5. The Bible Moralisee, MS. Bodley 270b -- 6. The Franciscan Missal, MS. Douce 313 -- 7. Bede's life of St. Cuthbert, MS. University College 165 -- 8. Bodley Herbal and Bestiary, MS. Bodley 130 -- 9. Terence, Comedies, MS. Auct. f.2.13 -- 10. The Macregol or Rushworth Gospels.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-904735-03-6; LCCN:  84117537; LC: Microfiche 5325-5334 (P)


William O. Hassall, A. G. Hassall
Treasures from the Bodleian Library (London: Gordon Fraser Gallery, 1976) [Book]

Descriptions and high-quality images of a selection of medieval manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, including two bestiaries: MS. Ashmole 1511 and MS. Bodley 764. A general description of each manuscript is given, as well as a discussion of the features of the reproduced manuscript images (the whale, folio 5v, from Ashmole 1511; the elephant, folio 12r, from Bodley 764).

Language: English
ISBN: 0-900406-52-6


Debra Hassig
"Beauty in the beasts: a study of medieval aesthetics" (Res, 19-20, 1990-1991, 137-161) [Journal article]

Analyzes the illustrations to a 13th c. English bestiary, made in London (Oxford, Bodleian, MS Ashmole 1511) in the light of Medieval aesthetics. Examines beliefs about the use of images in religious contexts, and stylistic features of the schematic illustrations.

Language: English
ISSN: 0277-1322


Homo animal est, homo animal non est: Text and Image in Medieval English Bestiaries (Columbia University, 1993) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation, Columbia University

"The first portion of the study is an analysis of text and image in twenty-eight English bestiaries, based on the comparative renderings of a selection of creatures that are well represented across the group. The weasel, stag, bee, fox, phoenix, beaver, hoopoe, siren, fire rocks, elephant, hyena, and panther are each discussed in separate chapters. In addition to exploring how texts and images correspond, contradict, or augment each other, semiotic analysis is used to uncover meaning generated by the images independent of the texts. Such meaning is normally ideological in nature and related to specific contemporary theological tenets or social constructs which are identified and discussed. The value of the aesthetic code, comprised of color, line, composition, spatial arrangement, size, framing elements and other non-mimetic devices is given particular attention in an attempt to contribute to the formulation of a semiotics of purely visual elements. An attempt is also made to position the bestiary texts and images within the social history of art by exploring connections between the bestiaries and important forces in medieval society. These include specific aspects of political, social, religious, and economic life that are buttressed or condemned through the bestiary words and pictures as they would have been perceived by contemporary patrons. It is argued that the bestiaries played an active role in shaping ideologies that are codified elsewhere in the medieval written and pictorial record. The study concludes with a diachronic analysis of bestiary transformations, applicable to the twenty-eight English manuscripts under consideration. In accordance with the contention that the bestiaries developed over time in form and content as patronage and social interests shifted, new texts and images added to the bestiaries from the twelfth through the fourteenth centuries are identified and described. Particular influences include interest in monsters and marvels, the rise of the mendicant orders, and courtly love. A pattern from sacred to secular interests is traced that may be applicable to the broader analysis of the bestiary as a genre." - abstract

592 pp.

Language: English
PQDD: ATT9318245


"Marginal bestiaries" (in L. A. J. Houwen, ed., Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature (Mediaevalia Groningana, 20), Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1997, 171-188) [Book article]

Addresses, by focusing on the Queen Mary Psalter and the Isabella Psalter, how the bestiary was reduced from an integrally luxury manuscript to marginalia appended to other types of books, and how it functioned in this context.

With reference to manuscripts:

- München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, gall.16

- London, British Library, Royal 2.B.VII

- Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ashmole 1511

- Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum, Ludwig XV.3

- Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 88

- London, British Library, Harley 3244

Language: English
ISBN: 90-6980-097-7


Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature (New York: Garland Publishing, 1999; Series: Garland Medieval Casebooks 22) [Book]

"The present collection of essays rides the tide of accelerated academic interest in the medieval bestiary witnessed during the last couple of decades. ... The goal of the present collection is not to hand down truths on the ultimate significance of the bestiaries or to argue for one consistent symbolic meaning for a given animal or to suggest but a single function for these books. Rather, the individual studies all expose accumulated layers of meaning developed in the bestiary stories and attached to the animals themselves and seek therefore to make visible their numerous ambiguities and contradictions as compelling testimony to the flexibility and power of the genre. ... Emphasis in all of these essays is on art historical and literary analysis. Equal consideration is paid to texts and images with an eye toward connecting specific artistic and literary features of the bestiaries with broader issues in medieval art, life, and literature. ... I have grouped the essays into four distinct categories... Social Realities; Moral Lessons; Classical Inheritences; Reading Beasts." - Hassig, introduction

Articles by: The lion, bloodline, and kingship (New York, 1999) Margaret Haist, Misericord owls and medieval anti-semitism (New York, 1999) Mariko Miyazaki, Bestiary lessons on pride and lust (New York, 1999) Carmen Brown, Sex in the bestiaries (New York, 1999) Debra Hassig, The phoenix and the resurrection (New York, 1999) Valerie Jones, Did imaginary animals exist? (New York, 1999) Pamela Gravestock, Classical ideology in the medieval bestiary (New York, 1999) J. Holli Wheatcroft, Taboos and the Holy in Bodley 764 (New York, 2000) Alison Syme, Silence's Beasts (New York, 1999) Michele Bolduc.

Reprinted by Routledge in 2000 (ISBN: 041592894X).

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0; LC: PA8275.B4Z63 1999: DDC: 809.93362-dc21; LCCN: 98-36629


Medieval Bestiaries: Text, Image, Ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; Series: RES monographs in anthropology and aesthetics) [Book]

"This study integrates the bestiary into the social history of art through an examination of twenty-eight manuscripts produced in England during the twelfth, thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. The analysis of the reception of the bestiary by different types of readers - religious and lay, male and female - links selected bestiary entries to specific social political, economic and theological concerns of significance at the time that the manuscripts were produced and read; special attention is devoted to bestiary characterisations of women and Jews. The first comprehensive analysis of text and images that takes both an iconographical and semiotic approach to the imagery, this study also takes into account the aesthetic dimension of these works. It challenges, moreover, the pervasive thesis that the bestiaries were collections of standard texts and images intended for religious contemplation. By tracing their changing functions across the centuries and evaluating them in the broader context of medieval intellectual history, bestiaries are shown to be a dynamic genre." - publisher

300 pp., 112 pp. of plates, illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-521-47026-9; LCCN: 94039572; LC: PR275.B47 H37 1995; DDC: 821/.10936 20


"Sex in the bestiaries" (in The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 71-97) [Book article]

"I am primarily interested in charting changing theological views of sex as revealed in a number of bestiary entries concerned with this theme, including the siren, beaver, and siren rocks. I try to show how bestiary characterizations of sex are consistently negative and generally condemn women as the impetus behind sexual misconduct. I trace a shift in emphasis over time by contrasting the ways in which the theme of sex functions as a theological guidepost in the Latin prose bestiaries with its later function in the Bestiaire d'Amour." - introduction

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


"The iconography of rejection: Jews and other monstrous races" (in Colum Hourihane, ed., Image and Belief. Studies in Celebration of the Eightieth Anniversary of the Index of Christian Art, Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1999, 25-46) [Book article]

Discusses Jews and physically deformed beings, animal characteristics, and stereotypical cultural and racial features. List of illustrations at pp. xvii-xxiii

Language: English
ISBN: 0-691-01003-X


Nancy Hathaway
The Unicorn (New York: Viking Press, 1980) [Book]

An extensively illustrated study of the unicorn myth in East and West, from early antiquity through the Middle Ages and into modern times. The illustrations are taken from medieval manuscripts, tapestries, carvings, early printed books, paintings, etc. The text covers unicorn myths and legends, and explores their origins and uses. Chapters include: The Ancient Unicorn (The First Animal Named; The Eastern Beginnings; The Fierce Karkadann; The Unicorn-boy of India); The Medieval Unicorn (The Hunt of the Unicorn; The Lion and the Unicorn; The Unicorn, Wild People and Wood Nymphs; The Magical Horn); The Progress of the Unicorn (Centuries of Search; The False Unicorn; Myth and Mass Culture; The Celestial Unicorn).

191 pp., many color and black & white illustrations, annotated bibliography, list of sources.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-670-74075-6; LCCN: 80-5364; LC: GR830.U6H37; DDC: 398.2'454


Gerold Hayer
Konrad von Megenberg "Das Buch der Natur" : Untersuchungen zu seiner Text- und Überlieferungsgeschichte (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1998; Series: Münchener Texte und Untersuchungen zur deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters Bd.110) [Book]

A study of Das Buch der Natur of Konrad von Megenberg.

"Mit dem 'Buch der Natur' schuf der Regensburger Domherr Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) die erste Natur-Enzyklopädie in deutscher Sprache. Es wurde zu einem der meistgelesenen und wirkungsmächtigsten Bücher des späten Mittelalters in der Volkssprache. Die text- und überlieferungsgeschichtlich ausgerichtete Studie charakterisiert die verschiedenen Textfassungen, beschreibt und analysiert deren reiche und vielfältige Überlieferung und dokumentiert ihre Wirkungsgeschichte. Dabei zeigt sich, daß das Interesse der überwiegend adligen und bürgerlichen Laien-Rezipienten weniger den allegorischen Deutungen der Naturdinge und ihrer Eigenschaften galt, sondern vielmehr der Sachinformation im Bereich der praktischen Lebenshilfe." - publisher

533 p., 16 p. of plates (some color), bibliography, index.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-484-89110-6; LCCN: 99-175401; LC: QH41; DDC: 508; OCLC: 40362474


H. R. Hays
Birds, Beasts, and Men: A Humanist History of Zoology (New York: Putnam, 1972) [Book]

A historical survey of zoology, from ancient Greece to modern times. Chapter 1: Ancient Greece (Aristotle); 2: Early Rome (Pliny, Lucretius); 3: Middle Ages (Physiologus, St Francis).

383 p., bibliography, index.

Language: English
LCCN: 73174639; LC: QL15.H38


Miriam E. Hebron
Statistical Studies of the Iconography of the Dragon in Biblical texts of the 13th and 14th centuries (London: M. E. Hebron, 1985) [Book]

"I am usually asked how I came to make these statistical studies of dragons. The answer is simple, - because I happened to observe that those in 13th and 14th century Bibles were statistically viable. The dragons were for most art historians, conventional details in design, as indeed they might have been to the artists who painted them, but I was currious to know why they were placed differentially in incipts. ... I believe ... that statistics could be applied to extant examples to ascertain the meaning of symbolism more reliably than any casual reference contemporary with the making of the books. The trends and consistencies discernable within the manuscripts, when showing statistical reliability, must surely indicate what the inciteful programmer's motive was in placing the dragons where they are." - preface

63 p., black & white illustrations, statistical tables.

Language: English


William S Heckscher
"Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk" (Art Bulletin, XXIX, 1947, 155-182) [Journal article]

Language: English


Gustav Heider, ed.
Physiologus. Nacht einer Handschrift des XI Jahrhunderts. Jahrhunderts zum ersten Male herausgegeben und erläutert (Viena: Aus der kaiserlichköniglichen Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1850; Series: Dritter Jahrgang, Zweiter Band) [Book]

The version of the Physiologus attributed to John Chrysostom from a manuscript at Stift Göttweig (Steinaweg, Austria). The manuscript has at head: Incipiunt dicta Joh. Crisostomi. De naturis bestiarum./ "Besonderer Abdruck aus dem von der kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften hrsg. Archive für Kunde österr. Geschichtsquellen."

2 p. introduction, 45 p. plates (color facsimiles).

Language: German
OCLC: 45967146


Elisabeth Heize
Hrabanus Maurus Enzyklopädie "De rerum naturis". Untersuchungen zu den Quellen und zur Methode der Kompilation (München: 1969; Series: Münchener Beiträge zur Mediävistik und Renaissance-Forschung 4) [Book]

Language: German


Wytze Hellinga
"Between Two Languages: Caxton's Translation of Reynaert de Vos" (in Lotte Hellinga, Studies in Seventeenth Century English Literature, History, and Bibliography: Festschrift for Professor T. A. Birrell on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1984, 119-131) [Book article]

William Caxton's Middle English translation of the Dutch Van den Vos Reynaerde ("Reynard the Fox").

Language: English


Reinaerts historie (Reinaert II) (2001)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A transcription of the Reinaerts historie version of the Reynard the Fox stories, from manuscript Brussel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 14601. 7793 lines of verse. With notes on the manuscript.

Language: Dutch


Arnold Clayton Henderson
"Medieval Beasts and Modern Cages: The Making of Meaning in Fables and Bestiaries" (Publications of the Modern Languages Association of America, 97:1 (January), 1982, 40-49)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Discusses moral role of satire; allegory; colloquial style; study example Marie de France; Odo of Cheriton; Berechiah ben Natronai Ha Nakdan; Henryson, Robert.

"Animal fables pass from country to country and century to century, but not unchanged. Because fables have explicit moralizations, the innovative medieval fabulists (Marie, Odo, and Berechiah through Henryson) help us test what authors meant by meaning and what freedoms they took with tradition. We catch them thinking aloud. As they develop social satire, play with allegory, and dramatize style, they maintain a consistent reasoning process something like what we now call structuralist, but something, too, like Augustinian exegesis. We can partially learn to read like a medieval reader, yet we find even the explicit and documented meanings too various to be caught, caged, and cataloged by our theories. With fables as with their wilder cousins, the Nun's Priest's Tale, the Bestiary of Love, and unmoralized literature, neither we nor the medieval reader can anticipate when the author will double back to surprise us. Surprise, it seems, was itself a tradition." - author

Language: English
ISSN: 0030-8129


Moralized Beasts: the Development of Medieval Fable and Bestiary Particularly from the Twelfth through the Fifteenth Centuries in England and France (Berkeley: University of California, 1973) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation. Adviser: Charles Muscatine.

"This study shows medieval writers transforming animal fable, twelfth century to Robert Henryson, with comparisons to bestiary. It discusses innovators in social satire and in witty freedom with meanings. Their moralizations for traditional stories provide test cases for modern theories of 'medieval meanings' understood by audiences for Chaucer or others. The variety of moralization proves 'traditional' meanings subject to innovation and witty play. The study introduces the field and key figures, identifies an innovative group, and examines medieval interplay of humor and meaning. For most of the Middle Ages, while bestiary remained otherworldly and Christian from origin, fable offered more worldly focus. Fable imitated supposed pre-Christian authors Aesop and Romulus, avoiding the figures and concepts of Christian society. Thus each genre long narrowed its scope; neither expressed a whole 'medieval world view.' In the late twelfth century, certain writers enlarged each genre by something of the other genre's spirit. A loose group of late fabulists, mostly in England and France, developed three innovations: more-specific social applications, wittily elaborate moralizations no longer seeming pagan, and vivid style and characterization recalling the Roman de Renart. Robert Henryson should be seen as a culmination of this group, making fable both a more complete medieval statement and also a more individualistic one, playing wittily with meaning. Bestiaries discussed include the innovative Bestiaire d'amour of Richart de Fornival (or Fournival), plus Physiologus, Philippe de Thaon, Theobaldus, and Guillaume le Clerc. Fabulists are discussed more extensively, especially Robert Henryson. Important roles in developing fable as social criticism are noted for the Hebrew fabulist Berechiah and for Odo of Cheriton (or Cerington). Other discussions cover Marie de France, Odo's followers Nicole Bozon and John of Sheppey, the Isopets, the Fabulae rhythmicae, John Lydgate, and Latin Aesop/Romulus fables collected by Hervieux and ultimately from Phaedrus or Babrius. Fables of social satire in Marie and Berechiah are listed, with Marie-Lydgate links (appendices)." - abstract

297 pp..

Available as microfilm from University of California, Berkeley, 1982 (1 microfilm reel).

Language: English
ISBN: 0-591-93235-0; PQDD: AAT9839553; OCLC: 9161035


Nikolaus Henkel
"Die Begleitverse als Tituli in der 'Physiologus'" (Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch: Internationale Zeitschrift für Mediävistik, 14, 1979, 256-258) [Journal article]

Language: German


"Physiologus" (Literaturlexikon, Hg. von Walter Killy. Bd. 9, 1991, 154 - 156) [Journal article]

Language: German


"Physiologus (Mittellat. Lit.; Deutsche Lit.; Mittelniederländ. Lit.)." (Lexikon des Mittelalters, Bd. 6, 1993, 2118 - 2120) [Journal article]

Language: German


Studien zum Physiologus im Mittelalter (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1976; Series: Hermaea: Germanistische Forschungen. Neue Folge, Bd. 38) [Book]

Contents: Forschung zum Physiologus nach 1940; Der griechishe Physiologus; Die lateinishen Physiologus-Fassungen; Die deutschen Physiologus-Fassungen; Der Physiologus - das Zoologiebuch des Mittelatlters?; Grundformen der Veränderung des Physiologus im Laufe seiner Überlieferung; Anmerkungen zur Überlieferung der Tiergeshichten außerhalb des Physiologus.

Originally presented as the author's thesis, Munich, 1974.

227 pp., Index, bibliography.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-484-15034-3; LCCN: 77553967; LC: PA4273.P9 H4 1976; DDC: 398.4


Leo J. Henkin
"The Carbuncle in the Adder's Head" (Modern Language Notes, 58:1 (January), 1943, 34-39)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"To illustrate the Gospel precept 'Be ye wis as serpents" in his Confessio Amantis John Gower makes use of an interesting piece of folklore. It is the account of a 'serpent which that Aspidus / Is cleped' whose forehead is studded with the very precious stone, the carbuncle." - author

The author examines two components of this idea: the adder or asp that blocks its ears to avoid being charmed; and the dragon with a magical stone in its head. He concludes that Gower combined the two for dramatic effect.

Language: English


Jean-Luc Hennig
Bestiaire érotique (Paris: A. Michel, 1998) [Book]

Sexual behavior in animals.

393 p., index

Language: French
ISBN: 2-226-10588-3; LCCN: 99175169; LC: GR705 .H45 1998; DDC: 398.24/5 22


Halldór Hermannsson
The Icelandic Physiologus (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1938; Series: Islandica; vol. 27) [Book]

Facsimile edition with an introduction and transcription by Halldór Hermannsson. "Two Icelandic fragments [which]...seem to be both of about 1200 ... They are in the Arna-Magnæan collection, AM 673a 4º. Text in a normalized, or modified, orthography."

Reprinted: Kraus Reprint Corp, New York, 1966.

21 pp.,18 pp facsimiles, bibliographical foot-notes.

Language: English
LCCN: 40033489; LC: PT7103.I7 vol. 27; OCLC: 1465156


Julio Hernando
"Néstor Lugones: Los bestiarios en la literatura medieval castellana" (Hipertexto (The University of Texas-Pan American: Department of Modern Languages and Literature), 5, 2007, 109-110)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

Language: Spanish
ISSN: 1553-3018


Herodotus, George Rawlinson, trans.
The History of Herodotus (London: Everyman's Library, 1858/1997)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

An English translation of the History of Herodotus (5th century BCE), which contains references to beasts found in the bestiary.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-375-40061-3


Julianna Clarke Hesler
Seven animals in medieval bestiaries, fables and lyric poetry (Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, 1978) [Dissertation]

MA dissertation at the University of Georgia.

80 p.

Language: English
OCLC: 3910478; LC: LXC15 1978 .H584


B. Heuvelmans
In the Wake of Sea-Serpents (New York: Hill and Wang, 1969) [Book]

Language: English


"The Metamorphosis of Unknown Animals into Fabulous Beasts and of Fabulous Beasts into Known Animals" (Cryptozoology: Interdisciplinar Journal of the International Society of Cryptozoology, 9, 1990, 1-12) [Journal article]

Language: English


On the Track of Unknown Animals (Hill and Wang, 1959) [Book]

Language: English


Elisabeth Heyse
Hrabanus Maurus' Enzyklopädie, "De rerum naturis." (München: Arbeo-Gesellschaft, 1969; Series: Münchener Beiträge zur Mediävistik u. Renaissance-Forschung 4) [Book]

The De rerum naturis or De universo of Hrabanus Maurus. Originally presented as the author's thesis, Munich.

163 p., bibliography.

Language: German
LC: AE2.H72; LCCN: 72-342205; OCLC: 2027017


Carola Hicks
Animals in Early Medieval Art (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993) [Book]

"This book illustrates the crucial importance [of the depiction and symbolism of animals] in medieval art from the sixth to the eleventh centuries, and descibes their use in sculpture, manuscripts, embroidery and metalwork. It shows how the underlying Celtic and Germanic traditions combined with Mediterranean influences to produce a far stronger animal art in Britain than anywhere else in Europe. studying animal subjects in the whole of the British Isles rather than in one region in particular, the artistic links between the Picts, Anglo-Saxons and Irish gradually emerge. ...uncovers the origins of the fantastic beasts of the bestiary, and draws conclusions about the transmission of motifs and ideas in general." - cover copy

309 pp,; black & white illustrations throughout; index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7486-0428-6


"The Birds on the Sutton Hoo Purse" (Anglo-Saxon England, 15, 1986, 153-165) [Journal article]

Language: English


Alfons Hilka
Eine Altfranzösische moralisierende Bearbeitung des Liber de monstruosis hominibus orientis aus Thomas von Cantimpré, De naturis rerum nach der einzigen Handschrift (Paris, Bibl. Nat. fr. 15 106) (Berlin: Weidmann, 1933; Series: Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Philologisch-historische Klasse Folge 3, 7) [Book]

The monstrous human races in an Old French manuscript (Paris, Bibl. Nat. fr. 15106) of Thomas of Cantimpré's Liber de natura rerum.

Language: German
OCLC: 46282592


"Die anglo-normannische Versversion des Briefes des Presbyters Johannes" (Zeitschrift für Französische Sprache und Litteratur, XLIII, 1915, 82-112) [Journal article]

Language: German


R. H. Ernest Hill
"Little Mote, Eynsford, with a Pedigree of the Sybill Family" (Archaeologia Cantiana, 26, 1906, 198-204)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A description of the pedigree and arms of the Sybill family, which includes the bestiary image of the tiger and her cubs.



Norman Hinton
"The Werewolf as Eiron: Freedom and Comedy in William of Palerne" (in Nona C. Flores, ed., Animals in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays, New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996, 133-146) [Book article]

An analysis of the 14th century English alliterative poem William of Palerne with specific focus on the role of the werewolf in the story. The werewolf is seen as "eiron" (self-deprecator), the tricky servant. The article also compares William of Palerne with the earlier French vesrion, Guillaume de Palerne. "Thus we see that these typical werewolf motifs, like the pseudo-transformation of the lovers into bears and then derr, are transmuted in William of Palerne into something far more fascinating than simple tales about ferocious wolves. William of Palerne resonates with many other medieval works while resembling none of them..."

Language: English


Lasse Hodne
"The Turtledove: a Symbol of Chastity and Sacrifice" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 259-266)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"I will discuss the symbolical meaning of the turtle dove in representations of The Presentation of Christ in the Temple in European Late Antique and Medieval Art. The turtle dove is included in these scenes because it is the sacrificial bird, mentioned in the Gospels, which was brought forth at the Lords Presentation. But since this bird in the Middle Ages was also a widely known symbol of chastity, its presence in this connection must be related to the Purification of the Virgin; an event which is described as immediately preceding the Presentation. In this article the typical High and Late Medieval Presentation will be compared to the earliest extant example of this motif, the one on the triumphal arch in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, where the chastity aspect has a different nuance. In this latter case the rite of purification must, rather, be related to the Church and its Orders." - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.39


Michelle C. Hoek
"Anglo-Saxon Innovation and the Use of the Senses in the Old English Physiologus Poems" (Studia Neophilologica, Volume 69, Issue 1, 1997, 1-10) [Journal article]

Discusses the Physiologus poems in the Exeter Book, concentrating in particular on the panther and the whale.

Language: English


Michelle S. Hoffman
"A forgotten bestiary" (Notes and Queries, Vol. 244 [New series, vol. 46] no.4, December, 1999, 445-447) [Journal article]

Discusses a Bestiary found in St John's College (Cambridge) MS A.15, which was not included in previous Bestiary lists. Lists the animals in the manuscript, and gives a description of the manuscript and its provenance.

Language: English


Heinrich Höhna
Der Physiologus in der elisabethanischen Literatur (Erlangen: Höfer & Limmert, 1930) [Book]

Lebenslauf./ "Folgende Literatur Wurde benützt": p. iv-vii./ Dissertation: Inaug.-Diss.--Erlangen.

88 p., bibliography.

Language: German
DDC: 820.9; OCLC: 26389933


Urban T. Holmes
"Gerald the Naturalist" (Speculum, 11:1 (January), 1936, 110-121)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A discussion of the Topographia Hibernica of Gerald of Wales as a form of early zoology. Holmes compares Gerald's 12th century observations of animal life in Ireland to modern zoology, and says "Although it is our general conclusion that much of Gerald's information on fauna came to him second hand through inquiry, he shows exceptional curiosity and fondness for observation. In this he is far removed from the bestiary...". Holmes points out instances where Gerald's accounts are "fabulous", such as the description of the barnacle goose.

Language: English


"Provencal huelh de veire and sec ... son agre" (Modern Language Notes, 52:4, 1937, 264-265)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

A brief note on two birds in a Provençal bestiary: the dove and a bird called huelh de veire.

Language: English


Ferdinand Holthausen
"Zum Physiologus" (Anglia Beiblatt, XXXIII (April), 1922, 102-103) [Journal article]

Notes on an Armenian Physiologus and on traces of the Philologus-tradition in the older English drama.

Language: German


Fritz Hommel
Die aethiopische uebersetzung des Physiologus, nach je einer Londoner, Pariser und Wiener handschrift hrsg., verdeutscht und mit einer historischen einleitung versehen (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1877)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

The Ethiopic Physiologus.

180 p.

Language: German


"Der athiopische Physiologus" (Romanische Forschungen, V, 1890, 13-36) [Journal article]

Language: German


Thomas Honegger
"A fox is a fox ... The Fox and the Wolf reconsidered" (Reinardus: Yearbook of the International Reynard Society, 9, 1996, 59-74) [Journal article]

Examines the way in which the fox-hero is introduced to the audience.

Language: English


From Phoenix to Chauntecleer: medieval English animal poetry (Tübingen; Basel: Francke Verlag, 1996; Series: Schweizer anglistische Arbeiten ; Bd. 120) [Book]

"This study of the use and function of animals in medieval English vernacular literature covers a period of roughly seven centuries (c. A.D. 700-A.D. 1400). It provides a general historical survey of medieval animal literature, its roots, its various genres and its relation to the history of ideas. Focussing in particular on three main traditions in medieval vernacular literature (which are the Physiologus tradition, the typically English genre of 'bird debates', and the 'beast epic and beast fable' tradition), the study follows a rough chronology and introduces, step by step, the ideas and concepts which are relevant for the analysis and appreciation of the later (an usually more sophisticated and complex) animal-poems. The study is rounded off by a brief survey of the subsequent development of the three main traditions and a final evaluation of the different genres treated in the main part." - publisher

Originally presented as the author's thesis, University of Zürich, 1994/95.

288 pp., illustrations, bibliography, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 3-7720-2432-7; LC: PR313.A64H6


Margriet Hoogvliet
"Animals in context: beasts on the Hereford map and Medieval natural history" (in P.D.A. Harvey, ed., The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and their Context, London: British Library, 2006, 153-165) [Book article]

Demonstrates that the compiler of the Hereford map copied his information on animals from bestiaries and not directly from Solinus, and demonstrates that some of the animals themselves were copied from bestiaries via the technique of pouncing.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7123-4760-7


"De ignotis quarumdam bestiarum naturis. Texts and images from the bestiary on mediaeval maps of the world" (in L. A. J. R. Houwen, ed., Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature (Mediaevalia Groningana, 20), Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1997, 189-208) [Book article]

Argues that illustrated manuscripts of bestiaries were consulted for the construction of the so-called tripartite non-schematic mappae mundi (Vercelli map, Duchy of Cornwall map fragment, Hereford map, Ebstorfer Weltkarte, and Aslake map fragment).

Language: English
ISBN: 90-6980-097-7


Colum Hourihane, ed.
Virtue & Vice: The Personifications in the Index of Christian Art (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000; Series: Index of Christian Art Resources 1) [Book]

"The concept of opposing forces of good and evil expressed in a broad range of moral qualities--virtues and vices--is one of the most dominant themes in the history of Christian art. The complex interrelationship of these moral traits received considerable study in the medieval period, resulting in a vast and elaborate system of imagery that has been largely neglected by modem scholarship. Rich resources for the study of this important subject are made available by this volume, which publishes the complete holdings of 227 personifications of virtue and vice in the Index of Christian Art's text files. ... This extract, the first to be published, is accompanied by six essays that investigate topics such as the didactic function of the bestiaries and the Physiologus, female personifications in the Psychomachia of Prudentius, the Virtues in the Floreffe Bible frontispiece, and good and evil in the architectural sculpture of German sacramentary houses." - publisher

456 p., index, illustrations.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-691-05036-8; LCCN: 99-056975; LC: N8012.V57V57; DDC: 704.9'482-dc21


"The Virtuous Pelican in Medieval Irish Art" (in Virtue & vice: the personifications in the Index of Christian art, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000, 120-147) [Book article]

"While Gothic art in Ireland, by virtue of its close ties with England, is certainly less indigenous than the art of the early Christian period, it nevertheless still shows forms and styles that were not slavishly adopted but were also adapted. Examination of the iconography of this art can show not only how the spirit of pre-conquest Irish art was kept alive, but also that it is an art which is frequently misunderstood. A prime example of this is the misunderstanding of representations of animals, which abound in all the decorative arts of this period but which have been dismissed as merely interesting details. This paper will investigate the use and meaning of one of these animal motifs, the pelican, which is found in early medieval Irish art in a variety of media ranging from metalwork to wall painting to sculpture. Examination of this motif against its European background demonstrates once again that close ties existed between Ireland and the rest of western Europe in this period, and also shows how the Irish art of this time maintains the creative force of preceding periods." - Hourihane

Language: English


Luuk A. J. R. Houwen
"Animal Parallelism in Medieval Literature and the Bestiaries: A Preliminary Investigation" (Neophilologus: An International Journal of Modern and Mediaeval Language and Literature, 78:3 (July), 1994, 483-496)
 Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"It was perhaps inevitable that a number of animal stories and features, which had traditionally been associated with certain particular animals, started to overlap. Although we find this type of parallelism throught the bestiaries, quite a number of these parallels can be classified in certain well-defined subject areas. It is these parallelisms that will be considered here. After a brief discussion of the Physiologus and the bestiaries, and a far from exhaustive listing of some of the parallels, two subject areas in which many parallels can be classified and which, according to some, make the world go round (namely, religion and sex), will be considered in somewhat more detail." - Houwen

Language: English
ISSN: 0028-2677; OCLC: 1759615


Animals and the Symbolic in Medieval Art and Literature (Groningen, Netherlands: Egbert Forsten, 1997; Series: Mediaevalia-Groningana, 20) [Book]

Language: English
ISBN: 90-6980-097-7


"Bestiarien" (in Ulrich Muller & Werner Wunderlich, ed., Dämonen, Monster, Fabelwesen, St. Gallen, Switzerland: Fachverlag fur Wissenschaft und Studium / Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1999, 59-75) [Book article]

Language: German
ISBN: 3-908701-04-X


"Bestiaries in Wood? Misericords, Animal Imagery and the Bestiary Tradition" (IKON (Brepols Publishers), 2:2, 2009, 203-216)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Animal imagery on misericords has long since been a favourite topic for research and much work has been done and much progress has been made on the identification and classification of animal scenes. The actual interpretation of animal imagery on misericords is a different matter, however. When such imagery is deemed worthy of discussion this rarely progresses much beyond the inevitable references to the Physiologus and bestiary traditions with their moralised animal lore and well-developed animal iconography. In this paper I shall evaluate the various ways in which such animal imagery can be read and was likely to be read in later medieval times. The paper will concentrate on animal imagery found on British misericords, but its conclusions will be valid for the entire area where such imagery appears. It will be argued that even when traditional iconography is transferred to the misericords this does not mean that it is accompanied by its original (moralised) sense. This, it will be shown, not only holds true for bestiary imagery but also applies to other realms like that of the Roman de Renart. This inevitably has serious consequences for the moral interpretation of misericords, and I will consequently argue that we have to read this imagery differently." - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 1846-8551; DOI: 10.1484/J.IKON.3.43


"Bestiaries in Wood? Misericords, Animal Imagery and the Bestiary Tradition" (IKON: Journal of Iconographic Studies, 2, 2009, 203-216) [Journal article]

Language: English


"" Breme Beres” and “Hende Hertes”: Appearance And Reality in William of Palerne" (in A. A. MacDonald, Loyal Letters. Studies on Mediaeval Alliterative Poetry and Prose, Groningen, 1994, 223-238) [Book article]

Language: English


"" Creature, heal thyself": Animal Physicians, Instinct and the Hortus sanitatis" (in Imagination und Sexualität. Pathologien der Einbildungskraft im medizinischen Diskurs der frühen Neuzeit (Analecta Romanica), Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 2004, 17-35) [Book article]

Language: English


The Deidis of Armorie: a Heraldic Treatise and Bestiary (Edinburgh: Scottish Text Society, 1994; Series: Scottish Text Society 4th ser., 22-23) [Book]

"This is the first critical edition of a previously unedited and otherwise little noticed treatise on heraldic lore and practice. The treatise occurs in full in four manuscripts found in the British Library [Harley MS 6149], Queen's College Library, Oxford [Manuscript 161], and the National Library of Scotland. A version of the French sources of this text is found in a manuscript belonging to the College of Heralds. This edition is based on British Library, Harley MS 6149 with variant readings taken from all the other, later, copies. ... The heraldic 'bestiary' is ... by far the largest section, covering 1816 lines... Although the bestiary section of the Deidis of Armorie does not bear any direct relationship to any other known heraldic treatise, it does not stand alone. ... When we consider the sources on which our author drew for his animal descriptions, two stand out. The first is by the thirteenth-century Italian encyclopedist Brunetto Latini, whose Li livre dou tresor... was used for some of the accounts of birds and fishes in particular. ... The other source the author must have drawn on is some edition of de Bado Aureo's fourteenth-century Tractatus de armis." - Houwen

Includes in Volume 1: descriptions of the known manuscripts; the relationship of the witnesses; a set of photographic plates of Harley MS 6149; the text of the Deidis of Armorie. Volume 2: commentary, glossary, list of proper names.

2 volumes, 285 p., color facsimiles, bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-897976-09-7; LCCN: 95145378; LC: PR8633.CR19; DDC: 929.6 20


"Dieren, dierensymboliek en dierenboeken in de Middeleeuwen" (in 28:126 for 1994-1995Groniek: Historisch Tijdschrift, 1994, 20-31) [Book article]

"Animals, animal symbolism and bestiaries in the Middle Ages".

Distinguishes between the traditions of the Physiologus and bestiaries proper (such as the Ashmole Bestiary), also with reference to the Middle Dutch Reinaerts historie and Jacob van Maerlant's Der naturen bloeme.

Language: Dutch


"Every Picture Tells a Story: The Importance of Images in the Wider Dissemination and Reception of Texts" (in Andrew James Johnston, Ferdinand von Mengden, Stefan Thim, eds., Language and Text: Current Perspectives on English and Germanic Historical Linguistics and Philology, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2006, 99-113) [Book article]

On the impact of animal imagery (the fox) on the written word.

Language: English


"Exemplum et Similitudo: Natural Law in the Manciple’s Tale and the Squire’s Tale" (in Geoffrey Lester, ed., Chaucer in Perspective. Middle English Essays in Honour of Norman Blake, Sheffield: Academic Press, 1999, 100-117) [Book article]

Language: English


"Fear and Instinct in Chaucer’s Nun’s Priest’s Tale" (in Anne Scott & Cynthia Kosso, ed., Fear and Its Representations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Turnhout: Brepols, 2002, 17-30) [Book article]

Language: English


Flattery and the mermaid in Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale (Groningen: Egbert Forsten (Mediaevalia Groningana, 20), 1997; Series: Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature) [Book]

Language: English


"" From Dumb Beasts Learn Wisdom and Knowledge": Animal Symbolism in the Ancrene Wisse" (Das Mittelalter, 12, 2007, 97-118) [Journal article]

Language: English


"Lions without Villainy: Moralisations in a Heraldic Bestiary" (in Graham Caie, Roderick J. Lyall, Sally Mapstone, Kenneth Simpson, ed., The European Sun, Edinburgh: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Scottish Language and Literature, 2001, 249-266) [Book article]

Language: English


"The Noble Lyfe: An Early English Version of the Hortus Sanitatis" (in Alasdair A. MacDonald and Michael W. Twomey, eds., Schooling and Society. The Ordering and Reordering of Knowledge in the Western Middle Ages, Leuven: Peeters, 2004, 61-71) [Book article]

On the Noble Lyf as a kind of bestiary and/or marvels text.

Language: English


"A Scots translation of a Middle French bestiary" (Studies in Scottish Literature, 26, 1991, 207-217) [Journal article]

The Deidis of Armorie in MS. London, B.L., Harley 6149.

Language: English


"Vrouwen met vinnen en klauwen: de traditie van de zeemeermin in de Middelengelse literatuur" (Millennium: Tijdschrift voor Middeleeuwse Studies, 8:1, 1994, 3-17) [Journal article]

"Women with fins and claws: the tradition of mermaids in Middle English literature". With reference to the Book of Vices and Virtues, a ME didactic poem; and the Pilgrimage of the Lyfe of Manhode.

Demonstrates how this tradition draws upon 12th - 13th century bestiaries and encyclopaedias.

Language: Dutch


Luuk A. J. R. Houwen, Penny Eley
"A Fifteenth Century French Heraldic Bestiary" (Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie, 108 (5-6), 1992, 460-514) [Journal article]

With edition of this text from MS. London, College of Arms, M.19, folios 95-130v, probably of Norman provenance.

Language: English
ISSN: 0049-8661


Luuk A. J. R. Houwen, M. Gosman
"Un Traité d’héraldique inédit: le ms Londres, Collège des Herauts M19, ff. 79v-95" (Romania, 122, 1994, 488-521) [Journal article]

Language: French


Frank E. Howard, F. H. Crossley
English Church Woodwork: a Study in Craftsmanship During the Medieval Period AD 1250-1550 (London: B. T. Batsford, 1917) [Book]

A survey of woodwork (alters, lecterns, thrones, fonts, stall, screens, pulpits, miserichords, tombs, benches) in English churches in the Middle Ages. There are many animal references and images.

370 p., black & white photographic plates, index.

Language: English
LC: NA3900.H7


Hrabanus Maurus
De Rerum Naturis. Il Codice 132 Dell'Archivio Di Montecassino (Cassino: Università degli Studi di Cassino, 1996) [Book]

Full-colour facsimile; now also available on CD-ROM.

Language: Italian


De rerum naturis (Èulogos, 2003)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The complete text of De rerum naturis by Hrabanus Maurus (digital edition). The manuscript source of the text is not stated. The text is hyperlinked to a concordance of words. Created with IntraText: "IntraText CT is the hypertextualized text together with wordlists and concordances".

Language: Latin


De rerum naturis (Bibliotheca Augustana)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The complete Latin text of De rerum naturis in 23 books, including Book 8 on animals, birds, serpents and fish.

Language: Latin


Rabano Mauro 'De rerum naturis', Codex Casinensis 132 / Archivio dell' Abbazia di Montecassino (Priuli et Verlucca: Pavone Canavese, 1994) [Book]

Facsimile edition of the illustrated copy of Rabanus's encyclopedia, with a number of studies (in Italian).

Language: Italian


Hrabanus Maurus, William Schipper, ed.
De rerum naturis (William Schipper, 1995)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A transcription of De rerum naturis. Transcription of Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, MS Augiensis 96 and 68. With a search facility, bibliography and a list of manuscripts containing the work.

"Warning: The transcription has only been proofread once, and is full of errors." - Schipper

Language: Latin


Jean Hubaux, Maxime Leroy
Le Mythe du Phénix dans les Littératures Grecque et Latine (Liège/Paris: Faculté de philosophie et lettres / Librairie E. Droz, 1939; Series: Fascicule LXXXII) [Book]

A study of the phoenix based on the writings of several authors.

Contents: Lactantii, Carmen de ave Phoenice; Lactance, Poème sure le Phénix; Claudiani, Phoenix; Claudien, Le Phénix; Psuedo-Baruch, Apocalypse; Physiologus Grec, De l'oiseau Phénix; Physiologus de Vienne;

"C'est au IVe siècle de notre ère que le mythe du phénix a connu, dans le monde gréco-romain, sa plus grande popularité. Jusqu'alors, les naturalistes, le poètes, les historiens et les artistes avaient maintes fois évoqué occaisionnellement l'oiseau merveilleux: au IVe siècle seulement, apparaissent des oeuvres littéraires qui lui sont entièrment consacrées. Devenu familier à tout l'univers païen, le phénix possède encore, á ce moment, sa pleine valeur symbolique de mythe oriental tributaire d'antiques conceptions astrologiques, scientifiques et religieuses." introduction

266 p., general index, index of authors.

Language: French
LC: PA3015.R5P54


Hugh of Saint Victor, J.-P. Migne, ed.
De bestiis et aliis rebus (Paris: Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Latina, 1879; Series: 177) [Book]

The bestiary ascribed to Hugh of St Victor, but probably by Hugo de Folieto. Latin text with index.

Language: Latin


Hugh of Saint Victor, Jacirá Andrade Mota
Livro das aves (Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Nacional do Livro, Ministério da Educação e Cultura, 1965; Series: Dicionário da língua Portugésa. Textos e Vocabulários 4) [Book]

Translation into Portuguese of Book I of De bestiis et aliis rebus, sometimes attributed to Hugh of St. Victor, but probably by Hugh of Fouilloy. With manuscript facsimiles.

80 pp., 36 facsimiles.

Language: Portuguese
LC: PA4273.P8; OCLC: 16567426


Johan Huizinga
Van den vogel charadrius (Amsterdam: Johannes Muller, 1903; Series: Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afd. Letterkunde, nieuwe reeks, deel V, nr. 3) [Book]

Language: Dutch
OCLC:  4843758; LOC: AS244.A52;


F. Edward Hulme
The History, Principles, and Practice of Symbolism in Christian Art (London: Swan Sonnenshein & Co., 1909; Series: The Antiquarian Library 2) [Book]

"Symbolism may manifest itself in several ways; for though our thoughts naturally turn in the first place to symbolism of form, there may be, equally, symbolism of language, of action, of number, or of colour. Having briefly dwelt upon these points, we propose to deal more especially with symbolic forms as we meet with them in art, in the works of the painter or sculptor, the embroiderer or the glass painter... The symbols associated with the three Persons of the Trinity will first engage our attention, then the cross and passion symbols ... emblems of mortallity ... of the human soul and of angels... The various forms derived from the animal kingdom will be followed by those based on flowers... [and] in such maritime forms as the ship, the trident, the shell and the fish. Even stones have their associations..." - chapter 1.

First edition published in 1891.

Reprinted in 1976 by Blandford Press, Poole (ISBN is for the reprint).

234 pp., illustrations, index.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-7137-2501-X; LC: N7830.H8 1909


Natural History, Lore and Legend: being some few examples of quaint and by-gone beliefs gathered in from divers authorities, ancient and mediaeval, of varying degrees of reliability (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1895)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

"In the following pages we propose to consider at some little length the state of zoological knowledge in the Middle Ages... While we shall undoubtedly find from time to time strange errors that greater opportunity of observation has in these latter days rectified, and encounter many things that may provoke a smile, we must in the forefront of our remarks very definitely assert that much of the literary work of our ancestors in this branch of study is worthy of high commendation, and that anything approaching scorn or sneer is entirely out of place. Strange, indeed, would it be if the modern man of science ... had not made a marked advance, but we can never look upon the works of the greater writers of the mediaeval period without the utmost respect. ... That they made mistakes goes without saying, but to the full extent of their light the were honest seekers after truth. While the statements of these early writers have been too frequently dismissed as fabulous and unreliable, it is only just to them to recall the fact that some of the details that have come into reproach have after all been found authentic. ... We speedily find, on opening any of the books on natural history that were issued in the Middle Ages, that such ancient writers as Pliny, Aristotle, or Herodotus, and other venerable authorities are held in great reverence... Mediaeval zoology is no more independent of the gatherings of previous centuries than the dogmas of nineteenth century Christianity are independent of the writings of Isaiah. In comparing ancient or mediaeval zoology with modern, we are conscious of a difference of aim and treatment. ... the main bulk of the writings on animals in mediaeval days had ordinarily one of two objects: the healing of the body, or the saving of the soul. Hence the medical writers sought anxiously for 'the vertues' that indicated their value to suffering humanity, and the theologians sought with equal zeal to implant a moral, and if the facts in this latter case did not lend themselves very happily to this treatment so much the worse for the facts." - Hulme

Language: English


Christian Hünemörder
"Die Bedeutung und Arbeitsweise des Thomas von Cantimpré und sein Beitrag zur Naturkunde des Mittelalters" (Medizinhistorisches Journal, 3, 1968, 345-357) [Journal article]

"Uberarbeitete Fassung eines am 19.9.1968 auf der Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geshichte der Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und Technik e.V. in Heilbronn gehaltenen Vortrages".

Language: German
OCLC: 34054957


David Hunt
"The Association of the Lady and the Unicorn, and the Hunting Mythology of the Caucasus" (Folklore, 114:1, 2003, 75-90) [Journal article]

Written evidence from the hunting folk literature of the Caucasus is presented together with the suggestion that the origin of the unicorn lies in hunting mythology and that remnants of it are to be seen in the figures in "The Lady and the Unicorn" tapestries in France.

Language: English


Jonathan Hunt
Bestiary: An Illuminated Alphabet of Medieval Beasts (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998; Series: Books for Young Readers) [Book]

An alphabet bestiary featuring mythical animals such as the amphisbaena, basilisk, and catoblepas. A map depicting the world in the Middle Ages on endpapers. Meant for younger readers.

"Here are twenty-six creatures from those medieval legends, from the two-headed amphisbaena to the fierce ziphius, a water-owl that preys on ships and sailors. Detailed, dramatic paintings based on illuminated manuscripts will transport you to the Middle Ages -- when much of the world was still unknown and mysterious terrors haunted the night." - publisher

Color illustrations (drawings), bibliography.

Language: English
ISBN: 0-689-81246-9; LCCN: 96042102; LC: GR825.H86 1998; DDC: 398.24/54 20


G. Evelyn Hutchinson
"Attitudes toward Nature in Medieval England: The Alphonso and Bird Psalters" (Isis, 65:1 (March), 1974, 5-37)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"This study attempts to throw some additional light on the understanding and appreciation of nature during the Middle Ages by a scrutiny of certain illuminated manuscripts made in England at the end of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centuries. It has long been realized that during the thirteenth century the growth of a naturalistic tradition reflected changes in the whole outlook of medieval man. Some attention has been given to the movement as it can be observed in botanical iconography, while the recently published and magnificent work of the late Francis Klingender has provided a basic history of the use of animal forms in medieval art. There have been few attempts, however, and these mainly botanical, to see whether natural history as well as art history might illuminate some aspects of the illustrations of animals and plants in the surviving works of art from the high Middle Ages. Such an attempt, which is of interest not only to the historian of art but also to the historian of science, is made in the following pages. The study is primarily concerned with two psalters. One of these, the Alphonso or Tenison Psalter (B.M. Add. MS 24686) is very well known, though the significance of some of its aspects has escaped notice. The other, the Bird Psalter (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 2-1954), has been less studied. Both manuscripts are decorated with motifs derived from natural history and by this common character are certainly related, though the historical connection between the two books is possibly not so close as sometimes has been supposed in the past. In addition to these two works, the less extensive zoological illustrations of three other nearly contemporary manuscripts have been studied and are discussed; one of these, the well-known Ashridge College Historia scholastica of Petrus Comestor (B.M. Royal MS 3, D vi) has proved to be of unexpected importance. A number of other fourteenth-century English illuminated manuscripts include illustrations of birds in their decoration. Some of these are mentioned in passing..." - Hutchinson

Language: English


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Helmut Ibach
Leben und Schriften des Konrad von Megenberg (Berlin: Junker und Dünnhaupt, 1938; Series: Neue Deutsche Forschungen Bd. 7) [Book]

The life and writings of Konrad von Megenberg.

Language: German
LC: PT1555.K5; OCLC: 12195791


Ernest Ingersoll
Birds in Legend Fable and Folklore (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1923) [Book]

Bird tales from ancient, medieval and early modern sources, with some relevance to bestiary studies.

Reprinted: 1968, Singing Tree Press, Detroit.

292 p., index, bibliography.

Language: English
LC: GR735.I6


Dragons and Dragon Lore : A Worldwide Study of Dragons in History, Art and Legend (Forgotten Books, 2007)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

Contents: Birth Of The Dragon; Wanderings Of The Young Dragon; Indian Nagas And Draconic Prototypes; The Divine Spirit Of The Waters; Draconic Grandparents; The Dragon As A Rain-god; Korean Water And Mountain Spirits; "the Men Of The Dragon Bones"; The Dragon In Japanese Art; The Dragon's Precious Pearl; The Dragon Invades The West; The 'old Serpent' And His Progeny; Welsh Romances And English Legends; The Dragon And The Holy Cross; To The Glory Of Saint George.

Language: English
ISBN: 1-60506-431-9


J. Irmscher
"Das mittelgriechische Tierepos. Bestand und Forschungssituation" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 207-228) [Book article]

"Wir können unser Thema nicht behandeln, ohne eine gewisse definitorische Abgrenzung vorauszuschicken. Denn das mittelalterliche Tierepos, dessen griechisch-byzantinische Ausprägung hier vorgestellt werden soll, macht ja nur einen Teilbereich innerhalb der Tierdichtung jenes Zeitalters aus, von deren übrigen Genera es abhängig oder doch zumindest beeinflußt ist (und die daher bei der Behandlung der Konkreta auch nicht ausgeschlossen werden können). Als Tierdichtung (wobei dieser Begriff nicht nur die poetischen Leistungen erfaßt, sondern die bewußt gestaltete Prosaliteratur einbegreift) ist jenes Schrifttum bestimmt worden, in dem das Tier den oder wenigstens einen notwendigen Bestandteil des gesamten Erlebnisinhaltes ausmacht, bei der Konzeption des Werkes im Vordergrund steht und das Erlebnis ganz oder in wesentlichen Punkten zum Ausdruck bringt." - Irmscher

Language: German


Robert Irwin
"The Arabic Beast Fable" (Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 55, 1992, 36-50)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"In modern Europe and the Middle East, animal fables no longer feature prominently as part of an orally transmitted common culture. They are no longer widely read nor, outside academic circles at least, are they especially esteemed. They have been relegated to the children's library. Yet in the medieval world the Arabic translation of the Persian version of the Bidpai fables, Kalila wa Dimna, was admired by adults and much imitated. Therefore an examination of the reception of Kalila wa Dimna, and more broadly of the functions and readership of fables in Arabic, will have the character of an essay on the archaeology of literary taste. During the middle ages a large corpus of beast fables was produced in Arabic or translated into that language. We may reasonably treat this corpus as a genre. It is true that there are no important distinctions to be made between beast fables and fables featuring a combination of beasts and men, or men on their own; but this is a trivial reservation which would apply equally to the Aesopica and the Fables of La Fontaine. As we shall see, it may be useful to think of this body of literature in terms of a high genre and a low genre. But all fable literature followed certain common conventions, and the medieval reader could open a book of beast fables confident that his expectations would not be disappointed." - Irwin

Language: English


Isidore of Seville, W. M. Lindsay, ed.
Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive Originum libri XX (Oxford: 1911)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

This edition, now available in digital form from The Latin Library, includes the complete Latin text of Books 1 to 20 of the Etymologiae. Book 12 is on animals.

Language: Latin


De etymologiarum, liber XII (Bibliotheca Augustana)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

The Latin text of Book 12 (De animalibus) of the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville.

Language: Latin


Isidore of Seville, Jacques André, ed. & trans.
Etymologies, Livre XII, Des Animaux (Paris: 1986) [Book]

Language: French


Isidore of Seville, Stephen A. Barney, ed. and trans.
The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville (Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006) [Book]

"This work is the first complete English translation of the Latin Etymologies of Isidore, bishop of Seville (c. 560-636). Isidore compiled the work between c. 615 and the early 630s and it takes the form of an encyclopedia, arranged by subject-matter. It contains much lore of the late classical world beginning with the Seven Liberal Arts, including Rhetoric, and touches on hundreds of topics ranging from the names of God, the terminology of the Law, the technologies of fabrics, ships and agriculture to the names of cities and rivers, the theatrical arts, and cooking utensils. Isidore provides etymologies for most of the terms he explains, finding in the causes of words the underlying key to their meaning. This book offers a highly readable translation of the twenty books of the Etymologies, one of the most widely known texts for a thousand years from Isidores time." - publisher

Language: English
ISBN: 0-521-83749-9; Dewey: 032; LC: AE2.I833 I75 2005


Ismael Manterola Ispizua, Esther Rodríguez Valle
"Reflejo del Fisiólogo en la portada de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Tuesta (Álava)" (Lecturas de historia del arte, 2, 1990, 245-248) [Journal article]

Language: Catalan


Samuel A. Ives, Hellmut Lehmann-Haupt
An English 13th Century Bestiary: A New Discovery in the Technique of Medieval Illumination (New York: H. P. Kraus, 1942; Series: Rare Books Monagraphs 1) [Book]

An anlysis (by Ives) of a thirteenth century manuscript, owned (in 1942) by H. P. Kraus ("Kraus Bestiary"), then by Philip Hofer ("Hofer Bestiary"), and now Houghton Library MS Typ 101, containing illustrated Physiologus texts. These are identified as the Dicta Chrysostomi and the De Bestiis of Hugo of Folieto. The text is compared to other manuscript copies of the Physiologus (Carmody B and Y, the Greek text edited by Sbordone, the Dicta Chrysostomi edited by Heider). This is followed by commentary and analysis (by Lehmann-Haupt) of the illustrations, with the conclusion that this manuscript was intended to be used as a model book.

45 pp., 8 pages of black and white photographic plates of images from the manuscript.

Language: English
LCCN: 42019790; LC: Z6617.B4 I8


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William Jackson
"The Use of Unicorn Horn in Medicine" (The Pharmaceutical Journal, 2004)
 Web site/resource link [Digital article]

The myth of the unicorn and the use of its horn in medicine, by a pharmacist-historian.

Language: English


Bogna Jakubowska
"Salve Me Ex Ore Leonis" (Artibus et Historiae, 12:23, 1991, 53-65)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"On Gothic tomb plates, animals placed at the feet of effigies of the deceased have usually been attributed either positive or negative meanings. This author regards them as pejorative signs which, together with other iconographic motifs of sepulchral art, express the idea of man as the redeemed. An animal shown being trodden upon by the deceased symbolizes evil in defeat, as in representations of "Christus victor" treading on animals according to Psalm XCI:13. The image of Christ triumphant is the first link in the chain of figures depicted raised above the backs of animals in medieval art, followed by representations of "Maria victrix", saints, and rulers, as well as of the deceased as "Homo victor". For the latter has vanquished sin and, having recovered his primary likeness to God, has become beautiful again. He has not died, but is standing at the gate of Redemption to live in eternity." - abstract

Language: English


M. R. James
"The Bestiary" (History (The Quarterly Journal of the Historical Association), New Series XVI, No. 61, April, 1931, 1-11)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This article is a general introduction to the genre of the medieval bestiary. It is a transcript of a talk given by James as the Inaugural Address at the Annual Meeting of the Historical Association, at Chester, delivered on 2 January 1931. It was illustrated by many lantern slides. The illustrations were not published in the article.

Language: English


"The Bestiary" (Eton College Natural History Society, Annual Report 1930-31, 1931, 12-16)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

This article is a general introduction to the genre of the medieval bestiary. It appears to have been originally delivered as a speech, though the date and location is unknown.

Language: English


"The Bestiary in the University Library" (Aberdeen University Library Bulletin, No. 36, January, 1928, 1-3) [Journal article]

Language: English


The Bestiary: Being A Reproduction in Full of Ms. Ii 4. 26 in the University Library, Cambridge, with supplementary plates from other manuscripts of English origin, and a preliminary study of the Latin bestiary as current in England (Oxford: Roxburghe Club, 1928) [Book]

In this book, James sets out the first classification system for medieval bestiary manuscripts, grouping them by "families". Includes a facsimile of Cambridge, University Library MS. Ii 4.26.

Printed for the Roxburghe Club, by J. Johnson at the University Press. Roxburghe number 190.

6 p. l., 59 p., facsim. (74 numb. l. illus.), 22 facsimiles.

Language: Latin
LCCN: 33015196; LC: PR1105.R7 1928b; DDC: 381.45


"An English Medieval Sketchbook, No. 1916 in the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge" (The Walpole Society, 13, 1924-25, 1-77) [Journal article]

Includes reproductions of the bird images in the Sketchbook.

Language: English


Marvels of the East (De rebus in Oriente mirabilibus): a full reproduction of the three known copies (Oxford: Roxburghe Club, 1929) [Book]

Oxford, Printed for the Roxburghe club by J. Johnson, at the University press, 1929.

Preface.--Introduction: The manuscripts.--Sources and date of the text.--Note: The kalendar in Bodl. 614.--Marvels of the East: the text in Latin [from Cotton Tiberius B.v and Bodl. 614].--Notes.--The Epistola Premonis, etc. [from Farral's text in Romania, 1914]--The letter of Fermes and extracts by Gervase of Tilbury.--Description of the pictures.--Facsimiles: Vitellius A. xv, ff. 98b-106b. Tiberius B.V., ff. 78b-87b. Bodley 614, ff. 36-51.

viii p., 1 l., 62 p., 1 l., 36 pl. (facsims.) 32 cm.

Language: English


Peterborough Psalter and Bestiary of the Fourteenth Century (Oxford: Roxburghe Club, 1921) [Book]

Portions of MS 53 (formerly E. 12) in the library of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge.

Oxford, Printed for presentation to the members of the Roxburghe club [at the Oxford university press, by F. Hall] 1921. Presented to the club by the Earl of Plymouth.

35 p., facsimiles, 74 p. plates (part color).

Language: English
LCCN: 24-2041; LC: PR1105; OCLC: 33015616


Danièle James-Raoul
"Inventaire et écriture du monde aquatique dans les bestiaires" (in Danièle James-Raoul & Claude Thomasset, ed., Dans l'eau, sous l'eau: Le monde aquatique au Moyen Age (Cultures et civilisations médiévales, 25), Paris: Presses de l'Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2002, 175-226) [Book article]

Examine la tradition lancée par le Physiologus où les poissons et autres créatures aquatiques sont peu représenté, et analyse les traits physiques et comportementaux comme ils sont traités dans le Bestiaire divin de Guillaume le Clerc, le Bestiaire d'Amour de Richard de Fournival, Li Livres dou Tresor de Brunetto Latini, et le Livre des Merveiles de Gervais de Tilbury.

Language: French
ISBN: 2-84050-216-X


Horst Waldemar Janson
Apes and Ape Lore in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (London: Warburg Institute, 1952; Series: Studies of the Warburg Institute 20) [Book]

An extensive survey of the late medieval view of the ape in literature and art. Chapters include: Figura Diaboli: The Ape in Early Christianity; The Ape as the Sinner; Similitudo Hominis: The Ape in Medieval Science; The Ape and the Fall of Man; The Fettered Ape; The Ape in Gothic Marginal Art; Apes, Folly, and Vanitas Apes, the Senses, and the Humours; The Sexuality of Apes; Ars Simia Naturae The Coming of the Anthropoids.

Reprinted by: Kraus, Nendeln/Liechenstein, 1976.

384 p., 56 plates, 30 text illustrations, index.

Language: English
LC: GR730.A6J3


J. Janssens, R. van Daele, V. Uyttersprot, ed.
Van den vos Reynaerde, Reynaert I (Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren, 2001)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A transcription of a Reynard the Fox manuscript (Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. poet. et philol. fol. 22 (1380-1425)). 3469 lines of verse. With notes on the manuscript.

Language: Dutch


Jozef D. Janssens
"De natuurlijke omgeving" (in Manuel Stoffers, ed., Middeleeuwse ideeënwereld 1000-1300, Heerlen & Hilversum: Open universiteit & Verloren, 1994, 171-200) [Book article]

"The natural environment".

Argues that medieval man saw nature as something negative, chaotic and threatening.

Language: Dutch
ISBN: 90-6550-265-3


Hans-Robert Jauss
"Rezeption und Poetisierung des Physiologus" (Grundriss der romanischen Literaturen des Mittelalters, 6:1, 1968, 170-181) [Journal article]

Language: German


"Réception et transformation littéraire du Physiologus" (Grundriss der romanischen Literaturen des Mittelalters, 6:2, 1970, 219-230) [Journal article]

Language: French


Claude Jean-Nesmy, ed.
Bestiaire roman; textes médiévaux (La Pierre-qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1977; Series: Les points cardinaux, 25) [Book]

On the importance and meaning of the bestiary in Romanesque sculpture. Animal forms not only emphasize the architectural function of capitals, but have symbolic value as reminders of the fall and salvation. A selection of texts follows: the life of the saints, rediscovering simple harmony with animals; the best pages of the Physiologus according to a version in old French; as well as the Medieval commentaries of Rabanus Maurus Magnentius and Hugues de Saint-Victor on the ambivalent symbolisms of the lion, eagle, stag, birds and snakes, animal musicians or fantastic animals (griffons, dragons, centaurs). Concludes with an analytic repertory of Romanesque bestiaries. Translated by É. de Solms.

Language: French


Tony Jebson, ed.
The Exeter Book (Exeter, Cathedral Chapter Library, MS 3501) (The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies (Georgetown University), 1995)
 Web site/resource link [Web page]

A transcription of the poems in the Exeter Book, including the Phoenix and the Old English Physiologus.

Language: English


Omer Jodogne
"L'anthropomorphisme croissant dans le Roman de Renart" (in Aspects of the Medieval Animal Epic, Louvain: Leuven University Press, 1975, 25-42) [Book article]

"L'anthropomorphisme constitue l'intérêt majeur des 26 branches qui forment le Roman de Renart. Il se définit par une mutation d'animaux exotiques ou indigènes en personnalités munies d'un nom propre et agissant selon le qualités et surtout les défauts qu'on leur attribute traditionnellement. Ils sont convertis partiellement en hommes et ils évoluent dans un milieu campagnard ou dans un château, jamais dans une ville ou dans un milieu bourgeoise. ... Aux réflexions du dessinateur j'ajouterai les embarras du lexicologue qui se demande si le vocabulaire est approprié à l'animal ou à l'homme. En résumé, c'est aux formes visibles des personnages que je m'attacherai et non à leur vie intérieure. Il peut être utile, en effet, de noter ce que les personnages du Renart conservent de leur animalité. Nous constaterons aussi ce qu'ils en perdent; nous pointerons donc ce qui est incompatible avec les silhouettes et le vocabulaire propres à nos amies les bêtes" - Jodogne

Language: French


"A propos d'un manuscrit du Bestiaire de Pierre de Beauvais" (Annuaire du cercle pédagogique des professeurs de l'enseignement moyen sortis de l'Université de Louvain, 29, 1931, 32-42) [Journal article]

Language: French


D. Newman Johnson
"An unusual amphisbaena in Galway city" (in Etienne Rynne, ed., Figures from the Past. Studies on Figurative Art in Christian Ireland in Honour of Helen M. Roe, Dun Laoghaire: Glendale Press, 1987, 233-241) [Book article]

Fabulous two-headed dragon or snake.

Language: English


Willem Jozef Andries Jonckbloet
Étude sur le Roman de Renart (Gronigue: J. B. Wolters, 1863)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Book]

A study of the French version of Reynard the Fox.

Language: French


George Jones
"Oswald von Wolkenstein's Animals and Animal Symbolism" (Modern Language Notes, 94:3 (April), 1979, 524-540)
PDF file  Web site/resource link [Journal article]

"Of far greater importance for the medieval mentality than the somewhat personified but otherwise natural animals of the fables were the fabulous creatures that either prefigured the birth and life of Christ or else illustrated the sins and foibles of mankind. ... Walther von der Vogelweide, as a representative of the High Middle Ages, exhibits many facets of this zoological lore; and most of the birds and animals in his songs have more symbolic than objective value. By far the most common of Walther's creatures are the birds who herald the summer but cease singing when winter approaches. The few remaining birds in his songs appear mostly as symbols or in metaphors and similes; and the same is largely true of the animals he mentions. ... Although he lived some two hundred years after Walther, the South Tyrolian singer Oswald von Wolkenstein inherited all the traditions reflected in Walther's songs, and a minor part of his songs would duplicate nearly everything that Walther had to say about birds and beasts." - Jones

Language: English


M. Jones
"A Medieval Choirstall Desk-end at Haddon Hall: The Fox-Bishop and Geese-Hangmen" (Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 144, 1991) [Journal article]

Language: English


Malcolm Jones
"Folklore motifs in late medieval art - 3: erotic animal imagery" (Folklore, 102:2, 1991, 192-219) [Journal article]

Language: English


Timothy S. Jones, ed., David A. Sprunger, ed.
Marvels, Monsters, And Miracles: Studies in the Medieval and Early Modern Imaginations (Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, 2002; Series: Studies in Medieval Culture XLII) [Book]

"This collection of essays examines the perceptions of the marvelous and monstrous by the people of medieval and early modern Europe. The essays investigate the nature of those phenomena which people of these periods experienced as marvels. They explore how these people interpreted their experience of astonishment and how they re-created it for others. They trace the development of representations of marvels and explicate individual incarnations of monsters and miracles. They analyze the importance of marvelous difference in defining ethnic, racial, religious, class, and gender identities. Finally, these essays ask what legacies the medieval confrontations with marvels have left for the modern world and how the modern fascination with medieval marvels has defined the difference between the two periods." - from the Introduction

Language: English
ISBN: 1-58044-065-7


Valerie Jones
"The phoenix and the resurrection" (in Debra Hassig, ed., The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature, New York: Garland, 1999, 99-115) [Book article]

"This essay links phoenix imagery in the bestiaries to contemporary beliefs concerning the resurrection at the end of time. In medieval literature and exigesis, the ancient myth of the phoenix's self-immolation and subsequent revival was adopted as a metaphor for Christ's self-sacrifice and resurrection, a metaphor transferred to and further developed in the bestiary phoenix entries. The essay explores how the phoenix images functioned as pictorial allusions to Christ and to Christian ideas of sacrifice and salvation, providing insight into views on the resurrection predominant at the time of their production as well as into more general beliefs regarding the ultimate fate of humankind." - introduction

Language: English
ISBN: 0-8153-2952-0


Joannes Jonstonus
A description of the nature of four-footed beasts : with their figures engraven in brass (London: Printed for Moses Pitt, at the Angel, against the little north door of St. Pauls Church, 1678)
 Web site/resource link [Book]

"Written in Latin by Dr. John Johnston, translated by JP". Originally published as Historia naturalis de quadrupedibus (Amsterdam, 1647). Joannes Jonstonus, 1603-1675 (var. names: John Johnstone, Jan Jonston), was a naturalist, historian, educator and physician, born in Poland to a family of Scottish descent. This seventeenth century English edition of Johnston's natural history text includes descriptions of many beasts found in the bestiary, and repeats some of the medieval legends as fact while saying others are fanciful. The book is similar to Topsell's Topsell's Histories of Beasts (Chicago, 1981) The History of Four-footed Beasts (1607). There are 80 leaves of engraved plates, showing common beasts (bull, dog, cat, etc.) as well as not so common beasts (unicorn, griffin).

Language: English


Mary Coker Joslin
"Notes on beasts in the Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César of Rogier, châtelain de Lille" (in Willene B. Clark & Meradith T. McMunn, ed., Beasts and Birds of the Middle Ages. The Bestiary and its Legacy, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989, 164-178) [Book article]

"The Old French Histoire ancienne jusqu'à César, compiled in the early years of the thirteenth century for Rogier, Châtelain de Lille, the patron mentioned in the unknown author's prologue, exhibits an abundance of both fantastic and familiar beasts. Although a complete reading of the genesis portion of the Histoire provides us a comprehensive aquaintance with its biblical beasts, an initial sampling of marvelous creatures described in its unpublished sections, based on stories found in antique romances, reveals this author's breadth of beastly interest. These beasts are not merely natural inhabitants of earth, sea, and air, nor well-known quadrupeds in the service of pastoral of the biblical Genesis; they include legendary creatures that appeal to the imagination of those curious about the unfamiliar, as was the medieval person of literary taste." - Joslin

Language: English


Jean-Pierre Jourdan
"Le sixième sens et la théologie de l'Amour (essai sur l'iconographie des tapisseries à sujets amoreux à la fin du Moyen Age)" (Journal des savants, 1, 1996, 137-159) [Journal article]

(1) L'amour, les sens et la chasse. (2) Les Bestiaires d'Amour. (3) Amour de la chasse et chasse d'amour. (4) Amour chasseur, Amour chassé. (5) La chasse au vol et les chasses symboliques. (6) Le sixième sens et le désir d'Amour.

Language: French


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Ousmane Kaba
Le bestiaire dans le roman guinéen (Paris: Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 1993) [Dissertation]

PhD dissertation at the Université de Paris-Sorbonne.

522 p.

Language: French
OCLC: 49224355


Zoltán Kádár
Physiologus (Budapest: Helikon Kiadó, 1986) [Book]

Physiologus. Hungarian.

"a Zsámboki-kódex állatábrázolásaival ; fordította Mohay András ; az utószót és a képmagyarázatokat Kádár Zoltán írta."

115 pp., color illustrations, bibliography.

Language: Hungarian
ISBN: 963-207-605-2; LC: PA4273.P8; OCLC: 31474541


Dimitris V. Kaimakis
Der Physiologus nach der ersten Redaktion (Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain, 1974; Series: Beiträge fur klassischen Philologie, Heft 63) [Book]

An edition of the Greek Physiologus, with references to quoted authorities. Text chiefly in Greek, some commentary in German. Includes several tables: biblical references, cross reference of beasts and manuscripts, cross reference of authorities, etc. Includes a list of Physiologus manuscripts.

170 pp., bibliography.

Language: German
ISBN: 3-445-01196-6; LCCN: 75592624; LC: PA4273.P8 1974


Linda Kalof, ed., Brigitte Resl, ed.
A Cultural History of Animals (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2007) [Book]

A Cultural History of Animals is a multi-volume project on the history of human-animal relations from ancient times to the present. The set of six volumes covers 4500 years of human-animal interaction.

Volume 1: Antiquity to the Dark Ages (2500BC - 1000AD)

Volume 2: The Medieval Age (1000-1400)

Volume 3: The Renaissance (1400-1600)

Volume 4: The Enlightenment (1600-1800)

Volume 5: The Age of Empire (1800-1920)

Volume 6: The Modern Age (1920-2000, including a discussion of animals of the future)

As the same issues are central to animal-human relations throughout history, each volume shares the same structure, with chapters in each volume analysing the same issues and themes. In this way each volume can be read individually to cover a specific period and individual chapters can be read across volumes to follow a theme across history. Each volume explores: the sacred and the symbolic (totem, sacrifice, status and popular beliefs), hunting; domestication (taming, breeding, labor and companionship); entertainment and exhibitions (the menagerie, zoos, circuses and carnivals); science and specimens (research, education, collections and museums); philosophical beliefs; and artistic representations.

Language: English
9781845204969; OCLC: 162507329


Joanne Spencer Kantrowitz
"The Anglo-Saxon Phoenix and Tradition" (Philological Quarterly, 43, 1964, 1-13) [Journal article]

Language: English


M. Karniev
Documents et remarques pour l'histoire littéraire du "Physiologus" (Saint-Pétersbourg: 1890) [Book]

Language: French


Alexander Kaufmann
Thomas von Chantimpré (Köln: J.P. Bachem, 1899; Series: Vereinsschrift (Görres-Gesellschaft zur Pflege der Wissenschaft im katholischen Deutschland) 1) [Book]

Biography of Thomas de Cantimpré, ca. 1200-ca. 1270.

Language: German
DDC: 271.2; OCLC: 12886319


Milo Kearney
The Role of Swine Symbolism in Medieval Culture (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991) [Book]

Language: English


Sarah Larratt Keefer
"Hwær Cwom Mearh?: The Horse in Anglo-Saxon England" (Journal of Medieval History, 22.2 (June), 1996, 115-134) [Journal article]

"A study of Anglo-Saxon archaeology, manuscript art, vernacular verse and certain Chronicle entries suggests that oriental equine bloodstock (these being Arabs or Barbs from Frankia) was introduced into England as early as the late ninth century. This new infusion, crossed with the domestic animals,next term improved the horse in size, appearance, endurance and stamina during the tenth century. Legal documents indicate a substantial interest in horse breeding between 960 and 1066, and an examination of the Bayeux Tapestry, in light of the discussion, provides new insights into a comparison between depictions of English and Norman horses." - abstract

Language: English


"The Lost Tale of Dylan in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi" (Studia Celtica, 24-25, 1989-90, 26-37) [Journal article]

This article explores the Dylan fragment in Book 4 of The Mabinogi and argues that Dylan turns into a seal.

Reprinted in The Mabinogi: A Book of Essays, ed. C.W. Sullivan, Garland Medieval Casebook Series, (New York: Garland Publishing, 1995), pp. 79-98.

Language: English


Elizabeth Keen
"Separate or together? Questioning the relationship between the encyclopedia and bestiary traditions" (Journal of the Australian Early Medieval Association, 2, 2005) [Journal article]

"As receivers of texts transmitted by medieval readers and re-writers over time, we have necessarily categorised them in terms of genre: romances, chronicles, sermons, bestiaries, encyclopedias and so on. With hindsight we can see how conventions accrued over the centuries to these different types of text and how specialised fields of study grew around them. Thus it can reasonably be said, for example, that the encyclopedia manuscript tradition is separate from the bestiary manuscript tradition. The distinction may be useful for the historian at the receiving end of a textual tradition, but suggests a false dichotomy from the medieval perspective. The terms as they have emerged in the scholarly tradition represent modern scholarly concepts. This paper reviews evidence that although the so-called encyclopedia and the bestiary appeared early on in different forms and acquired different conventions, they shared features of great importance to medieval people. " - abstract

Language: English
ISSN: 1449-9320