|"Gerald the Naturalist"|
|Urban T. Holmes|
| Speculum, 11:1 (January), 1936, 110-121
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A discussion of the Topographia Hibernica of Gerald of Wales as a form of early zoology. Holmes compares Gerald's 12th century observations of animal life in Ireland to modern zoology, and says "Although it is our general conclusion that much of Gerald's information on fauna came to him second hand through inquiry, he shows exceptional curiosity and fondness for observation. In this he is far removed from the bestiary...". Holmes points out instances where Gerald's accounts are "fabulous", such as the description of the barnacle goose.